Abstract:
The objective of this paper is to investigate the sources of volumetric irreversibilities in both laminar and turbulent diffusion flames. The theoretical background of analysis relies on the local exergy transport equation, which allows the microscopic formulation of the well-known Gouy-Stodola theorem. For laminar reacting flows, the volumetric entropy generation rate expression includes the viscous, thermal, diffusion and chemical components. Their expressions show that the corresponding irreversibilities are uncoupled if the combustion process occurs at constant pressure. The numerical simulation of a methane-air combustion process shows that the thermal, chemical and diffusive irreversibilities represent, in order of enumeration, the predominant irreversibilities in the laminar diffusion reacting flows. In the case of turbulent diffusion flames, the viscous, thermal, diffusion and chemical mean components have to be expressed in accordance with the combustion model. Two combustion models are used: the multi-species approach based on the eddy-break formulation of mean reaction rate, and the assumed probability density function for a conserved scalar that relies on the flame sheet model. For a diffusion methane-air jet flame, the distribution of mean irreversibility components is presented. Taking into account the technical importance of diffusion flames, the analysis could serve to improve the combustion geometry and the flow condition.

Abstract:
Results of the theoretical and experimental investigations of the turbulent mean swirl flows characteristics change along straight conical diffuser of incompressible fluid (air) are presented in this paper. The main swirl flow characteristics review is given. In addition: the specific swirl flow energy, the energy loss, the mean circulation, the swirl flow parameter, the ratio between the swirl and axial flow loss coefficients change along the diffuser are presented. Among other values: the Boussinesq number, outlet Coriolis coefficient and swirl flow loss coefficient dependences on inlet swirl flow parameter are also given. The swirl flow specific energy and outlet Coriolis coefficient calculation procedure are presented in this paper, as well as experimental test bed and measuring procedures. The swirl flow fields were induced by the axial fan impeller. Various swirl parameters were achieved by the impeller openings and rotational speeds.

Abstract:
A compressible single step chemistry Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) database of freely propagating premixed flames has been used to analyze different entropy generation mechanisms. The entropy generation due to viscous dissipation within the flames remains negligible in comparison to the other mechanisms of entropy generation. It has been found that the entropy generation increases significantly due to turbulence and the relative magnitudes of the augmentation of entropy generation and burning rates under turbulent conditions ultimately determine the value of turbulent second law efficiency in comparison to the corresponding laminar values. It has been found that the entropy generation mechanisms due to chemical reaction, thermal conduction and mass diffusion in turbulent flames strengthen with decreasing global Lewis number in comparison to the corresponding values in laminar flames. The ratio of second law efficiency under turbulent conditions to its corresponding laminar value has been found to decrease with increasing global Lewis number. An increase in heat release parameter significantly augments the entropy generation due to thermal conduction, whereas other mechanisms of entropy generation are marginally affected. However, the effects of augmented entropy generation due to thermal conduction at high values of heat release parameter are eclipsed by the increased change in availability due to chemical reaction, which leads to an increase in the second law efficiency with increasing heat release parameter for identical flow conditions. The combustion regime does not have any major influence on the augmentation of entropy generation due to chemical reaction, thermal conduction and mass diffusion in turbulent flames in comparison to corresponding laminar flames, whereas the extent of augmentation of entropy generation due to viscous dissipation in turbulent conditions in comparison to corresponding laminar flames, is more significant in the thin reaction zones regime than in the corrugated flamelets regime. However, the ratio of second law efficiency under turbulent conditions to its corresponding laminar value does not get significantly affected by the regime of combustion, as viscous dissipation plays a marginal role in the overall entropy generation in premixed flames.

Abstract:
Gibson scaling and related properties of flame-surface geometry in turbulent premixed combustion are demonstrated using a novel computational model, Deterministic Turbulent Mixing (DTM). In DTM, turbulent advection is represented by a sequence of maps applied to the computational domain. The structure of the mapping sequence incorporates pertinent scaling properties of the turbulent cascade. Here, combustion in Kolmogorov turbulence (kinetic-energy cascade) and in Bolgiano-Obukhov convective turbulence (potential-energy cascade) is simulated. Implications with regard to chemical flames and astrophysical (thermonuclear) flames are noted.

Abstract:
Deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) can occur in environments ranging from experimental and industrial systems to astrophysical thermonuclear (type Ia) supernovae explosions. Substantial progress has been made in explaining the nature of DDT in confined systems with walls, internal obstacles, or pre-existing shocks. It remains unclear, however, whether DDT can occur in unconfined media. Here we use direct numerical simulations (DNS) to show that for high enough turbulent intensities unconfined, subsonic, premixed, turbulent flames are inherently unstable to DDT. The associated mechanism, based on the nonsteady evolution of flames faster than the Chapman-Jouguet deflagrations, is qualitatively different from the traditionally suggested spontaneous reaction wave model, and thus does not require the formation of distributed flames. Critical turbulent flame speeds, predicted by this mechanism for the onset of DDT, are in agreement with DNS results.

Abstract:
In previous studies, we examined turbulence-flame interactions in carbon-burning thermonuclear flames in Type Ia supernovae. In this study, we consider turbulence-flame interactions in the trailing oxygen flames. The two aims of the paper are to examine the response of the inductive oxygen flame to intense levels of turbulence, and to explore the possibility of transition to detonation in the oxygen flame. Scaling arguments analogous to the carbon flames are presented and then compared against three-dimensional simulations for a range of Damk\"ohler numbers ($\Da_{16}$) at a fixed Karlovitz number. The simulations suggest that turbulence does not significantly affect the oxygen flame when $\Da_{16}<1$, and the flame burns inductively some distance behind the carbon flame. However, for $\Da_{16}>1$, turbulence enhances heat transfer and drives the propagation of a flame that is {\em narrower} than the corresponding inductive flame would be. Furthermore, burning under these conditions appears to occur as part of a combined carbon-oxygen turbulent flame with complex compound structure. The simulations do not appear to support the possibility of a transition to detonation in the oxygen flame, but do not preclude it either.

Abstract:
Over the past years, the use of a presumed probability density function (PDF) for combustion progress variable or/and mixture fraction has been becoming more and more popular approach to average reaction rates in premixed and partially premixed turbulent flames. Commonly invoked for this purpose is a beta-function PDF or a combination of Dirac delta functions, with the parameters of the two PDFs being determined based on the values of their first and second moments computed by integrating proper balance equations. Because the choice of any of the above PDFs appears to be totally arbitrary as far as underlying physics of turbulent combustion is concerned, the use of such PDFs implies weak sensitivity of the key averaged quantities to the PDF shape. The present work is aimed at testing this implicit assumption by comparing mean heat release rates, burning velocities, and so forth, averaged by invoking the aforementioned PDFs, with all other things being equal. Results calculated in the premixed case show substantial sensitivity of the mean heat release rate to the shape of presumed combustion-progress-variable PDF, thus, putting the approach into question. To the contrary, the use of a presumed mixture-fraction PDF appears to be a sufficiently reasonable simplification for modeling the influence of fluctuations in the mixture fraction on the mean burning velocity provided that the mixture composition varies within flammability limits.

Abstract:
Numerical investigation of the turbulent jet flows, both central and annular type of jets has been carried out with the introduction of swirl at the inlet using the modified κ ε model. It was observed that the recirculation bubble generated by the central jet without swirl diminishes in size due to increase in swirl number, while in the case of annular jet the recirculation bubble size grows gradually by the same.

The
local burning velocity, which is based on the consumption rate of the unburned
mixture, is one of the dominant parameters in turbulent premixed flames. In
this study, the evaluating method of the local burning velocity was
investigated using DNS data of turbulent premixed flames with different Lewis
numbers. The local burning velocity was evaluated by integrating the chemical
reaction rates along normal to the flame surface within three kinds of
integration ranges that were defined as follows: the range which is defined by
the half length of normal to the flame surface between its certain point and
the other point crossing the flame surface (Range 1); the range which is
defined by the reaction progress variable that the chemical reaction rate along
normal to a planer flame surface takes a half of the maximum value (Range 2);
the range which is defined by the length of normal to the flame surface between
its certain point and the point which has the extreme value of the reaction
progress variable (Range 3). As a result, Range 1 and Range 2 were affected by
the flame shapes greatly, since the quantities of the integration ranges fluctuated
widely dependent on the variations of turbulent premixed flames. Under the
conditions of the turbulent combustion in this study, Range 3, which is hardly
affected by a flame shape, is considered to be appropriate to the evaluation of
the local burning velocity.

Abstract:
The Response Surface Methodology (RSM) has been applied to explore the thermal structure of the experimentally studied catalytic combustion of stabilized confined turbulent gaseous diffusion flames. The Pt/γAl_{2}O_{3} and Pd/γAl_{2}O_{3} disc burners were situated in the combustion domain and the experiments were performed under both fuel-rich and fuel-lean conditions at a modified equivalence (fuel/air) ratio (ø) of 0.75 and 0.25 respectively. The thermal structure of these catalytic flames developed over the Pt and Pd disc burners were inspected via measuring the mean temperature profiles in the radial direction at different discrete axial locations along the flames.The RSM considers the effect of the two operating parameters explicitly (r), the radial distance from the center line of the flame, and (x), axial distance along the flame over the disc, on the measured temperature of the flames and finds the predicted maximum temperature and the corresponding process variables. Also the RSM has been employed to elucidate such effects in the three and two dimensions and displays the location of the predicted maximum temperature.