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A Review of Energy Aware Routing Protocols in MANET
International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology , 2012,
Abstract: A Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) is a network consisting of a set of mobile hosts capable of communicating with each other without the assistance of base stations. This type of network having tiny light weighted nodes, with no clock synchronization mechanisms. In a MANET there are no dedicated routers and all network nodes must contribute to routing. Classification of routing protocols for MANET is based on how routing information is acquired and maintained by mobile nodes and/or on roles of network nodes in a routing. The wireless and distributed nature of MANETs poses a great challenge to system energy and the security.Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET) is a set of wireless mobile nodes dynamically form spontaneous network which works without centralized administration. Due to this characteristic, there are some challenges that protocol designers and network developers are faced with. These challenges include routing, service and frequently topology changes. Generally, in this type of network the exhaustion of energy will be more and as well, the security is missing due to its infrastructure less nature. There are also limited battery power and low bandwidth available in each node. Security attacks against MANET routing can be passive and or active. An overview of active attacks based on modification, impersonation/spoofing, fabrication, wormhole, and selfish behaviour is presented. A comparison of existing secure routing protocols form the main contribution in this paper, while some future research challenges in secure MANET routing are discussed
Framework for Location Based Power Aware Routing in MANET
P K Suri,M K Soni,Parul Tomar
International Journal of Computer Science Issues , 2011,
Abstract: With the rapid growth in the area of wireless networks and mobile applications, Quality of Service (QoS) provision has received the attention of researchers. But unpredictable nature of Mobile Adhoc Networks makes it a very difficult task. Various QoS based protocols have been proposed by the researchers. These protocols make use of either proactive (table-driven) or reactive (on-demand) approach. Table driven approach requires a large amount of storage space to store the information regarding whole of the network which is not possible in case of small mobile devices. On the other hand, due to flooding of RREQ packets, on-demand routing protocols consumes a large amount of bandwidth and thus increases the network load. Also, there is a transmission delay for the first data packet. This paper presents an optimized approach for providing QoS in a location aware environment.
Power Aware Routing for MANET Using On-demand Multipath Routing Protocol
A. Rajaram,J Sugesh
International Journal of Computer Science Issues , 2011,
Abstract: Energy in mobile adhoc networks is of much important. Similarly shortest path from source to destination is also important for routing. To address these issues a routing protocol is proposed which gives an optimum between these issues. Power aware adhoc on-demand multipath distance vector (PAAOMDV) is proposed to overcome the issue of energy and shortest path in a single routing protocol. This protocol helps in updating the routing table with both the node route list and their corresponding energies. As this is a multipath protocol, it shifts the route without further overhead, delay and loss of packets. Simulation results shows that PAAOMDV performs well compared to ad-hoc on-demand multipath distance vector (AOMDV) routing protocol even after introducing energy related fields in PAAOMDV.
QoS Aware Power and Hop Count Constraints Routing Protocol with Mobility Prediction for MANET Using SHORT  [PDF]
Senthilkumar Maruthamuthu, Somasundaram Sankaralingam
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2011.43023
Abstract: A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is composed of mobile nodes, which do not have any fixed wired communication infrastructure. This paper proposes a protocol called “Delay, Jitter, Bandwidth, Cost, Power and Hop count Constraints Routing Protocol with Mobility Prediction for Mobile Ad hoc Network using Self Healing and Optimizing Routing Technique (QPHMP-SHORT)”. It is a multiple constraints routing protocol with self healing technique for route discovery to select a best routing path among multiple paths between a source and a destination as to increase packet delivery ratio, reliability and efficiency of mobile communication. QPHMP-SHORT considers the cost incurred in channel acquisition and the incremental cost proportional to the size of the packet. It collects the residual battery power of each node for each path; selects multiple paths, which have nodes with good battery power for transmission to satisfy the power constraint. QPHMP-SHORT uses Self-Healing and Optimizing Routing Technique (SHORT) to select a shortest best path among multiple selected paths by applying hops count constraint. It also uses the mobility prediction formula to find the stability of a link between two nodes.
Re-Configurable Antenna & Transmission Power for Location Aware MANET Routing with Multiple Objective Optimization  [cached]
Sanjaya Gajurel,Behnam Malakooti
Journal of Networks , 2008, DOI: 10.4304/jnw.3.3.11-18
Abstract: In this paper we develop a Directional Antenna Multi-path Location Aided Routing (DA-MLAR) scheme with On Demand Transmission Power (ODTP) support. The routing approach is based on multiple objectives. DAMLAR is a reactive routing protocol that minimizes the protocol overhead of other reactive routing protocols. DAMLAR also improves the packet delivery ratio and end-toend delay. The targeted application contexts include MANET with energy awareness, and communications in space networks, where efficient and reliable packet delivery is very challenging due to the high bit error rate, intermittent connectivity, limited bandwidth, and energy. By using different transmission power based on the calculated distance from the current sender node to the destination node or the next hop node, DA-MLAR-ODTP gets the best of the directional and omni-directional modes. Compared to DA-MLAR, on demand transmission power mode further improves the packet delivery ratio by up to 37% and dwindles end-to-end delay by up to 57% with approximately the same amount of energy consumption. The multiple objective optimization is based on using a Normalized Weighted Additive Utility Function (NWAUF) approach that shows comparison of different objective performances with and without on demand transmission power capability. Simulation experiments were conducted. They show that is the developed technique strengthens the reliability of communication systems for given targeted objectives.
Power-aware routing mechanism based on Newton''''s interpolation in MANET

ZHANG Lu,ZHANG Xi-huang,

计算机应用 , 2007,
Abstract: One main constraint in Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANETs) is limited by the power of the node. Therefore, much effort has been paid to reduce power consumption. A new power-aware routing mechanism is presented based on Newton's interpolation. According to the remaining energy and the traffic load at nodes, the life of the nodes was calculated out, and then from the bearable life of nodes, one minimum power drain routing can be choused. In this way, the mechanism not only takes account of the balance of the power at nodes, but also pays attention to the minimum power drain routing problem of the whole network. Simulations show that, compared to previous algorithms, it has better performance.
Comparative Study of Proactive, Reactive and Geographical MANET Routing Protocols  [PDF]
Muthana Najim Abdulleh, Salman Yussof, Hothefa Shaker Jassim
Communications and Network (CN) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/cn.2015.72012
Abstract: Mobile Adhoc Network (MANET) is defined as a combination of mobile nodes that lack a fixed infrastructure and is quickly deployable under any circumstances. These nodes have self-aware architecture and are able to move in multiple directions, which renders it dynamic topology. Its dynamicity makes routing in MANET rather challenging compared to fixed wired networks. This paper aims to perform a comparative study on the three categories of MANET routing protocol by comparing their characteristics and operations, as well as their strength and weaknesses.
Routing Mechanism for MANET in Disaster Area
A.K. Vatsa,Prince Chauhan,Meenakshi Chauhan,Jyoti Sharm
International Journal of Network and Mobile Technologies , 2011,
Abstract: Mobile ad-hoc Network (MANET) are implemented anywhere where there is little or no communication infrastructure, or when the existing infrastructure is inconvenient to be used. The Mobile Ad-hoc networks have neither fixed topology nor centralized servers. It is assumed that once deployed the network nodes would self configure to provide connectivity and form a communication network. The communications are vital for efficient management and execution of disaster response and recovery effects. The emergency response personnel must be able to exchange information with each other anywhere, any time in order to successfully fulfill their mission. Mobile Ad-hoc networks are recommended for sufficient QoS (Quality of Service) in disaster conditions. In this paper we proposed routing mechanism by using various parameters like efficient address allocation over mesh based and tree based multicast through the random casting method of node selection and finally set up a path by using request reply technique over it. The proposed routing mechanism will be helpful for disaster area and enhance quality of service of communication.
Research on routing security in MANET

LUO Jun-hai,FAN Ming-yu,YE Dan-xia,

计算机应用研究 , 2008,
Abstract: This paper studied the routing security issues of MANET and analyzed one type of attack the black hole problem that could easily be employed against the MANET in detail. Then, proposed a strategy for the black hole problem for routing security in MANET.
International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology , 2010,
Abstract: A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a collection of mobile nodes which are able to organize by themselves. Various properties like dynamic nature, random topology, limited battery make MANET’s protocols different from other routing protocols. In MANET’s QoS provision in terms of bandwidth, delay, throughput is a difficult task. In this paper, we study the problem of providing QoS along with maximizing the network life and increasing the throughput by balancing the energy consumption. This paper tries to find out a solution for theabove cited problems. Here, in this paper we are presenting a new algorithm “QoS Enabled Power Aware Routing Protocol (QEPAR)” to provide an optimal path with suitable bandwidth and battery capacity.
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