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Apertura comercial, productividad, competitividad e ingreso: la experiencia mexicana de 1980 a 2000  [cached]
José Romero,Alicia Puyana,Lourdes Dieck
Investigación económica , 2005,
Abstract: Dado que la competitividad de una economía se revela por el crecimiento en los niveles de vida de sus habitantes, en este trabajo se realizan comparaciones internacionales cuya evidencia para la economía mexicana arroja bajos niveles de competitividad. Uno de los planteamientos para este análisis es que el estancamiento del ingreso per cápita se debe al estancamiento de la productividad en este país, por lo que se analiza su evolución a través de la productividad del trabajo (aunque se revisan otros métodos). Para ello se establecen los factores que explican el crecimiento de la productividad, cuyos resultados muestran un estancamiento generalizado a partir de 1980, lo que explica el estancamiento del ingreso per cápita. Se establece también que este estancamiento de la productividad es en especial patente en las manufacturas, sector responsable de la mayor parte de nuestras exportaciones. Se discute esta falta de relación entre apertura comercial y aumentos en la productividad y se concluye que para corregir la limitada competitividad y mejorar el nivel de vida de la población se requieren medidas más atrevidas que las que se han propuesto hasta ahora. Se sugiere la elaboración de una política económica integral propia (aunque no se especifica cuál) que genere las condiciones para crear un verdadero círculo virtuoso de innovación, comercio y crecimiento económico.
Factores de riesgo para la enfermedad tuberculosa en los casos de sida notificados en Brasil, 1980 a 2000  [cached]
Laguardia Josué,Merchán-Hamann Edgar
Revista Espa?ola de Salud Pública , 2003,
Abstract: Fundamento: El sida afecta las características epidemiológicas de la tuberculosis, tanto por cambios en su progresión clínica en los enfermos coinfectados, como por el incremento del número de casos de tuberculosis en personas VIH positivos/sida. Esto puede llevar a un aumento de la transmisión del bacilo en la población. El objetivo de este trabajo es identificar los factores asociados a la ocurrencia de tuberculosis en casos de sida notificados al Ministerio de la Salud del Brasil. Metodos: Se realizó un estudio epidemiológico transversal, siendo los casos de sida clasificados inicialmente en 2 categorías: (1) con tuberculosis y (2) sin tuberculosis. Posteriormente fueron comparados 4 grupos : (1) sin infección oportunista; (2) sólo con tuberculosis (pulmonar y/o diseminada); (3) con otras infección oportunista excepto tuberculosis, y (4) con tuberculosis asociada a otras infecciónes oportunistas. El análisis bivariado fue ajustado por regresión logística. Resultados: En el análisis de regresión, las prevalencias más altas de tuberculosis estaban asociadas significativamente a edad menor de 40 a os, baja escolaridad, residencia en la región sureste del país y diagnóstico efectuado antes de 1996. La forma de transmisión más asociada con la presencia de tuberculosis fue el uso de droga inyectable, seguida de las relaciones heterosexuales. Al comparar 4 períodos consecutivos de evolución de la definición de caso de sida para notificación hubo disminución de casos con tuberculosis desde 1996, así como aumentos significativos en la proporción de pacientes sin infección oportunista. Conclusiones: Sexo, edad y escolaridad son predictores de la presencia de tuberculosis entre las infecciónes oportunistas.
Reflexionando y cuestionando la política sanitaria en América Latina: implicaciones en investigación en la enfermería comunitaria, 1980 - 2000
Aliaga, Kelly Myriam Jiménez de;González, Cinthya Patricia Ibarra;González, Olga Lidia Banda;Salazar, María Guadalupe Vásquez;Trevi?o, María Guadalupe Vásquez;Martínez, Maria Ramona Medrano;
Escola Anna Nery , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S1414-81452006000300022
Abstract: the study object: the intersectorial analytical entailment and processes that affect the sanitary policy in latin america, social meaning and the care of communitarian nursing. objectives: to describe the sanitary policy; to analyze the practice of nursing in different levels from complexity, attention, participation and to discuss its communitarian practice to implement political toilets. referential theoretician, ideology: thompson 1995, culture: geertz 1989. analytical, dialectic reflection, in implementation of programs and reforms, through documentaria revision and studies. qualitative investigation. subjects: nurses. they demonstrated themselves: permanent vertical normative reformulaciones, social reality with conventional, emergent problems that alter the communitarian well-being. we concluded that precise nursing, to investigate critically: sanitary norms, the care that offers, its interdisciplinaridad and social interaction, protecting human rights before discriminating norms, conflicting situation by incoherences between vertical institutional directives and professional autonomy, with perspective to create lines of investigation in nursing of critical cuestionamiento of sanitary policy in latin america.
Développement et institutionnalisation de la sociologie appliquée aux politiques publiques :le cas du Chili entre 1980 et 2000 The development and Institutionalisation of Sociology applied to Public Policies – A Case Study from Chile (1980-2000)  [cached]
Javier Corvalán
Recherches Sociologiques et Anthropologiques , 2011, DOI: 10.4000/rsa.605
Abstract: La présente contribution étudie ce champ de connaissances de la sociologie qui cherche à influencer les politiques de développement et/ou d’intégration sociale menées par l’état au sein des sociétés modernes. Notre démarche, centrée sur le cas spécifique du Chili, s’articule sur la critique, la reformulation et l’analyse de l’apport des principes qui structurent ces politiques mais également sur la pro-position de cadres d’analyse destinés à comprendre leurs effets dans la société. This article details the making of sociology relevant to public policies in particular to state piloted integration. Sociology can bring its positive but critical approach to bear on the (re)formulation of such policies as well as contribute to the understanding of their wider implications and impact.
Innovation , circulation, fragmentation. Ethnographie d’un conflit religieux à La Havane  [cached]
Emma Gobin
Ateliers du LESC , 2007, DOI: 10.4000/ateliers.411
Abstract: à travers l’analyse d’une innovation rituelle et du conflit sans précédent qu’elle a engendré entre initiés dans le culte d’Ifá à La Havane, cet article soutient que la situation d’expansion croissante que connaissent aujourd’hui les religions cubaines d’origine yoruba, mais aussi les modalités africaines dont elles sont issues, constitue la clé de compréhension de certaines pratiques rituelles et discursives a priori locales. Les discours et stratégies de légitimation et délégitimation mis en place dans le conflit évoqué ne prennent en effet tout leur sens qu’au regard de ce contexte plus global. Ils mettent par ailleurs en scène une complexification du rapport de certains groupes d’initiés à la notion de tradition , phénomène lié à une intensification des échanges avec des initiés de l’extérieur et qui engendre, en même temps, un nouveau processus de fragmentation dans le champ religieux strictement local. Analysing a conflict caused by a ritual innovation in Havana now dividing practitioners of Ifá religion, this article argues that the expansion of Cuban religions of Yoruba origins as well as of the African religions which they originated from, is now a key concept in our understanding of ritual practices and discurses at the meso level. Indeed, the strategies of legitimization and delegitimization in stake in that conflict can only be understood if we consider their resonnance in a global context. Moreover, these conflicts are the result of a complex relationship between practitioners and “tradition” also caused by the establishment of religious networks between Cubans and foreigners. Within the last years, these changes have had a tremendous impact on the Afro-Cuban religious field especially in its constant tendency of fragmention. A través del análisis de una innovación ritual y del conflicto que generó entre iniciados en el culto de Ifá en La Habana, este artículo sostiene que la situación de expansión creciente que conocen hoy las religiones cubanas de origen yoruba, así como las vertientes africanas que las originaron, constituye la clave de comprensión de algunas practicas rituales y discursivas a priori locales. Efectivamente, los discursos y estrategias de legitimación y delegitimación mobilizados en el conflicto evocado sólo cobran sentido pleno en este contexto global. También ponen en escena la complejidad creciente de la relación de ciertos grupos de iniciados a la noción de tradición , fenómeno vinculado con una intensificación de los intercambios con iniciados del exterior y que genera, al mismo tiempo, un nuevo proceso
Le conflit du Tipnis et la Bolivie d’Evo Morales face à ses contradictions : analyse d’un conflit socio-environnemental  [cached]
Laetitia Perrier Bruslé
EchoGéo , 2012,
Abstract: Entre ao t et octobre 2011, la Bolivie a connu un de ses plus graves conflits sociaux depuis la première élection d’Evo Morales (2005). Pour refuser la construction d’une route traversant leur territoire, des indigènes ont entamé une marche de protestation qui s’est transformée en un conflit d’ampleur nationale. Que le premier président indigène d’Amérique du Sud soit ainsi mis en porte-à-faux sur son propre terrain est étonnant. Pour comprendre ce paradoxe, nous montrons les mécanismes d’éclosion du conflit, puis le décryptons en partant d’une analyse géographique des enjeux soulevés par la route. La réflexion se déploie aux échelles mondiale, continentale et locale. A chacun de ces niveaux, la Bolivie appara t prise dans ses propres contradictions : contradiction entre son positionnement écologiste et indigène et la réalité de sa politique nationale ; contradiction entre la protection de ses espaces orientaux et la volonté de participer pleinement à l’intégration continentale ; contradiction enfin, entre les promesses de changement sociopolitique et la réalité du retour d’un état centralisé Between August and October 2011, Bolivia passed through one of its fiercest conflicts since the election of Evo Morales in 2005. Because they are against the building of the Tipnis road that would go through their territory, some indigenous people started a protest walk to La Paz. During the 66 days of the walk, the conflict grew at the national level and gathered all those opposed to the government. It is striking to see that the first ever indigenous elected president is now facing such difficulties. To international viewers, Evo Morales represents another way of development, respectful of indigenous rights and of the environment. To understand the paradox of his international and national stances, I will study how this socio-environmental conflict appeared and then I will focus on the geographical issues raised by the Tipnis road, at the global, regional and local scales. At each level, Bolivia seems to be stuck within its own contradictions, which, in return, fuels the conflicts: contradiction between its ecologist and indigenous stance and the reality of its national policy; contradiction between protection of oriental regions and willingness to continental integration; contradiction between promises of socio-political changes and the reality of a strong central State. What is at stake here is both the process of change in Bolivia and the future of natural resources in a global context.
State Level Carbon Dioxide Emissions of India 1980 - 2000  [cached]
Tapas Ghoshal,Ranajoy Bhattacharyya
Contemporary Issues and Ideas in Social Sciences , 2008,
Abstract: India's state wise $C O_2$ emission between 1980 and 2000 isestimated from their fuel usage patterns. It is found that coal isthe most important source of $C O_2$ in all the states. Therelationship between per capita gross state domestic product and$C O_2$ follows an inverted U-shape. The shape is totally dictatedby the inverted U-shaped relationship between per capita grossstate domestic product and coal consumption.
Infant mortality trends in a region of Belarus, 1980–2000
Lauren J Zichittella, Martin C Mahoney, Silvana Lawvere, Arthur M Michalek, Sergey P Chunikhovskiy, Natan Khotianov
BMC Pediatrics , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2431-4-3
Abstract: Employing administrative death files, this study utilized a regional cohort design that included all infant deaths occurring among persons residing within the Mogilev oblast of Belarus between 1980 and 2000. Patterns of death and death rates were examined across 3 intervals: 1980–1985 (pre-Chernobyl), 1986–1991 (post-Chernobyl & pre-FSU breakup), and 1992–2000 (post-Chernobyl & post-FSU breakup).Annual infant mortality rates declined during the 1980s, increased during the early 1990s, and have remained stable thereafter. While infant mortality rates in Mogilev have decreased since the period 1980–1985 among both males and females, this decrement appears due to decreases in postneonatal mortality. Rates of postneonatal mortality in Mogilev have decreased since the period 1980–1985 among both males and females. Analyses of trends for infant mortality and neonatal mortality demonstrated continuous decreases between 1990, followed by a bell-shaped excess in the 1990's. Compared to rates of infant mortality for other countries, rates in the Mogilev region are generally higher than rates for the United States, but lower than rates in Russia. During the 1990s, rates for both neonatal and postneonatal mortality in Mogilev were two times the comparable rates for East and West Germany.While neonatal mortality rates in Mogilev have remained stable, rates for postneonatal mortality have decreased among both males and females during the period examined. Infant mortality rates in the Mogilev region of Belarus remain elevated compared to rates for other western countries, but lower than rates in Russia. The public health infrastructure might attempt to assure that prenatal, maternal, and postnatal care is maximized.The public health infrastructure for the republic of Belarus has been challenged by two notable events occurring within the past two decades. In April 1986, the Chernobyl nuclear power station located in the northern region of Ukraine released large amounts of radioisot
Trends and determinants of excess winter mortality in New Zealand: 1980 to 2000
Gabrielle S Davie, Michael G Baker, Simon Hales, John B Carlin
BMC Public Health , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-7-263
Abstract: Monthly mortality rates per 100,000 population were calculated from routinely collected national mortality data for 1980 to 2000. Generalised negative binomial regression models were used to compare mortality rates between winter (June–September) and the warmer months (October–May).From 1980–2000 around 1600 excess winter deaths occurred each year with winter mortality rates 18% higher than expected from non-winter rates. Patterns of EWM by age group showed the young and the elderly to be particularly vulnerable. After adjusting for all major covariates, the winter:non-winter mortality rate ratio from 1996–2000 in females was 9% higher than in males. Mortality caused by diseases of the circulatory system accounted for 47% of all excess winter deaths from 1996–2000 with mortality from diseases of the respiratory system accounting for 31%. There was no evidence to suggest that patterns of EWM differed by ethnicity, region or local-area based deprivation level. No decline in seasonal mortality was evident over the two decades.EWM in NZ is substantial and at the upper end of the range observed internationally. Interventions to reduce EWM are important, but the surprising lack of variation in EWM by ethnicity, region and deprivation, provides little guidance for how such mortality can be reduced.Seasonal fluctuations in mortality have been documented since 400BC [1]. Although many countries currently experience an increase in mortality during winter, the magnitude of this increase varies considerably, suggesting that some winter excess may be avoidable. Paradoxically, relative seasonal variation in mortality appears lowest in countries with cold winters, such as Russia, Norway and Canada and is higher in Britain, Israel and Portugal where winters are milder [2-5]. In Britain around 40,000 more deaths occur in the winter months than expected from the non-winter mortality rates [6].Infant mortality displays the characteristic winter high and summer low [7]. Seasonal mortal
Tilly Charles, Tarrow Sidney, Politiques du conflit. De la grève à la révolution  [cached]
N. Schiffino
Recherches Sociologiques et Anthropologiques , 2011,
Abstract: On ne présente pas Tilly et Tarrow : ils appartiennent à ce cercle d’auteurs privilégiés dont les concepts et les réflexions ont marqué des générations d’étudiants et de chercheurs. Ancrés dans la sociologie historique, leurs travaux sur la révolution et les mouvements sociaux, notamment, ont offert des clés pertinentes de compréhension (au sens wébérien du terme) et d’interprétation du réel. L’ouvrage dont il est question ici ne fait pas exception à la règle. Il présente une bo te à outils c...
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