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Cornual pregnancy as a complicaton of the use of a levonorgestrel intrauterine device: a case report
JJ Beltman, CJM de Groot
Journal of Medical Case Reports , 2009, DOI: 10.4076/1752-1947-3-8387
Abstract: A 36-year-old Caucasian nulliparous woman presented with complaints of progressive nausea, abdominal pain and irregular vaginal bleeding for 2 months. For 3 years, she had been using a levonorgestrel intrauterine device. A two-dimensional transvaginal sonogram noted a sac situated external to the endometrial cavity in the right cornua of the uterus with an empty uterus. She was successfully treated with chemotherapy.Many complications have been described, including ectopic pregnancies, using copper intrauterine devices. The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system is a particularly good choice for adolescents because of associated non-contraceptive benefits such as decreased menstrual bleeding, dysmenorrhea and pain associated with endometriosis [1]. Yet a cornual pregnancy following the use of a levonorgestrel intrauterine device is a complication which, to our knowledge, has not been described before. Physicians prescribing this type of intrauterine device should be aware of this rare event.Many studies have described ectopic pregnancies as a complication of copper intrauterine devices (IUDs) while other studies suggest the protective role that levonorgestrel IUDs have on the incidence of ectopic pregnancies. In our patient, a cornual pregnancy occurred using a levonorgestrel IUD.A 36-year-old Caucasian nulliparous healthy woman was referred to our outpatient clinic with a positive pregnancy test and complaints of progressive nausea, abdominal pain and irregular vaginal bleeding for 2 months. For 3 years, she had been using a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device as a contraceptive, which was removed by the general practitioner the same day. She had no history of prior ectopic pregnancy, pelvic inflammatory diseases or previous tubal-uterine surgery, in vitro fertilization or other assisted reproduction procedures. She did not smoke.On examination, her blood pressure was 108/64 mmHg and she was afebrile. There was slight tenderness in her right lower ab
Review of the safety, efficacy and patient acceptability of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system
Chandra Kailasam,David Cahill
Patient Preference and Adherence , 2008,
Abstract: Chandra Kailasam1, David Cahill21Bristol Centre for Reproductive Medicine, Southmead Hospital, Bristol, UK; 2Dept of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Bristol, St Michael’s Hospital, Bristol, UKAbstract: The levonorgestrel-containing intrauterine system is an extremely effective, reversible and safe form of long-term yet reversible birth control. In view of its efficacy, it is a safer alternative to permanent contraceptive methods such as sterilization. It is especially useful in situations where use of estrogen-containing contraceptives is contraindicated. While menstrual disturbances are a common side effect, proper counseling improves compliance. In addition to its contraceptive effect, the levonorgestrel intrauterine system offers potential therapeutic benefits in other clinical contexts, including menorrhagia, symptomatic fibroids, endometriosis, and endometrial protection.Keywords: intrauterine device, levonorgestrel intrauterine device, contraception
Safety, efficacy and patient acceptability of the contraceptive and non-contraceptive uses of the LNG-IUS
Paula H Bednarek, Jeffrey T Jensen
International Journal of Women's Health , 2009, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJWH.S4350
Abstract: fety, efficacy and patient acceptability of the contraceptive and non-contraceptive uses of the LNG-IUS Review (5141) Total Article Views Authors: Paula H Bednarek, Jeffrey T Jensen Published Date May 2009 Volume 2009:1 Pages 45 - 58 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJWH.S4350 Paula H Bednarek, Jeffrey T Jensen Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR, USA Abstract: Intrauterine devices (IUDs) provide highly effective, long-term, safe, reversible contraception, and are the most widely used reversible contraceptive method worldwide. The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) is a T-shaped IUD with a steroid reservoir containing 52 mg of levonorgestrel that is released at an initial rate of 20 μg daily. It is highly effective, with a typical-use first year pregnancy rate of 0.1% – similar to surgical tubal occlusion. It is approved for 5 years of contraceptive use, and there is evidence that it can be effective for up to 7 years of continuous use. After removal, there is rapid return to fertility, with 1-year life-table pregnancy rates of 89 per 100 for women less than 30 years of age. Most users experience a dramatic reduction in menstrual bleeding, and about 15% to 20% of women become amenorrheic 1 year after insertion. The device’s strong local effects on the endometrium benefit women with various benign gynecological conditions such as menorrhagia, dysmenorrhea, leiomyomata, adenomyosis, and endometriosis. There is also evidence to support its role in endometrial protection during postmenopausal estrogen replacement therapy, and in the treatment of endometrial hyperplasia.
Review of the safety, efficacy and patient acceptability of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system
Chandra Kailasam, David Cahill
Patient Preference and Adherence , 2008, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/PPA.S3464
Abstract: f the safety, efficacy and patient acceptability of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system Review (3501) Total Article Views Authors: Chandra Kailasam, David Cahill Published Date October 2008 Volume 2008:2 Pages 293 - 301 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/PPA.S3464 Chandra Kailasam1, David Cahill2 1Bristol Centre for Reproductive Medicine, Southmead Hospital, Bristol, UK; 2Dept of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Bristol, St Michael’s Hospital, Bristol, UK Abstract: The levonorgestrel-containing intrauterine system is an extremely effective, reversible and safe form of long-term yet reversible birth control. In view of its efficacy, it is a safer alternative to permanent contraceptive methods such as sterilization. It is especially useful in situations where use of estrogen-containing contraceptives is contraindicated. While menstrual disturbances are a common side effect, proper counseling improves compliance. In addition to its contraceptive effect, the levonorgestrel intrauterine system offers potential therapeutic benefits in other clinical contexts, including menorrhagia, symptomatic fibroids, endometriosis, and endometrial protection.
The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system: Safety, efficacy, and patient acceptability  [cached]
Megan N Beatty,Paul D Blumenthal
Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management , 2009,
Abstract: Megan N Beatty, Paul D BlumenthalDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USAAbstract: The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) is a safe, effective and acceptable form of contraception used by over 150 million women worldwide. It also has a variety of noncontraceptive benefits including treatment for menorrhagia, endometriosis, and endometrial hyperplasia. The LNG-IUS has also been used in combination with estrogen for hormone replacement therapy and as an alternative to hysterectomy. Overall, the system is very well tolerated and patient satisfaction is quite high when proper education regarding possible side effects is provided. However, despite all of the obvious benefits of the LNG-IUS, utilization rates remain quite low in the developed countries, especially in the United States. This is thought to be largely secondary to the persistent negative impressions from the Dalkon Shield intrauterine experience in the 1970s. This history continues to negatively influence the opinions of both patients and health care providers with regards to intrauterine devices. Providers should resolve to educate themselves and their patients on the current indications and uses for this device, as it, and intrauterine contraception in general, remains a largely underutilized approach to a variety of women’s health issues.Keywords: Mirena , levonorgestrel-releasing, intrauterine system, intrauterine contraceptive device
Misplaced intrauterine contraceptive device: an enigma
Aruna Nigam,Ratna Biswas,Archana Mishra
Open Access Journal of Contraception (OAJC) , 2010,
Abstract: Aruna Nigam, Ratna Biswas, Archana MishraDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Lady Hardinge Medical College, New Delhi, IndiaAbstract: Intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) migration subsequent to uterine wall perforation is an uncommon but serious complication. Three cases of misplaced IUCD at three different sites, ie, posterior fornix, rectal wall, and mesoappendix, are reported. An IUCD thread coming through the posterior fornix is reported in the literature for the first time.Keywords: intrauterine device, contraception, migration, laparoscopy
Misplaced intrauterine contraceptive device: an enigma
Aruna Nigam, Ratna Biswas, Archana Mishra
Open Access Journal of Contraception (OAJC) , 2011, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OAJC.S14488
Abstract: placed intrauterine contraceptive device: an enigma Case Series (3673) Total Article Views Authors: Aruna Nigam, Ratna Biswas, Archana Mishra Published Date December 2010 Volume 2011:2 Pages 1 - 3 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OAJC.S14488 Aruna Nigam, Ratna Biswas, Archana Mishra Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Lady Hardinge Medical College, New Delhi, India Abstract: Intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) migration subsequent to uterine wall perforation is an uncommon but serious complication. Three cases of misplaced IUCD at three different sites, ie, posterior fornix, rectal wall, and mesoappendix, are reported. An IUCD thread coming through the posterior fornix is reported in the literature for the first time.
Safety, efficacy and patient acceptability of the contraceptive and non-contraceptive uses of the LNG-IUS  [cached]
Paula H Bednarek,Jeffrey T Jensen
International Journal of Women's Health , 2009,
Abstract: Paula H Bednarek, Jeffrey T JensenDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR, USAAbstract: Intrauterine devices (IUDs) provide highly effective, long-term, safe, reversible contraception, and are the most widely used reversible contraceptive method worldwide. The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) is a T-shaped IUD with a steroid reservoir containing 52 mg of levonorgestrel that is released at an initial rate of 20 μg daily. It is highly effective, with a typical-use first year pregnancy rate of 0.1% – similar to surgical tubal occlusion. It is approved for 5 years of contraceptive use, and there is evidence that it can be effective for up to 7 years of continuous use. After removal, there is rapid return to fertility, with 1-year life-table pregnancy rates of 89 per 100 for women less than 30 years of age. Most users experience a dramatic reduction in menstrual bleeding, and about 15% to 20% of women become amenorrheic 1 year after insertion. The device’s strong local effects on the endometrium benefit women with various benign gynecological conditions such as menorrhagia, dysmenorrhea, leiomyomata, adenomyosis, and endometriosis. There is also evidence to support its role in endometrial protection during postmenopausal estrogen replacement therapy, and in the treatment of endometrial hyperplasia.Keywords: levonorgestrel intrauterine system, LNG-IUS, intrauterine device, IUD, IUS
Intrauterine Contraceptive Device (IUCD) Migration to the Urinary Bladder: A Case Report
NO Chukwujama, F Anolue, T Oguike, J Azike
Nigerian Journal of Surgery , 2011,
Abstract: We highlight a unique case of an intravesical intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) that was discovered incidentally in the course of evaluation for secondary infertility in a woman who denied knowledge of insertion of the device. The IUCD was easily retrieved at cystoscopy as a day case procedure. Key Words : Intrauterine Contraceptive Device, Migration, Urinary bladder.
Vaginitis in Intrauterine Contraceptive Device Users  [PDF]
Fatemeh Shobeiri, Mansour Nazari
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.611149
Abstract: Objectives: This study aimed to assess clinical, microbial changes in IUD users and other contraceptive methods in referent to urban health centers in Hamadan city, Iran. Methods: Detailed history and gynecological examination were conducted on women (IUD users, n = 100) or other contraceptive methods (controls, n = 160) in the health centers. Results: Frequencies of the different vaginal pathogens, high indices of infection by bacterial vaginosis (12.0%) candida albicance (7.0%) and low indices of trichomoniasis (5.0%) were found in present study, but none of them in both groups was significant. Menorrhagia was more frequent among women with IUD than that among women without IUD (P < 0.05). A trend of erosion cervix and dysmenorrhea being more frequent among women with IUD was also found (P < 0.05). Conclusions: IUD is the safety in general; however, an increase occurred in the frequency of vaginitis.
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