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Herbal medicines: old and new concepts, truths and misunderstandings  [cached]
Fabio Carmona,Ana Maria Soares Pereira
Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia , 2013,
Abstract: Men have been using herbal medicines for thousands of years. The advantages of this type of therapeutics include good availability, local cultural aspects, individual preferences, the increasing demand for natural and organic products, and the already validated synergistic effects of herbal medicines. However, ethically, the scope and limits of these drugs need to be established not only by ethnopharmacological evidences but also by scientific investigations, which confirm the therapeutic effects. With this study, we propose to discuss the possible advantages of using herbal medicines instead of purified compounds, the truth and myths about herbal medicines, drug discovery, and the implications for medical education and health care.
Regulation of herbal medicines in Brazil: advances and perspectives
Carvalho, Ana Cecília Bezerra;Perfeito, Jo?o Paulo Silvério;Costa e Silva, Leandro Viana;Ramalho, Lívia Santos;Marques, Robelma France de Oliveira;Silveira, Damaris;
Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1984-82502011000300004
Abstract: the national policy of integrative and complementary practices (pnpic) in the brazilian unified health system (sus), and the national policy of medicinal plants and herbal medicines (pnpmf) were launched in 2006. based on these, the brazilian health surveillance agency (anvisa) re-edited rules related to herbal medicines such as the guideline to herbal medicine registration (rdc 14/10), the good manufacture practices guideline (rdc 17/10) and the list of references to assess the safety and efficacy of herbal medicines (in 05/10). the requisites to prove herbal medicine's safety and efficacy were updated. therefore, this review aims at presenting and commenting these new rules.
Editorial- Promoting the Safe use of Herbal Medicines
Dr. Annie Shirwaikar
Hygeia : Journal for Drugs and Medicines , 2012,
Abstract: The global use of herbal medicines has been steadily increasing and today a large number of the world's population use herbal medicines as their primary form of health care. This popularity, mainly influenced by patients' dissatisfaction with conventional allopathic medicines may also be attributed to several other reasons. Often associated with traditional and personal beliefs, herbal medicines because of its natural origin are perceived to be highly effective therapeutically, safe and free of side-effects, and in some cases complementary to western or orthodox medicine. They are freely available from health stores & pharmacies and they actually allow the user the means to self-treat a range of conditions for which orthodox and even over-the-counter (OTC) medicines are limited or unavailable. This has led to extensive herbal self-medication, as users are often unaware of the adverse drug reactions (ADR’s) that these medicines may pose.
Pharmacovigilance of herbal medicines: Current state and future directions  [cached]
Shetti Sandeep,Kumar C,Sriwastava Neeraj,Sharma Indra
Pharmacognosy Magazine , 2011,
Abstract: Currently, a majority of the adverse events related to the use of herbal products and herbal medicines that are reported are attributable either to poor product quality or to improper use. Inadequate regulatory measures, weak quality control systems, and largely uncontrolled distribution channels (including mail order and Internet sales) may have been contributing to the occurrence of such events. In order to expand the knowledge about genuine adverse reactions to herbal medicines, and to avoid wasting scarce resources for identifying and analyzing adverse events, events resulting from such situations will need to be reduced or eliminated. Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO) are therefore encouraged to strengthen national regulation, registration and quality assurance and control of herbal medicines. In addition, the national health authorities should give greater attention to consumer education and to qualified practice in the provision of herbal medicines.
Cochrane Systematic Reviews of Chinese Herbal Medicines: An Overview  [PDF]
Jing Hu,Junhua Zhang,Wei Zhao,Yongling Zhang,Li Zhang,Hongcai Shang
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0028696
Abstract: Our study had two objectives: a) to systematically identify all existing systematic reviews of Chinese herbal medicines (CHM) published in Cochrane Library; b) to assess the methodological quality of included reviews.
Microbial Quality and Antibacterial Activity of Herbal Medicines  [PDF]
Bibha Shah,Nabaraj Pokhrel
Nepal Journal of Science and Technology , 2012, DOI: 10.3126/njst.v13i2.7735
Abstract: Use of herbal medicine faces constraint particularly imparting knowledge in identifying whether a product is microbiologically fit for health or not. There has been relatively less research on microbial quality of the herbal medicines in Nepal. In this context, this research has focused on microbial quality of different herbal medicines. A total of twenty one herbal medicines were collected from different sales outlet of Kathmandu. The microbial load in herbal medicine was determined by aerobic plate count method and bacterial isolates were identified based on morphological, cultural and biochemical tests. Out of twenty one herbal medicines analyzed, all were found free from pathogenic bacteria and indicator organism of fecal contamination. However , Bacillus spp. were isolated from ten herbal medicines. The microbial load on Nutrient Agar was found within the range of 1.20x10 3 - 6.06x10 5 cfu/ ml (or g). Altogether six different Bacillus spp were identified and the most predominant was Bacillus subtilis. In vitro antibacterial activity of the herbal medicines, from which microorganisms were not detected, were determined against six test bacteria by cup plate method. Out of eleven different herbal medicines, five showed the zone of inhibition against all test bacteria and at least two test bacteria were inhibited by each of the herbal medicines. The highest zone of inhibition was 30 mm shown by Chitrakaharitaki Churna of concentration 100mg/ml against Pseudomonas aeruginosa . Nepal Journal of Science and Technology Vol. 13, No. 2 (2012) 191-196 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/njst.v13i2.7735
WHO GUIDELINES ON QUALITY CONTROL OF HERBAL MEDICINES  [PDF]
Patel Parthik,Patel N. M.,Patel P. M.
International Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Pharmacy , 2011,
Abstract: This WHO guidelines present general consideration on potentially hazardous contaminants and residues in herbal medicines and include guiding principles of assessing quality of herbal medicines in terms of major contaminants and residues. It also recommends analytical methods for qualitative and quantitative determination of such contaminants and residues.Within overall context of quality assurance these guidelines intended to provide general technical guidance to Member state in assessing quality relating to safety of herbal materials and products classified as medicines with regards to major and common contaminants and residues.The objectives of these guidelines are to provide: Guiding principle for assessing the quality in relation to the safety of herbal medicines with specific reference to contaminants and residues Model criteria for use in identifying possible contaminants and residues Example of methods and techniques and Example of practical procedures for controlling the quality of finished herbal products.The scope of these guidelines does not cover issues of adulteration of herbal medicines and/or counterfeit products.The annexes to these guidelines present several example of suitable methodologies found in national or regional pharmacopoeias and WHO documents it should be noted that these methods need to be validated for the material that is to be tested and also for each type of instruments.
A Comparative Assessment of Herbal and Orthodox Medicines in Nigeria
K.P. Osemene,A.A. Elujoba,M.O. Ilori
Research Journal of Medical Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/rjmsci.2011.280.285
Abstract: This study assessed attributes of herbal and orthodox medicines such as affordability, packaging, availability, efficacy, safety, side-effects and level of advertisement in print and electronic media which were hitherto neglected. Structured questionnaires and interview schedule were the instruments used to elicit information from 300 herbal and orthodox medicine consumers selected from six geo-political zones in Nigeria through a purposive and convenient sampling method. Data were analyzed with appropriate descriptive and inferential statistics. Results showed that the respondents rated herbal medicines higher than orthodox medicines in terms of safety and the degree of advertisement. Other parameters were rated higher for orthodox medicines. The mean values of all parameters were significant at p≤0.05. Also only 41% of the respondents took herbal medicines as their first drug of choice. This is contrary to the widely held view in literature that >80% of the population in developing countries takes only herbal medicines.
Chemical markers for the quality control of herbal medicines: an overview
Songlin Li, Quanbin Han, Chunfeng Qiao, Jingzheng Song, Chuen Lung Cheng, Hongxi Xu
Chinese Medicine , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1749-8546-3-7
Abstract: Herbal medicines, also known as botanical medicines or phytomedicines, refer to the medicinal products of plant roots, leaves, barks, seeds, berries or flowers that can be used to promote health and treat diseases. Medicinal use of plants has a long history worldwide. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), traditional herbal preparations account for 30–50% of the total medicinal consumption in China [1]. There have always been concerns about the inconsistent composition of herbal medicines and occasional cases of intoxication by adulterants and/or toxic components. Quality control of herbal medicines aims to ensure their consistency, safety and efficacy.Chemical fingerprinting has been demonstrated to be a powerful technique for the quality control of herbal medicines. A chemical fingerprint is a unique pattern that indicates the presence of multiple chemical markers within a sample.The European Medicines Agency (EMEA) defines chemical markers as chemically defined constituents or groups of constituents of a herbal medicinal product which are of interest for quality control purposes regardless whether they possess any therapeutic activity [2]. Ideally, chemical markers should be unique components that contribute to the therapeutic effects of a herbal medicine. As only a small number of chemical compounds were shown to have clear pharmacological actions, other chemical components are also used as markers. The quantity of a chemical marker can be an indicator of the quality of a herbal medicine.The overall quality of a herbal medicine may be affected by many factors, including seasonal changes, harvesting time, cultivation sites, post-harvesting processing, adulterants or substitutes of raw materials, and procedures in extraction and preparation. From harvesting to manufacturing, chemical markers play a crucial role in evaluating the quality of herbal medicines. Moreover, the study of chemical markers is applicable to many research areas, including authenti
Chromatographic Fingerprint Analysis for Herbal Medicines : A Quality Control Tool  [cached]
Sohan S.Chitlange,Mr.Santosh S. Bhujbal,Mr.Amol A. Kulkarni,Mohammed Imran
Pharmaceutical Reviews , 2008,
Abstract: Quality control of herbal medicines is a tedious and difficult job. Herbal medicines differ from that of the conventional drugs and so some innovative methods are coming into being for the sake of quality assessment of herbal drugs. Fingerprint analysis approach using chromatography has become the most potent tools for quality control of herbal medicines because of its simplicity and reliability. It can serve as a tool for identification, authentication and quality control of herbal drugs.
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