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'The divorce program': gendered experiences of HIV positive mothers enrolled in PMTCT programs - the case of rural Malawi
John Njunga, Astrid Blystad
International Breastfeeding Journal , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1746-4358-5-14
Abstract: A qualitative study using in-depth interviews (IDIs), focus group discussion (FGDs) and case studies was carried at two PMTCT sites. IDIs and FGDs were recorded and transcribed. The case studies involved a deeper inquiry into the past, present and situational factors of selected participants.In a context of customary matrilineal kinship, matrilocal residence patterns and complete male absence from the PMTCT program, the demand by the PMTCT program for partner disclosure played up fears of rejection among men given accusations of infidelity by the wives' relatives. This situation led many men to abandon their families. Mothers enrolled in PMTCT programs hence faced not only the fear of transmitting the virus to their infants, but also the loss of income and support associated with a departed husband and the social disgrace of a ruined family. Community members referred to the PMTCT program as 'the divorce program'PMTCT programs may vary in effectiveness in different contexts unless they fundamentally respond to socio-cultural factors as lived out in communities they intend to serve. The PMTCT program in rural southern Malawi is a case in point.One of the most tragic aspects of the HIV/AIDS infection is the possible transmission of the virus from an infected mother to her baby. Mother to Child Transmission (MTCT) occurs when HIV is passed on from an infected mother to her child during pregnancy, labour or through breastfeeding. In Sub-Saharan Africa alone 13.3 million HIV positive women of child bearing age live with HIV [1]. This figure represents 59 percent of the adult population living with HIV infection in the region. Such high HIV prevalence among women of child bearing age represents a huge latent risk for mother to child transmission of HIV [2]. Evidence suggests that most mother to child HIV transmission occurs late in the pregnancy, and that in the absence of any intervention, between 20 and 45 percent of the infants will become infected from their HIV posit
Family transitions: from divorce to remarriage in the Brazilian context / As transi es familiares do divórcio ao recasamento no contexto brasileiro  [cached]
Débora Staub Cano,Leticia Macedo Gabarra,Carmen Ocampo Moré,Maria Aparecida Crepaldi
Psicologia: Reflex?o e Crítica , 2009,
Abstract: This article aims at making theoretical and methodological considerations about divorce and remarriage, presenting used research methods and identifying new approaches for studies and intervention in the area. In doing so, the general view of divorce in Brazil is described, as well as studies found in the area, examining the factors that are related to the break-up process, family transition impacts, and post-divorce and remarriage periods. It is considered that there are still some gaps which need to be filled up with new findings. It is also suggested the accomplishment of new researches in different family life cycles involving the processes of divorce and remarriage as well as the brotherhood relationship of divorced parents, other family organizations, and the social networks of such families.
Divorce and Remarriage in Nigeria: A Spiral Hermeneutical Approach to Mk 10: 1-12
Folarin George
Lumina , 2011,
Abstract: This is a re-interpretation of Mark's version of Jesus' teaching on divorce and remarriage text in 10: 1-12 in the context of the experience of the Christian church in Nigeria. The application of spiral hermeneutical method to the passage involved first the grammatical exegesis of the passage, second the exegesis of the Nigerian cultural experience, third the identification of challenges and conflicts in the findings of the two exegeses, and fourth, the re-visitation of the biblical text for better interpretation. The work points out that while the passage discourages divorce, it does not totally rule it out. The conclusion is that while it is biblical that the church in Nigeria discourages divorce, there are times when there may be no better alternative.
Sources of Information on HIV and Sexual and Reproductive Health for Couples Living with HIV in Rural Southern Malawi  [PDF]
Belinda Chimphamba Gombachika,Ellen Chirwa,Address Malata,Alfred Maluwa
AIDS Research and Treatment , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/235902
Abstract: With wider access to antiretroviral therapy, people living with HIV are reconsidering their reproductive decisions: remarrying and having children. The purpose of the paper is to explore sources of information for reproductive decision used by couples living with HIV in patrilineal and matrilineal districts of Malawi. Data were collected from forty couples from July to December 2010. Our results illuminate five specific issues: some of the informants (1) remarry after divorce/death of a spouse, (2) establish new marriage relationship with spouses living with HIV, and (3) have children hence the need for information to base their decisions. There are (4) shared and interactive couple decisions, and (5) informal networks of people living with HIV are the main sources of information. In addition, in matrilineal community, cultural practices about remarriage set up structures that constrained information availability unlike in patrilineal community where information on sexual and reproductive health, HIV, and AIDS was disseminated during remarriage counselling. However, both sources are not able to provide comprehensive information due to complexity and lack of up to date information. Therefore, health workers should, offer people living with HIV comprehensive information that takes into consideration the cultural specificity of groups, and empower already existing and accepted local structures with sexual and reproductive health, HIV, and AIDS knowledge. 1. Introduction When confronted with potentially life-threatening illness such as cancer, HIV, and AIDS, information may provide needed knowledge about the disease, treatment, and self-care management. It may also facilitate coping by mediating uncertainty and anxiety by providing social support [1, 2]. This paper therefore explores sources of information on sexual and reproductive health, HIV, and AIDS that concordant couples living with HIV (CLWH) in Malawi use in making reproductive decisions. HIV and AIDS information is an important resource for people living with HIV (PLWH) [3, 4] and remains the most important tool in HIV and AIDS management [5]. In the early days of the epidemic, information about HIV and AIDS was critical resource to prevent transmission of HIV and manage the complications that accompany HIV and AIDS [6]. Huber and Cruz [7] allude that where HIV and AIDS are concerned, a large portion of the affected population has been and continued to be active in the pursuit of relevant information in order to be able to make informed decisions. However, HIV and AIDS information is complex,
Income, health, and well-being in rural Malawi  [cached]
Brian Chin
Demographic Research , 2010,
Abstract: This paper attempts to isolate the causal link of income on health status and subjective well-being for the rural population in Malawi using three waves of household panel data spanning the period 2004-2008 from the Malawi Diffusion and Ideational Change Project (MDICP) and the Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health (MLSFH). Malawi is a low-income country with high background morbidity and mortality, as well as an AIDS epidemic, high fertility, and poor reproductive health. Instrumental variables and fixed effects strategies are used to try to address endogeneity of the income to health relationship. The analyses show that a 10 increase in income improves mean general health status of rural Malawians by 1.0 and mean subjective well-being by 1.2 .
HIV/AIDS and time allocation in rural Malawi  [cached]
Simona Bignami-Van Assche,Ari Van Assche,Philip Anglewicz,Peter Fleming
Demographic Research , 2011,
Abstract: AIDS morbidity and mortality are expected to have a large impact on households' labor supply in rural Malawi since they reduce the time that adults can spend on production for subsistence and on income generating activities. However, the data demands for estimating this impact are high, limiting the amount of empirical evidence. In this paper, we utilize a unique combination of quantitative and qualitative data, including biomarkers for HIV, collected by the Malawi Diffusion and Ideational Change Project, to analyze the impact of AIDS-related morbidity and mortality on time allocation decisions for rural Malawians. We evaluate both the direct effect of HIV/AIDS on the time allocation of affected individuals as well as its indirect effect on the time allocation of surviving household members. We find that the latter is the most important effect of AIDS-related morbidity and mortality, especially on women's time. Specifically, AIDS induces diversification of income sources, with women reallocating their time from work-intensive (typically farming and heavy chores) to cash-generating tasks (such as casual labor).
A note on race, ethnicity and nativity differentials in remarriage in the United States  [cached]
Catherine McNamee,Kelly Raley
Demographic Research , 2011,
Abstract: The objectives of this study are to produce up-to-date estimates of race/ethnic/nativity differentials for remarriage and repartnership among women in the United States and to see if these differences are due to across-group differences in demographic characteristics. First, we produce lifetable estimates of remarriage and repartnering for white, black, U.S. born Latina and foreign born Latina women. Next, we estimate race/ethnic/nativity differentials for remarriage and repartnership using event-history analysis with and without controls for demographic characteristics. The results suggest a continued overall decline in remarriage rates, while many women repartner by cohabitating. Whites are more likely than blacks or Latinas to remarry and they are also more likely to repartner. Race/ethnic/nativity differentials remain even after accounting for variations in demographic characteristics. This suggests that race/ethnic/nativity differentials in remarriage and repartnering rates, rather than ameliorating disadvantages associated with divorce, reinforce these differentials.
Women’s groups’ perceptions of neonatal and infant health problems in rural Malawi
M Rosato, S Lewycka, C Mwansambo, P Kazembe, A Costello
Malawi Medical Journal , 2009,
Abstract: Aims To present the perceptions of women in rural Malawi regarding the health problems affecting neonates and infants and to explore the relevance of these perceptions for child health policy and strategy in Malawi. Methods Women’s groups in Mchinji district identified newborn and infant health problems (204 groups, 3484 women), prioritised problems they considered most important (204 groups, 3338 women) and recorded these problems on monitoring forms. Qualitative data was obtained through 6 focus-group discussions with the women’s groups and 22 interviews with individuals living in women’s group communities but not attending groups. Results Women in Malawi do not define the neonatal period according to any epidemiological definition. In order of importance they identified and prioritised the following problems for newborns and infants: diarrhoea, infection, preterm birth, tetanus, malaria, asphyxia, respiratory tract infection, hypothermia, jaundice, convulsions and malnutrition. Conclusion This study suggests that women in rural Malawi collectively have a developed understanding of neonatal and infant health problems. This makes a strong argument for the involvement of lay people in policy and strategy development and also suggests that this capacity, harnessed and strengthened through community mobilisation approaches, has the potential to improve neonatal and infant health and reduce mortality.
Climatic Shock Characterization and Their Effects on Livestock Production in Rural Malawi
A.S. Oyekale
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/javaa.2012.3405.3410
Abstract: Livestock husbandry is seriously affected by drought and other climatic extremes in Malawi. Farmers also use livestock as insurance against idiosyncratic and covariate shocks. This study analyzed the impact of drought on indigenous livestock production in rural Malawi and identified the extent to which livestock are used for shock impact mitigation. Data were collected from 300 randomly selected farmers and analysis was done with descriptive statistics and Tobit regression. Results show that farmers that were affected by climate change related shocks have significantly lower land, farm revenue and credit (p<0.10). About 38.67% of the farmers were affected by drought in the past 5 years. Number of goat and pigs owned by farmers that were affected by climate shocks were significantly lower (p<0.05) than those not affected. Goat and pig production significantly decreased with drought (p<0.01) while land owned significantly increased chicken and pig production (p<0.01). Selling of livestock was used by households to cope with drought, pests and diseases and sickness. However, reduction in meals constitutes the widely adopted means of coping against shocks. The study, among others, recommended marginal reforms that are targeted at inhabitants of drought prone rural areas in Malawi because of their present extreme vulnerability.
Beyond denomination: The relationship between religion and family planning in rural Malawi  [cached]
Sara Yeatman,Jenny Trinitapoli
Demographic Research , 2008,
Abstract: Despite the centrality of religion and fertility to life in rural Africa, the relationship between the two remains poorly understood. The study presented here uses unique integrated individual- and congregational-level data from rural Malawi to examine religious influences on contraceptive use. In this religiously diverse population, we find evidence that the particular characteristics of a congregation-leader's positive attitudes toward family planning and discussion of sexual morality, which do not fall along broad denominational lines-are more relevant than denominational categories for predicting women's contraceptive use. We further find evidence for a relationship between religious socialization and contraceptive behavior.
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