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QUANTITATIVE AAS STIMATION OF HEAVY METALS AND TRACE ELEMENTS IN MARKETED AYURVEDIC CHURNA PREPARATIONS IN INDIA  [PDF]
Munish Garg* and Jaspreet Singh
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research , 2012,
Abstract: Churna preparations are an important and widely used form of Ayurvedic herbal formulations in India. These are prepared by mixing powdered form of single or mixture of several crude drugs meant to be dispensed as such. Since the quality of raw material plays an important role in the overall quality of a herbal formulation due to common practice of collecting and processing medicinal plants from different geographical sources and the fact presence of certain trace elements and heavy metals have a great significance in this matter, the present study is based on the screening of 19 popular herbal Churna preparations sold in the Indian market for the quantitative analysis of essential trace and toxic heavy metals by atomic absorption spectrometry. Heavy metals like Pb, Cd and trace metals like Ca, Mg, Al, Cu, Zn were determined using flame atomic absorption spectrometer (FAAS) and heavy metals such as As and Hg were determined by hydride generation technique (cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometery). The results reveal that among the trace (micronutrients) metals Ca and Mg were found in highest amount. Sixteen samples for Hg content and eight for Pb content were exceeding the WHO permissible limits. Arsenic was found below the permissible limit while Cd was above the permissible limit in all the tested samples. In conclusion, the quality of herbal Churna preparations sold in India market is questionable and need to be regulated efficiently before launching in to the market. Besides, the present paper provides a simple, convenient and reliable AAS method for the quantitative analysis of trace and heavy metals in herbal products which can be utilized for industrial purpose.
Phamaceutical and Analytical study on Loha Bhasma  [cached]
Rajendra Prasad,Shruti Shekhar,Subrahmanya A R
International Journal of Ayurvedic Medicine , 2010,
Abstract: Rasashastra is a subject which deals with metals and its therapeutic effect. It mentions the use of metals in a refined form as bhasma. Loha is used extensively in the Ayurvedic literature for the management of various diseases like Pandu (Anemia), Shotha (Oedema), Kamala (Jaundice) etc. It is very hard metal hence it should be made into bhasma for using it for medicinal purposes. Iron fillings are subjected to samamnya shodhana and vishesha shodha to prepare the bhasma. Pharmaceutical and analytical studies were conducted during the process of preparation of the Loha bhasma to know the changes in the chemical composition at various satges. Namburi Phased Spot Test was done to prove the fineness of the bhasma. In this study an attempt has been made to standardize the process of the preparation of the Loha bhasma and to establish chemical standards like iron content in the bhasma and the Namburi Phased Spot Test.
Standardisation of an Ayurvedic formulation "Sanjivani Vati"  [cached]
Parameswaran Sandhya,Mandar Nandan
International Journal of Green Pharmacy , 2010,
Abstract: Sanjivani vati is official in Ayurvedic formulary of India and is prescribed for the treatment of cough and fever. It is a polyherbal preparation containing ten ingredients. In this research paper, an attempt has been made to develop standardisation methods for some of the ingredients of Sanjivani vati. Quantitative estimation of tannins was done by Folin Denis method using gallic acid as standard. Embelin and Piperine were estimated by reverse phase HPLC. A standard laboratory reference sample of Sanjivani vati and two marketed samples were evaluated as per the developed method. The methods developed were validated in terms of linearity, accuracy, precision and recovery. Results indicated that only one marketed sample complied with all the standards prescribed and its content of tannin, piperine and embelin were equivalent to standard reference values.
STANDARDIZATION OF AN AYURVEDIC FORMULATION: TRIKATU CHURNA USING BIOANALYTICAL TOOLS  [PDF]
Shailajan Sunita,Sayed Neelam,Joshi Harshvardhan,Tiwari Bhavesh
International Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Pharmacy , 2011,
Abstract: Trikatu Churna (TC) is an ancient traditional Ayurvedic preparation prescribed for a wide range of disorders. Though TC is an age old formulation, there are very few references on its quality control and standardization. In this work, an attempt has been made to standardize TC by qualitatively evaluating the preliminary phytochemicals. Piperine content of TC was determined using HPTLC. Evaluation of safety potential of TC samples and stability evaluation by comparative study of the in house TC formulation with marketed TC formulations with respect to their piperine content is a value addition to the current work.
PHARMACOLOGICAL SCREENING OF AYURVEDIC ANTIHYPERLIPIDEMIC FORMULATION: AN AYURVEDIC APPROACH  [PDF]
Dadhania Sagar,Jani Dilip K.,Nirzarini N Shah
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Scientific Innovation , 2012,
Abstract: Doctrines of Ayurveda have momentous value even in the life of present day human life. These principles are based on the extraordinary observations and experimentations at various levels. Hence one cannot easily deny the observations put forward by the philosophers. According to one of its great preceptors Charaka- the dictum of Ayurveda is to maintain health of healthy people and to alleviate disorders in the diseased persons. The references of medicinal uses of herbs are recorded in Rgveda and Atharvaveda. Nighantus, the well-known compilations- are the very rich sources of herbal drug data ranging from identification, collection to therapeutics uses of the drugs.Since previous two decades there has been an increasing status emphasized on screening of herbs for hypolipidemic actions in order to reduce the risk of heart and other related disease. The high expenses and side effects of hyperlipidemia medications have led many populaces to search for alternate treatments. Only a few studies have been conducted to evaluate the effect of herbs mentioned in Ayurvedic texts on hyperlipidemia. Capparis Deciduas F., Ricinus Communis L., and Zizyphus Jujuba L. are traditionally used as antihyperlipidemic drugs as per Ayurvedic literature. Hence the present study was undertaken to investigate the antihyperlipidemic effect of a polyherbal formulation, prepared using the above three medicinal plants against Triton WR-1339 and High fat diet induced hyperlipidemia in rats. The probable mechanism of action of the extract may be inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase enzyme pathway.
AN AYURVEDIC INSIGHT TOWARDS EPILEPSY
Singh Karam,Verma Bhavna
International Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Pharmacy , 2012,
Abstract: In Ayurveda, Mental disorders and psychological temperaments have been broadly described [e.g. vata vyadhi (nervous disorders), unmada (insanity), murccha, moha (loss of consciousness), vismriti (amnesia), apasmara (epilepsy) etc.]. In Ayurveda, Apasmara (or epilepsy) has been described among the maharoga (a group of eight diseases well-known for causing serious morbidity). In the Ayurvedic texts, Apasmara (Epilepsy) is defined as sudden abhorrent bodily activities (vibhatsa-cheshta) accompanied by momentary blackouts or loss of consciousness (tama-pravesha) owing to disturbance in mental faculties of dhi (intelligence), dhriti (retention) and smriti (memory). Epilepsy is a major public health problem all over world. The estimated proportion of the general population with active epilepsy (i.e. continuing seizures or the need for treatment) at a given time ranges from 4-10 per 1,000 people. Herbal remedies have been recommended in various medical treatises for the cure of different diseases. In this regard, there is great prospective for identifying excellent Ayurvedic components or its active principles, particularly in consideration of the fact that such substances may provide maximum advantage with cost effectiveness, least side effects, and improvement of patient compliance.
Ayurvedic herbal medicine and lead poisoning
Krishna S Gunturu, Priyadharsini Nagarajan, Peter McPhedran, Thomas R Goodman, Michael E Hodsdon, Matthew P Strout
Journal of Hematology & Oncology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1756-8722-4-51
Abstract: Ayurvedic medicine is a traditional system native to India [1]. This system stresses the use of natural plant-based medicines, and minerals including sulfur, arsenic, lead, copper and gold are often added to formulations with the belief that these metals are essential components of vital molecules within the human body. In India, over 100 colleges offer degrees in traditional Ayurvedic medicine and in western countries, Ayurvedic medicine is gaining popularity as complementary treatment to modern medicine. Ayurvedic medicines are used to treat a wide spectrum of diseases from headaches to cancer. Currently, the United States does not specify a certification requirement for Ayurvedic practitioners, although many training programs are being offered through state-approved institutions. These practitioners are able to prescribe the medications and sometimes manufacture it themselves.From 2000 to 2003, the Centers for Disease Control reported 12 cases of lead poisoning in adults associated with Ayurvedic medication intake occurring in five different states [2]. Some Ayurvedic preparations have been found to contain contained lead and/or mercury at 100 to 10,000 times greater than acceptable limits [3]. Although not common in western societies, lead exposure through dietary sources is a well-recognized phenomenon and in past years, calcium supplements have been a source of lead poisoning [4]. In addition to Ayurvedic medicine, other traditional medicines originating from Asian, Middle Eastern and Hispanic cultures have been found to contain lead and other heavy metals [5]. Although many health supplements are now subject to limited government regulation in the U.S. through the Dietary Supplement and Health Education Act of 1994, these medicines are readily obtainable as herbal remedies in health food stores and through the internet and their safety and efficacy are not regulated by government agencies such as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) [6]. Thus, without
KANJI: AN AYURVEDIC FERMENTATIVE PREPARATION  [PDF]
Santhosh B.,Jadar P. G.,Nageswara Rao
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2012,
Abstract: Kanji – A unique Ayurvedic fermentative preparation was prepared as per the textual reference Rasayanasara which is mainly indicated for the Shodhana (purification) of Metals and also for various mercurial processing. But Kanji by this reference is rarely prepared and used. Hence, the pharmaceutical and preliminary physico-chemical findings of this Kanji are reported in this paper. The fermentation process started on 7th day and completed on 31st day. The prepared Kanji was golden brown colored like honey, with pleasant odour and characteristic sour taste. It was highly acidic in nature with a pH value of 2.91. The total solids in it were calculated to be 19.26% and specific gravity was noted to be 1.039. The alcohol percentage as expected was zero and there was no fungus growth seen at any stages of fermentation.
DIET AS MEDICINE IN AYURVEDIC SCIENCE  [PDF]
Anjali Goyal,Arvind Gupta,Manjunatha.T.Sasanoor,Baldev Kumar
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2012,
Abstract: Ayurveda is a holistic system of natural health care that originated from Vedas, most ancient Indian literature of human civilization. As it deals with various aspects of life it is not merely the system of treatment but is an “Ideal way of Life”. The main aim of Ayurveda is to maintain the health in a healthy person and to cure the disease. To attain this Ayurveda mainly concentrates on various rules and regulations. In Ayurvedic classics, food is mentioned as one among the three Upasthambas (Sub-pillars) which supports the three main Sthambas (Pillars) of the body viz. Tridosha. It shows the credibility of food. Food also plays role like medicine which helps to prevent or cure to diseases. Food taken in proper manner helps in the proper growth of the body on contrary if taken in improper manner leads to various diseases. Thus Diet plays a significant task in both causation and curing of the disease. Properly followed dietetic rules and diet keeps the body healthy and prevents the diseases.
Inequality Condition for Grating Lobes of Planar Phased Array
Chang-Hong Liang;Long Li;Xiao-Jie Dang
PIER B , 2008, DOI: 10.2528/PIERB07121901
Abstract: This paper presents a general inequality for the grating lobes of the planar phased array, whether rectangular lattice or triangular lattice. And for the planar phased array with grating lobes, the maximum scanning angle is given.
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