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Advancements in web-database applications for rabies surveillance
Erin E Rees, Bruno Gendron, Frédérick Lelièvre, Nathalie Coté, Denise Bélanger
International Journal of Health Geographics , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1476-072x-10-48
Abstract: RageDB incorporates data from, and grants access to, all agencies responsible for the surveillance of raccoon rabies in Québec. Technological advancements of RageDB to rabies surveillance databases include 1) automatic integration of multi-agency data and diagnostic results on a daily basis; 2) a web-based data editing interface that enables authorized users to add, edit and extract data; and 3) an interactive dashboard to help visualize data simply and efficiently, in table, chart, and cartographic formats. Furthermore, RageDB stores data from citizens who voluntarily report sightings of rabies suspect animals. We also discuss how sightings data can indicate public perception to the risk of racoon rabies and thus aid in directing the allocation of disease control resources for protecting public health.RageDB provides an example in the evolution of spatio-temporal database applications for the storage, analysis and communication of disease surveillance data. The database was fast and inexpensive to develop by using open-source technologies, simple and efficient design strategies, and shared web hosting. The database increases communication among agencies collaborating to protect human health from raccoon rabies. Furthermore, health agencies have real-time access to a wide assortment of data documenting new developments in the raccoon rabies epidemic and this enables a more timely and appropriate response.Rabies is a worldwide threat to public health, killing more than 55,000 people annually[1]. In North America, the raccoon variant of this virus has resulted in the largest wildlife zoonotic on record [2-4]. Though specifically adapted to raccoons, raccoon rabies can spillover into other mammals, including humans, through contact with infected saliva [5]. If not promptly treated, the rabies virus causes fatal encephalitis in nearly 100% of the human cases. Raccoon rabies was first observed in Florida in the 1940's [5] and then in the 1970's a second outbreak in West
Ravendra PS Chauhan, Charu Gupta* and Dhan Prakash
International Journal of Bioassays , 2012,
Abstract: The recent technological advancement in nanotechnology has opened new avenues for research and development in the field of herbal and medicinal plants biology. Development of reliable and eco-friendly processes for synthesis of nanoparticles is an important step for introduction of applications of nanotechnology into herbal research. In the past decade, there has been much concern about the methodological advancement of technology for synthesis and characterization of herbal and medicinal plants mediated nanoparticles. The present article provides a comprehensive review on the recent advances brought into methodology for biological and eco-friendly synthesis and characterization of herbal and medicinal plants mediated nanoparticles.
Microencapsulation of the natural urucum pigment with chitosan by spray drying in different solvents
AL Parize, TCR de Souza, IMC Brighente, VT de Fávere, MCM Laranjeira, A Spinelli, E Longo
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2008,
Abstract: The food industry expects increasingly complex properties from food ingredients and such complex properties can often only be provided by microencapsulation. A number of methods are reported for microencapsulation but the most popular technique employed in industry is spray drying. Urucum has many applications in the food industry. In this study, we report the process of urucum microencapsulation into chitosan by spray drying. Characterization by scanning electron microscope, infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and color were used to analyze solid materials obtained in different carboxylic acids.
Microencapsulation for controlled drug delivery: a comprehensive review  [PDF]
AK Gupta,BK Dey
Sunsari Technical College Journal , 2012, DOI: 10.3126/stcj.v1i1.8660
Abstract: Microencapsulation is described as a process of enclosing micron sized particles of solids or droplets of liquids or gasses in an inert shell, which in turn isolates and protects them from the external environment as well as control the drug release profile. Microencapsulated particle is having diameter between 3 [-] 800μm which differ them from other technologies such as nanotechnology and macroparticle in their morphology and internal structure. This review paper will address the background of microencapsulation technology, commonly used microencapsulation methods with its advantages and disadvantages and its applications in pharmaceutical field. This article also gives an overview on the general aspects and recent advances in drug-loaded microparticles to improve the efficiency of various medical treatments.?The review paper will also address about the other factors affecting microencapsulation and its limitation. The article will also discuss about various findings described in the published scientific journals and patent literatures. Based on the existing results and authors’ reflection, this review gives rise to reasoning and suggested choices of process parameters and microencapsulation procedure.? DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/stcj.v1i1.8660 ? Sunsari Technical College Journal Vol.1(1) 2012 48-54
Imparting Antimicrobial Finish By Microencapsulation Technique  [PDF]
International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology , 2013,
Abstract: Microencapsulation is a process in which tiny particles or a coating to give small capsules with many useful properties surrounds droplets. There are many methods to impart various end use applications like antimicrobial property, flame proof and many more functional properties to the various substrates like polyester, nylon, polypropylene etc., and it may be that most of the application methods may be durable or temporary. The microencapsules can introduce important new qualities to garments and fabrics, such as enhanced stability and the controlled release of active compounds. Microencapsulation technique is a unique one where a controlled release of these properties as and when required are possible and also regarding the durability it can withstand for a longer duration. The present work was carried out with an objective to study the effect of clove oil, neem oil, aloe Vera powder, Benzalkonium Chloride (BKC) with certain physical and performance properties on woven fabrics like cotton, P/C blend fabric and Non-woven Polypropylene fabric by the imparting antimicrobial finish by microencapsulation technique
Microencapsulation for the Therapeutic Delivery of Drugs, Live Mammalian and Bacterial Cells, and Other Biopharmaceutics: Current Status and Future Directions  [PDF]
Catherine Tomaro-Duchesneau,Shyamali Saha,Meenakshi Malhotra,Imen Kahouli,Satya Prakash
Journal of Pharmaceutics , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/103527
Abstract: Microencapsulation is a technology that has shown significant promise in biotherapeutics, and other applications. It has been proven useful in the immobilization of drugs, live mammalian and bacterial cells and other cells, and other biopharmaceutics molecules, as it can provide material structuration, protection of the enclosed product, and controlled release of the encapsulated contents, all of which can ensure efficient and safe therapeutic effects. This paper is a comprehensive review of microencapsulation and its latest developments in the field. It provides a comprehensive overview of the technology and primary goals of microencapsulation and discusses various processes and techniques involved in microencapsulation including physical, chemical, physicochemical, and other methods involved. It also summarizes the state-of-the-art successes of microencapsulation, specifically with regard to the encapsulation of microorganisms, mammalian cells, drugs, and other biopharmaceutics in various diseases. The limitations and future directions of microencapsulation technologies are also discussed. 1. Introduction Microencapsulation has gained importance in the fields of cell and tissue engineering, as well as in the development of drug formulations and oral delivery systems. There are a number of already marketed microencapsulated products for the delivery of pharmaceutics [1]. The term microencapsulation, in this work, encompasses the terms microcapsules, microparticles, microspheres, and microemulsions. Generally, the term microsphere is employed for a homogeneous structure made of one continuous phase, and the term microcapsule is used for a reservoir-like structure with a well-defined core and envelope/coat. There exist a variety of microcapsules which can differ in size, composition, and function. The characteristics of the microcapsules ultimately depend on the final goal of the encapsulated product, as they can be used to entrap all sorts of substances: solids, liquids, drugs, proteins, bacterial cells, stem cells, and so forth. With such a range of substances that can be entrapped, one can conclude that microcapsules can have an assortment of objectives and applications, whether for drug delivery, enzyme retrieval, artificial cell and artificial tissue delivery, and delivery of microorganisms. This paper provides an up-to-date review of microencapsulation and its latest developments. It provides a comprehensive overview of microencapsulation technology, the primary goals of microencapsulation, and the processes and techniques involved. This includes
Biodegradable Polymers for Microencapsulation of Drugs  [PDF]
J. Park,M. Ye,K. Park
Molecules , 2005, DOI: 10.3390/10010146
Abstract: Drug delivery has become increasingly important mainly due to the awareness of the difficulties associated with a variety of old and new drugs. Of the many polymeric drug delivery systems, biodegradable polymers have been used widely as drug delivery systems because of their biocompatibility and biodegradability. The majority of biodegradable polymers have been used in the form of microparticles, from which the incorporated drug is released to the environment in a controlled manner. The factors responsible for controlling the drug release rate are physicochemical properties of drugs, degradation rate of polymers, and the morphology and size of microparticles. This review discusses the conventional and recent technologies for microencapsulation of the drugs using biodegradable polymers. In addition, this review presents characteristics and degradation behaviors of biodegradable polymers which are currently used in drug delivery.
Advancements  [cached]
Bilgin Timuralp
Anadolu Kardiyoloji Dergisi , 2008,
Ricardo Adolfo Parra Huertas
Revista Facultad Nacional de Agronomía, Medellín , 2010,
Abstract: La microencapsulación es definida como una tecnología de empaquetamiento de materiales sólidos, líquidos o gaseosos. Las microcápsulas selladas puede liberar sus contenidos a velocidades controladas bajo condiciones específicas, y pueden proteger el producto encapsulado de la luz y el oxígeno. La microencapsulación consiste en micropartículas conformadas por una membrana polimérica porosa contenedora de una sustancia activa. El material o mezclas de materiales a encapsular puede ser cubierto o atrapado dentro de otro material o sistema. Una microcápsula consiste de una membrana semi-permeable, esférica, delgada y fuerte alrededor de un centro solido/líquido. Los materiales que se utilizan para el encapsulamiento pueden ser gelatina, grasas, aceites, goma arábiga, alginato de calcio, ceras, almidón de trigo, maíz, arroz, papa, nylon, ciclodextrina, maltodextrina, caseinato de sodio, proteína de lactosuero o proteína de soya. Las aplicaciones de la microencapsulación se dirigen a la industria, se da a la industria textil, metalúrgica, química, alimenticia, cosméticos, farmacéutica y medicina. Dentro de las técnicas utilizadas para microencapsular se encuentran el secado por aspersión, secado por enfriamiento, secado por congelamiento, coacervación y extrusión. Las sustancias que se microencapsulan pueden ser vitaminas, minerales, colorantes, prebióticos, probióticos, sabores nutraceúticos, antioxidantes, olores, aceites, enzimas, bacterias, perfumes, drogas e incluso fertilizantes. Microencapsulation is defined as a technology of packaging solids, liquids or gases. The microcapsules can release their contents sealed at controlled rates under specific conditions, and can protect the encapsulated product of light and oxygen. Microencapsulation is formed by a micro-porous polymeric membrane of an active substance container. The material or mixture of encapsulating materials can be coated or entrapped within another material or system. A microcapsule consist of a semi-permeable membrane, spherical, thin and strong center around a solid / liquid. The materials used for micro encapsulation can be gelatin, fats, oils, arabic gum, calcium alginate, waxes, wheat starch, corn, rice, potato, nylon, cyclodextrin, maltodextrin, sodium caseinate, whey protein or soy protein. Microencapsulation applications are aimed at textile industry, metallurgical, chemical, food, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and medicine. Among the techniques used for microencapsulation are spray drying, drying, chilling, freeze drying, coacervation and extrusion. The substances that can be microenca
A Comprehensive Survey of Recent Advancements in Molecular Communication  [PDF]
Nariman Farsad,H. Birkan Yilmaz,Andrew Eckford,Chan-Byoung Chae,Weisi Guo
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: In molecular communication, information is conveyed through chemical messages. With significant advances in the fields of nanotechnology, bioengineering, and synthetic biology over the past decade, microscale and nanoscale devices are becoming a reality. Yet the problem of engineering a reliable communication system between tiny devices is still an open problem. At the same time, despite the prevalence of radio communication, there are still areas where traditional electromagnetic waves find it inefficient or expensive to reach. Points of interest in industry, cities, medicine, and military applications often lie in embedded and entrenched areas, accessible only by ventricles at scales too small for conventional wave based communications, or they are structured in such a way that directional high frequency systems are ineffective. Molecular communication is a biologically inspired communication scheme that could be employed for solving these problems. Although biologists have studied molecular communication, it is poorly understood from a telecommunication perspective. In this paper, we highlight the recent advancements in the field of molecular communication engineering.

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