Abstract:
A modified surgical approach to the mandibular condyle without the usual surgical complications is presented.Patients and Methods: This prospective study was conducted from December 2007 to April 2010, in the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery of Al-Noor Specialist Hospital, Makkah, Saudi Arabia. Forty patients with 47 subcondylar fractures were treated. The fractures were surgically treated via a modified extraoral approach with a pre-auricular incision extending to the retromandibular area; access to the condyle was obtained through a cleavage plane between parotid gland and masseter muscle. Patients were carefully followed up and evaluated at first post operative day, one week, one month, three months and six months postoperatively.Results: Our surgical approach provided a safe and fast access to the condylar fracture. Facial nerve examination showed no temporary or permanent injuries. No case of wound infection was found within 6-months follow up. Three (7.5%) patients developed a sialocele and a salivary fistula has been noticed in one case. Satisfactory occlusion was achieved and appropriate mandibular opening was found. Immediate postoperative radiographs revealed anatomic bone reduction.Conclusion: The applied surgical approach had satisfactory results in cases of condylar fractures.

Abstract:
Introduction: One of the main problems in learning extraoral radiographic anatomic indexes is the long interval between presentation of radiology and human anatomy courses, resulting in forgetting anatomic regions. Therefore, radiographic indexes are formed as complete abstract and transient images in students’ minds; as a result, their learning and retention decrease. The aim of this study was to compare lecture with combination of computer-assisted learning and lecture of extra-oral radiographic landmarks among dental students. Methods: This interventional study was carried out in 2009 on 51 dental students of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. Students were randomly allocated into two groups. The first group was taught through a teaching method which involved lectures in the classroom. In the second group, a CD was given to the students. The teaching was accomplished through presentation using skull. Six months after finishing the teaching, both groups took a similar test for evaluation of long term learning. The data was analyzed by SPSS 16 using U Mann-Whitney test. Results: There was no significant differences in the mean scores between the two groups in the first exam after teaching (P=0.13), yet it was significant in the second exam (regarding retention) (P=0.006), and average of non-traditional teaching method group (20.89±10.23) was higher than that of lecture group (13.48±6.39). Conclusion: Based on the results, non-traditional technique of teaching was not more effective than the lecture in short-term learning but in longterm learning, non-traditional technique was more effective than the lecture.

Abstract:
The Newman-Janis algorithm has been widely used to construct rotating black hole solutions from non-rotating counterparts. While this algorithm was developed within General Relativity, it has more recently been applied to non-rotating solutions in modified gravity theories. We find that the application of the Newman-Janis algorithm to an arbitrary non-GR spherically-symmetric solution introduces pathologies in the resulting axially-symmetric metric. This then establishes that, in general, the Newman-Janis algorithm should not used to construct rotating black hole solutions outside of General Relativity.

Abstract:
In this work, we have studied accretion of the dark energies NVMCG and GCCG onto the Schwarzschild and Kerr-Newman Black holes. We find the expression of the critical four velocity component which gradually decreases for the fluid flow towards the Schwarzschild as well as Kerr-Newman Black hole. We also find the expression for change of masses of the black hole in both cases. For the Kerr-Newman black hole which is rotating and charged we calculate the specific angular momentum and total angular momentum. We showed that in both cases due to accretion of the dark energy mass of the black hole increases and angular momentum increases in case of Kerr-Newman black hole.

Abstract:
We show in the paper that Friedman universes can be created from empty, flat Minkowski spacetime by using suitable conformal rescaling of the spacetime metric.

Abstract:
We consider a random field, defined on an integer-valued d-dimensional lattice, with covariance function satisfying a condition more general than summability. Such condition appeared in the well-known Newman's conjecture concerning the central limit theorem (CLT) for stationary associated random fields. As was demonstrated by Herrndorf and Shashkin, the conjecture fails already for d=1. In the present paper, we show the validity of modified conjecture leaving intact the mentioned condition on covariance function. Thus we establish, for any positive integer d, a criterion of the CLT validity for the wider class of positively associated stationary fields. The uniform integrability for the squares of normalized partial sums, taken over growing parallelepipeds or cubes, plays the key role in deriving their asymptotic normality. So our result extends the Lewis theorem proved for sequences of random variables. A representation of variances of partial sums of a field using the slowly varying functions in several arguments is employed in essential way.

Abstract:
This study investigates an application of Friedman statistic as a model selection methodology on post estimation data. The Friedman statistic is employed for testing the possible differences between related samples by ranking the data. Similarly, we suggest ranking of competing models based on a specific multiple comparison procedure for identifying differences between models. As a non-parametric test statistic, it does not make assumptions regarding the underlying distribution of data, however, this procedure may require a large dataset since it relies on post estimation comparisons.

Abstract:
H. Friedman obtained remarkable results about the longest finite sequence $x$ such that for all $i \not= j$ the word $x[i..2i]$ is not a subsequence of $x[j..2j]$. In this note we consider what happens when ``subsequence'' is replaced by ``subword''.

Abstract:
Milton Friedman is among those who have favored a value free, amoral defense of the free society. Here I discuss his basic reason for doing so, namely, that the claim to moral knowledge implies authoritarian politics. I argue that this is wrong because to act morally cannot require coercing people to do so–to quote Immanuel Kant, “ought” implies “can.”