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Salivary Glands Disorders Assessed by Sialography and Sialo-CT
Jahanbakhsh Hashemi
Iranian Journal of Radiology , 2009,
Abstract: "nIn this lecture we discuss salivary glands pathologies which were assessed by sialo-CT and sialography in Imam Reza Hospital, Mashad University of Medical Sciences. Besides this lecture we will show the exhibition of "Beautiful Radiology" that is adapted from the British Journal of Radiology. These pictures were created by using X-Ray machines as cameras. The photographs are of the internal structures of plants, revealing the beauty of natural farms invisible to the human eyes.
Sialography: Report of 3 cases  [cached]
Reddy Sujatha,Rakesh N,Raghav Namita,Devaraju D
Indian Journal of Dental Research , 2009,
Abstract: Salivary gland examination is an important part of oral examination, especially because of it′s involvement in most of the systemic diseases. Patients most commonly seek medical attention when the major salivary glands like parotid and submandibular gland become enlarged or painful. The various imaging modalities practiced to check the salivary gland disorders include conventional radiography, sialography, ultrasonography, computerized tomography, radionuclide imaging and magnetic resonance imaging. Sialography is one of the oldest imaging procedures and still most commonly practiced, as it is a chair side procedure, simple to perform, and cost effective. We report the role of sialography as an adjuvant in the diagnosis of bacterial sialadenitis and sialadenosis and as a diagnostic and therapeutic aid in a case of juvenile recurrent parotitis.
Imaging in major salivary gland diseases  [cached]
C. Botsios,P. Sfriso,C. Grava,P. Ostuni
Reumatismo , 2011, DOI: 10.4081/reumatismo.2001.235
Abstract: Most of the salivary glands diseases are characterized only by a few distinct clinical patterns. Medical history and clinical examination are still considered of great relevance. However, in order to obtaine a definite diagnosis, imaging techniques are required in most of the cases. Salivary glands ultrasonography (US) is the technique to be used as the first because US can easily differentiate calculosis, inflammatory diseases and tumors. Sonography is also frequently needed to perform needle aspiration or biopsy (FNAC). Sialography should be used essentially for assessing chronic sialoadenitis as well as Sj gren’s syndrome. At present, Magnetic Resonance sialography should be preferred because of the greater sensibility in diagnosing inflammatory diseases of the salivary glands. It allows to evaluate both intraglandular oedema and nodules, so that incannulation of the salivary duct is not required. Computer Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance imaging (MR) are useful when neoplasm are suspected, particularly if deep areas of the gland, which cannot be visualized by US, are involved. Sequential scintigraphy is currently employed for assessing the functional status of all the 4 major salivary glands and evaluating the chronic evolution of glandular damage.
Clinico-Pathologic Study of Salivary Gland Disorders at a Sub-Urban Nigerian Tertiary Hospital: A 5 Year Retrospective Review  [PDF]
Obitade S. Obimakinde, Olabamiji A. Olajuyin, Waheed A. Adegbiji, Abidemi E. Omonisi, Christopher O. Ibidun
International Journal of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery (IJOHNS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ijohns.2019.83012
Abstract: Background: The spectrum of salivary gland lesions is wide and the relative incidence of neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions is variable in different studies. Despite the relatively common nature of salivary gland disorders, there is dearth of literature on these lesions, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. We therefore embarked on this study to analyze the differential diagnosis of salivary gland lesions seen and managed at our institution. Methods: A retrospective review of salivary gland disorders that presented at our facility from January 2012 to December 2016 was done. Information on patients’ demographic details, type and location of salivary gland lesion, histologic diagnosis and treatment were retrieved and analyzed with SPSS version 20. Result: A total of 65 patients were treated for salivary gland lesions of various types during the study period. The age of the patients ranged from 3 months to 68 years [mean 33.8 ± 12.3]. Neoplastic lesions [n = 39, 60.0%] were the commonest followed by sialolithiasis [n = 14, 21.5%] while mucous retention/extravasation cysts accounted for 13.9% of the cases. Pleomorphic adenoma was the predominant tumor in this series [87.2%] and the commonest site was the parotid gland [58.8%]. On the contrary submandibular gland appeared to be the commonest site for sialolithiasis [57.1%]. The majority of mucous retention/extravasation cysts occurred in the sublingual gland [55.5%]. Conclusion: Neoplastic lesions remain the commonest salivary gland disorder and pleomorphic adenoma was the most prevalent. Sialolithiasis and mucous cysts are salivary gland lesions with equally wide disease spectrum.
Review of Salivary Gland Neoplasms  [PDF]
Victor Shing Howe To,Jimmy Yu Wai Chan,Raymond K. Y. Tsang,William I. Wei
ISRN Otolaryngology , 2012, DOI: 10.5402/2012/872982
Abstract: Salivary gland tumours most often present as painless enlarging masses. Most are located in the parotid glands and most are benign. The principal hurdle in their management lies in the difficulty in distinguishing benign from malignant tumours. Investigations such as fine needle aspiration cytology and MRI scans provide some useful information, but most cases will require surgical excision as a means of coming to a definitive diagnosis. Benign tumours and early low-grade malignancies can be adequately treated with surgery alone, while more advanced and high-grade tumours with regional lymph node metastasis will require postoperative radiotherapy. The role of chemotherapy remains largely palliative. This paper highlights some of the more important aspects in the management of salivary gland tumours. 1. Introduction Salivary gland tumours are rare and most cases are referred to the head and neck clinic. The majority of these neoplasms are benign and only 20% are malignant. The annual incidence of salivary gland cancers ranges from 0.5 to 2 per 100,000 in different parts of the world, with the highest incidence occurring in Croatia [1]. In the United states, there is a rise in the incidence of salivary gland cancers; this group accounted for 6.3% of all head and neck cancers in 1974–1976, as compared to 8.1% in 1998-1999 [2]. The sex distribution for salivary gland cancers is equal, and the majority of the cases arise in the sixth decade [3]. Tumours can occur in both the major and minor salivary glands. 80% of major salivary gland tumours occur in the parotid glands, while most minor salivary tumours are located in the palate [4]. As a general rule in clinical practice, the smaller the salivary gland is, the more likely the tumour is malignant. In the parotid glands, 20–25% of the tumours are malignant. This rises to 40% for the submandibular glands, and more than 90% of sublingual gland tumours are malignant [5, 6]. The etiological agents of salivary gland cancers remain unclear. Whilst most other head and neck cancers are strongly related to smoking and drinking, these do not play a role in the salivary glands. Some studies have found that a diet rich in vitamin C and low in cholesterol may be effective in preventing salivary gland cancer [7]. On the other hand, possible risk factors include therapeutic radiation for other head and neck cancers, occupational exposures in rubber manufacturing and woodworking, and also employment at hairdressers or beauty shops [8, 9]. History of previous cancers, related to Epstein-Barr virus, immunosuppression, and
Violeta Trandafir,Daniela Trandafir,Eugenia Popescu
Jurnalul de Chirurgie , 2010,
Abstract: Malignant salivary gland tumors make up 6% of all head and neck tumors. Several types of cancer can develop in these glands. Only malignant tumors of the salivary glands are discussed in this paper. The diagnosis and treatment of salivary gland malignancies remain complex, with challenging problems for maxillo-facial surgeon. Scientists have found few risk factors that make a person more likely to develop salivary gland cancer. Salivary gland cancer is uncommon, and there is no widely recommended screening schedule for this cancer. CT scanning or MRI is useful for determining the extent of large tumors, for evaluating extraglandular extension, for determining the actual depth of parotid tumors, and for discovering other tumors in one gland or in the controlateral gland. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is a valuable diagnostic adjunct in evaluation of head and neck masses but its role in evaluation of salivary gland tumors is controversial. There are also discussed some histologic findings about mucoepidermoid carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, acinic cell carcinoma, carcinoma ex-pleomorphic adenoma, squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma developed in salivary glands. Carefully planned and executed surgical excision is the primary treatment for all malignant tumors of the salivary glands. The principles of surgery vary with the site of origin. The extent of surgery is based on the size of the tumor, local extension and neck metastases. Staging of malignant salivary gland tumors is important for predicting prognosis and for accurate comparison of treatment results.
Primary tuberculosis of submandibular salivary gland  [cached]
Tauro Leo,George Celine,Kamath Aroon,Swethadri G
Journal of Global Infectious Diseases , 2011,
Abstract: Tuberculosis of the submandibular salivary gland is a rare condition and only a few cases have been reported in literature. Tubercular sialadenitis is most frequently seen in immunosuppressed patients. Diagnosis of this disease is difficult. Although fine needle aspiration cytology is useful in diagnosis, excisional biopsy is often required. Polymerase chain reaction for mycobacterium tuberculosis is a reliable diagnostic tool, and if available, it should be performed before surgical intervention to enable differential diagnosis of a salivary gland tumor. We report two cases of the submandibular salivary gland tuberculosis from South India (Mangalore located in the coastal belt of Karnataka) that proved diagnostically challenging. Both patients responded well to antitubercular therapy and surgery was avoided.
The activity of selected glycosidases in salivary gland tumors.  [cached]
Marcin Bierc,Lukasz Minarowski,Lukasz Wo?niak,Sylwia Chojnowska
Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica , 2010, DOI: 10.5603/4208
Abstract: The monitoring of the patients after salivary gland tumors surgery is an important clinical issue. Still imperfect diagnostic procedures also remain a challenge for searching new sensitive and specific biomarkers of neoplastic processes in salivary glands. The aim of the presented study was an the assessment of the activity of HEX, with its isoforms HEX-A and HEX-B, GLU, GAL, MAN and FUC in salivary gland tumor tissues in comparison to a healthy salivary gland tissues taken during autopsy. A group of 42 patients with benign and malignant salivary gland tumors, aged 25-65 were examined. Fragments of salivary gland tumor tissue, fragments of healthy tissue removed during autopsy, blood serum and saliva were collected from patients with salivary gland tumors and healthy volunteers. In salivary gland tumor tissue the activity of HEX, HEX-A, HEX-B, GAL, FUC was considerably higher than in comparison to healthy salivary gland tissue and ascending trend of activity of GLU, MAN was also noticed. The activity of all lysosomal exoglycosidases in blood serum in patients with salivary gland tumors was considerably higher in comparison to healthy volunteers blood serum. The considerably higher activity of HEX, HEX-A, GLU, GAL, MAN, FUC and descending trend of activity of HEX-B were noticed in saliva of patients with salivary gland tumors in comparison to healthy volunteers. The assessment of HEX in blood serum and saliva of patients with salivary gland tumor can be possibly used in diagnostics and monitoring of salivary glands tumors.
Comparative salivary gland transcriptomics of sandfly vectors of visceral leishmaniasis
Jennifer M Anderson, Fabiano Oliveira, Shaden Kamhawi, Ben J Mans, David Reynoso, Amy E Seitz, Phillip Lawyer, Mark Garfield, MyVan Pham, Jesus G Valenzuela
BMC Genomics , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-7-52
Abstract: Two salivary gland cDNA libraries from female sandflies Phlebotomus argentipes and P. perniciosus were constructed, sequenced and proteomic analysis of the salivary proteins was performed. The majority of the sequenced transcripts from the two cDNA libraries coded for secreted proteins. In this analysis we identified transcripts coding for protein families not previously described in sandflies. A comparative sandfly salivary transcriptome analysis was performed by using these two cDNA libraries and two other sandfly salivary gland cDNA libraries from P. ariasi and Lutzomyia longipalpis, also vectors of visceral leishmaniasis. Full-length secreted proteins from each sandfly library were compared using a stand-alone version of BLAST, creating formatted protein databases of each sandfly library. Related groups of proteins from each sandfly species were combined into defined families of proteins. With this comparison, we identified families of salivary proteins common among all of the sandflies studied, proteins to be genus specific and proteins that appear to be species specific. The common proteins included apyrase, yellow-related protein, antigen-5, PpSP15 and PpSP32-related protein, a 33-kDa protein, D7-related protein, a 39- and a 16.1- kDa protein and an endonuclease-like protein. Some of these families contained multiple members, including PPSP15-like, yellow proteins and D7-related proteins suggesting gene expansion in these proteins.This comprehensive analysis allows us the identification of genus- specific proteins, species-specific proteins and, more importantly, proteins common among these different sandflies. These results give us insights into the repertoire of salivary proteins that are potential candidates for a vector-based vaccine.Phlebotomine sandflies are vectors of Leishmania parasites, causal agents of leishmaniasis in at least 88 countries. The manifestations of this disease range from the self-healing cutaneous and mucocutaneous forms to the pote
Salivary Gland NK Cells Are Phenotypically and Functionally Unique  [PDF]
Marlowe S. Tessmer equal contributor,Emma C. Reilly equal contributor,Laurent Brossay
PLOS Pathogens , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1001254
Abstract: Natural killer (NK) cells and CD8+ T cells play vital roles in containing and eliminating systemic cytomegalovirus (CMV). However, CMV has a tropism for the salivary gland acinar epithelial cells and persists in this organ for several weeks after primary infection. Here we characterize a distinct NK cell population that resides in the salivary gland, uncommon to any described to date, expressing both mature and immature NK cell markers. Using RORγt reporter mice and nude mice, we also show that the salivary gland NK cells are not lymphoid tissue inducer NK-like cells and are not thymic derived. During the course of murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection, we found that salivary gland NK cells detect the infection and acquire activation markers, but have limited capacity to produce IFN-γ and degranulate. Salivary gland NK cell effector functions are not regulated by iNKT or Treg cells, which are mostly absent in the salivary gland. Additionally, we demonstrate that peripheral NK cells are not recruited to this organ even after the systemic infection has been controlled. Altogether, these results indicate that viral persistence and latency in the salivary glands may be due in part to the presence of unfit NK cells and the lack of recruitment of peripheral NK cells.
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