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Ethnobotanical Uses of Plants of Lawat District Muzaffarabad, Azad Jammu and Kashmir  [PDF]
Muhammad Ejaz-Ul-Islam Dar
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences , 2003,
Abstract: An ethnobotanical exploration was carried out in Lawat ad its allied areas District Muzaffarabad. The checklist consisted of 52 species out of which 3 species are of 2 gymnospermic families while 49 species are of 35 angiospermic families. The plants were used medicinally and other purposes. The investigation indicated that the medicinal plants were used singly or used with mixtures by local inhabitants. The area under investigation due to unplanned exploitation had resulted in loss of medicinally important plant species. It was concluded that afforestation programme followed by proper protection is need of time.
Taxocoenosis and Distribution of Weed Flora in the Rice Field Monocultures of Kashmir Valley (J and K) India  [PDF]
Shahzadi Wufai Naw Bahaar,G.A. Bhat
International Journal of Botany , 2012,
Abstract: The community composition and distribution of weed flora in the rice field agro-ecosystems of Kashmir valley was studied. The investigation revealed a presence of 64 species of weeds including 41 dicotyledons, 20 monocotyledons and 3 pteridophytes from the 6 representative sites located in different administrative zones of the valley. The sites of study included Kupwara, Bandipora, Budgam, Srinagar, Pulwama and Anantnag. Monthly samplings were performed throughout the fallow as well as vegetation phase. The taxocoenosis was inclusive of 23 families. Gramineae was the most dominant family represented by 11 species of weeds. Qualitatively Bandipora was the most dominant site recording a total of 57 species. The overall qualitative dominance pattern exhibited by the study sites was: Bandipora (57 spp.)>Kupwara (55 spp.)>Budgam (54 spp.)>Pulwama (52 spp.)>Srinagar (50 spp.)>Anantnag (46 spp.). Biodiversity was calculated through Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H’) and Margalef’s richness index (d). The results were indicative of the richness of diversity at Bandipora site (H’ = 3.755; d = 9.527) whereas, Anantnag (H’ = 3.271; d = 7.670) was marked as the least diverse site. Anthropogenic disturbances and climatic factors seemed to govern the growth patterns of the flora. The importance of rice field ecosystems as significant contributor of biodiversity in the region was recognized.
Incidence of Fungi in Water Springs of Samahni Valley, District Bhimber, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan  [cached]
Tanveer Hussain,Muhammad Ishtiaq Ch,Altaf Hussain,Tariq Mehmood
International Journal of Biology , 2010, DOI: 10.5539/ijb.v2n2p94
Abstract: Fungi have great impacts on socio-economic conditions and health of human beings. In current research, incidence of mycoflora associated with different water springs of Samahni Valley (SV), district Bhimber, Azad Kashmir was screened by using Plating and Baiting Techniques. The pH value of water samples ranged from 5.5 to7.5. The minimum and maximum temperature of sampled springs was between 18oC–36oC. Total 33 fungal specimens belonging to 21 different species were isolated from different analyzed samples by employing two approaches. In Baiting Technique (BT) 13 species and in Direct Plate Method (DPM) 8 species were isolated, respectively. Highest number of mycoflora was determined by BT, followed by DPM. Aspergillus sp. was dominant species followed by Cephalosporium sp. and Botrytis sp. found in drinking water of springs. The highest number of species was found in Parshala sample (6 spp) which proves that place has favorable conditions for flourishing of fungi. The present study depicts that various springs of SV have different number of mycoflora depending on soil type, temperature, altitude and neighboring flora. Furthermore, ethnobotanical study of the area indicates that these pathogenic species present in spring water cause many diseases in plants, animals and human beings, hence hampering health and economic status of inhabitants. It is recommend that precautionary and practical measures should be formulated and implemented before using water of these springs for drinking or other agriculture purposes.
Lung cancer in the Kashmir valley
Koul Parvaiz,Kaul Satish,Sheikh Mohammad,Tasleem Reyaz
Lung India , 2010,
Abstract: Background: Lung cancer has been found to be the second commonest cancer according to a hospital-based data from Kashmir, India. However, no incidence studies are available. Objective: To ascertain the incidence of lung cancer in Kashmir. Materials and Methods: All newly histologically diagnosed cases of lung cancer seen in various hospital and private laboratories of the Kashmir valley were registered over a period of two years (January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2005). Also included were patients attending the various oncological service areas of the institute and those diagnosed from any other laboratory outside the state. The incidence rate was calculated using the January 2005 population as the reference population estimated using the census-based projected populations. Results: Four hundred and sixty-two incident cases of lung cancer were seen during the study period. The crude incidence rate, age standardized (world) and truncated age adjusted (40-69 years, world) incidence rates for lung cancer per 100 000 population were 4.01, 6.48 and 15.28 respectively (males 6.55, 10.09 and 23.94 respectively and females 1.19, 2.14 and 4.65). The age adjusted rates for males in district Srinagar was 19.34 per 100 000. One hundred and fifty nine (69.8%) of the 221 had a history of Hukkah smoking. Conclusions: Even though Kashmir as a whole is a low incidence area for lung cancer (ASR of < 15), Srinagar district has the highest incidence of lung cancer among the males in Kashmir. The data presented is assumed to be the closest approximation to a population-based data registry and the geographical incidence maps of ICMR need appropriate updating
Taxocoenosis and Distribution of Nektonic Fauna in the Rice Fields of Kashmir (J and K) India
S.W.N. Bahaar,G.A. Bhat
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: Present study attempts to identify the taxocoenosis and distribution of nektonic fauna harbouring the rice field ecosystems of Kashmir. The main objective of the study was to provide an overview of the nektonic community composition and physiochemical characteristics of flood waters. 6 sites were selected in Kupwara, Bandipora, Budgam, Srinagar, Pulwama and Anantnag districts of valley Kashmir. A total of 26 taxa belonging to 13 different orders were reported during the study which commenced through 2 consecutive crop cycles. The taxocoenosis was dominated by Coleoptera (10 taxa) followed by Hemiptera (3 taxa), Diptera (2 taxa), Diplostraca (2 taxa), Acarina, Anostraca, Anura, Amphipoda, Basommatophora, Cypriniformes, Cyprinodontiformes, Odonata and Pulmonata (1 taxa each). Diversity was calculated using Simpsons Index (D), Simpsons Index of Diversity (1-D), Simpsons Reciprocal Index (1/D), Shannon-Weiner Index (H), Margalef Richness Index (d) and Evenness Index (e). Kupwara (3402N; 7416E) formed the most diverse site registering a total of 2384 individuals belonging to 24 taxa. A perusal of the primary data related to the physicochemical attributes of flood waters exhibited that average water temperature varied between 19-30C, average air temperature varied between 21 and 33C. pH depicted a variation between 6.0 and 9.0, Dissolved Oxygen varied between a minimum of 1.0 mg L-1 and a maximum of 10 mg L-1. Free CO2 ranged between 0 mg L-1 and 6.1 mg-1. The results pressed the need for recognizing and preserving rice fields as potential habitats for organisms that have successfully adapted to the highly manipulated and eutrophic conditions of rice paddies.
Less Known Wild Edible Plants Used by the Gujjar Tribe of District Rajouri, Jammu and Kashmir State  [PDF]
Abdul Rashid,V.K. Anand,Jawaid Serwar
International Journal of Botany , 2008,
Abstract: The present communication deals with the Ethnobotanical exploration, identification, concerns, conservational aspects and future potentialities of the wild edible plant species consumed by the Gujjar tribe inhabitating the hilly areas of district Rajouri, apart of Jammu and Kashmir State-India. A total of 57 plant species belonging to 33 families were reported from the region. Rosaceae and Polygonaceae were the dominant botanical families with 5 taxa each, whilst Rhaminaceae follow with 4 taxa. Violaceae is represented by 3 members. The four major reported life forms were shrubs, trees, herbs and climbers. Herbs make up the highest proportion of the edible species, followed by tree, shrubs and climbers. Execution of unplanned developmental activities and anthropogenic factors has resulted in a serious ecological imbalance and degeneration of the biodiversity in this region. The study also takes in to account the magnitude of various pressures, measures of mitigation, future scope and prospects of wild edible plants of this region.
Distribution of Himalayan Musk Deer (Moschus chrysogaster) in Neelum Valley, District Muzaffarabad, Azad Jammu and Kashmir
Baseer ud Din Qureshi,Muhammad Siddique Awan,Aleem Ahmed Khan,Naheem Iftikhar Dar
Journal of Biological Sciences , 2004,
Abstract: To study the present and past distribution of Himalayan musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster) Survey in Neelum valley, District Muzaffarabad, Azad Jammu and Kashmir was conducted from April to November 2002, Findings show that Musk deer is distributed throughout the Neelum valley. Poaching, deforestation and trans human grazing resulted in scattering of population of the musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster) into separate pockets. Population of the musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster) recorded from the area is 120 animals. Investigation indicates Musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster) resides at low altitude as compared to other areas reported from Pakistan. Seasonal migration of musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster) was also noted as a result of Trans-human grazing in summer in summer. To conserve the dwindling population of musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster) from Neelum Valley there must be expansion of Salkhla game reserve up to palri and Gail along with the law enforcement and awareness campaign.
Characterization of physiological races of Pyricularia grisea in temperate agro-ecosystem of Kashmir, India  [cached]
ALI ANWAR,M.A. TELI,G.N. BHAT,G.A. PARRAY
Indian Phytopathology , 2011,
Abstract: An intensive and stratified survey revealed that all the rice production zones of Kashmir were affected with leaf blast disease in variable severity range of 3.7 – 41.3 per cent whereas highest nodal blast was encountered in Kulgam (7.3%) followed by Khudwani (5.4%) and Larnoo (3.8%) zones of district Anantnag. The most destructive phase of neck blast severity was encountered in every surveyed district with range of 0.3-4.9 percent. Local coarse grain cultivars viz. Safed China, Jhelum and Chenab exhibited susceptibility to the leaf blast but plants largely killed due to devastating occurrence of blast in Mushk Budgi, Khutch and Kamad cultivars. During the survey, six hundred twenty monoconidial isolates (MI) of rice blast pathogen (Pyricularia grisea) were developed from different parts of Kashmir valley and tested for race spectrum first time in temperate conditions of Kshmir region in India viz., ID-1, ID-2, IC-17, IC-25 and IB-4. A maximum of three races viz. ID-1, ID-2 and IC-17 were appeared from district Anantnag which is a bowl of rice in Kashmir. Race ID-1 and IC-17 were recorded in the valley with higher frequency occurrence of 28.54 and 34.19 per cent respectively followed by IC-25 with 18.39 per cent. Race IB-4 and ID- 2 were also found to be present with 12.42 and 6.45 per cent respectively
ETHNOMEDICINAL PLANTS USED IN THE TRADITIONAL PHYTOTHERAPY OF CHEST DISEASES BY THE GUJJAR-BAKERWAL TRIBE OF DISTRICT RAJOURI OF JAMMU & KASHMIR STATE
Abdul Rashid
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research , 2013,
Abstract: Ethnobotanical study was conducted in district Rajouri, Jammu And Kashmir State aiming at identifying plants used to treat chest diseases mainly related to respiratory system. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to interview members of the tribal population including traditional healers, herb sellers, and other villagers. The plant parts used as well as the modes of preparation and administration were recorded. Thirty one plant species belonging to twenty four families were collected and identified by their vernacular and scientific names. The Asteraceae, Acanthaceae, Pinaceae were the most represented family with three species each, followed by the Anacrdiaceae, Euphorbiaceae and Fabaceae with two species each. All the remaining 15 families were represented by one species each. The plant part most frequently used to treat respiratory diseases in the study was reported as Root followed by leaf, flower, fruit, bark and seed. Also many other plant parts including rhizomes, galls, buds, resins and latex were found in use in various formulations for chest diseases cure.
An Ethnomedicinal Survey and Documentation of Important Medicinal Folklore Food Phytonims of Flora of Samahni Valley, (Azad Kashmir) Pakistan
Muhammad Ishtiaq,Wajahat Hanif,M.A. Khan,M. Ashraf
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: Ethnobotanical knowledge is one of the precious cultural heritage parts of an area that involves the interaction between plants and people and foremost among these are the management of plant diversity by indigenous communities and the traditional use of medicinal plants. An ethnobotanical analysis was conducted in order to document the traditional medicinal uses of plants, particularly medicinally important folklore food phytonims of flora of Samahni valley, Azad Kashmir (Pakistan). In the valley, inhabitants use different taxa of flora in two different ways; herbal medicines and food (vegetable and fruits) medicines. The distinctive geographic position and historic demological background of the area keep folk phytotherapy potential of medicinal herbs hitherto alive, which are used in various forms; as regular herbal medicines prescribed by Hakeems (herbal practitioners) and as food (medicines) recepies suggested by elder people. Among these, some herbs are used as single remedy while others depict better curative effects in synergistic mode against various ailments. Some interesting and uncommon findings are as; Sisymbrium irio is used for treatment of measles, asthma; Solanum miniatum to cure urinary calculi, heart pain, rheumatism, Momordica balsamina leaves as wound healer; Allium sativum bulb juice as anti cancer, contraceptive, blood pressure; Boerhavia diffusa roots as anti jaundice, anemia, edema; Capsicum annuum fruit as omen against evil eye and giant, yellow fever; Corriandrum sativum seeds as diuretic, anti spermatogenesis; Raphanus sativus seeds against syphilis; Solanum miniatum fruit for treatment of enlarged spleen and liver; seed's oil of Pisum sativum as anti spermatogenesis; Bauhinia variegata for skin diseases, ulcers; Malva sylvestris for cough, bladder ulcer; Phoenix sylvestris kernel as anti-aging tonic; Phyllanthus emblica for diuretic, anemia, biliousness; Terminalia chebula to cure chronic ulcers, carious teeth pain, heart problems; Veronica anthelmintica for bandage of broken bones and Withania coagulans is used to treat small pox. Many wild plants are eaten green and raw as salad, or in boiled form of soup as blood and intestine cleansing tonics. Moreover, some plants are spiritually recorded as sacred and used as ritual plant for good omens or against the evil eye and removal of giant. About 95 species of 38 families were recorded to be important part of phyto heritage of folk pharmacopoeia of Samahni valley. Among most frequent used families are Papilionaceae 9.47%, Solanaceae and Poaceae 8.42% each, Cucurbitaceae 7.36% an
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