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Isolation and Identification of the Phenolic Compounds from the Roots of Sanguisorba officinalis L. and Their Antioxidant Activities  [PDF]
Shuang Zhang,Xin Liu,Zi-Long Zhang,Lu He,Zhe Wang,Guang-Shu Wang
Molecules , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/molecules171213917
Abstract: Four phenolic compounds were isolated from the roots of Sanguisorba officinalis L. by silica gel column chromatography and preparative HPLC. On the basis of chemical and spectroscopic methods, their structures were identified as methyl 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosy-5-hydroxy-3-methoxylbenzoate (1), 3,3′,4′-tri-O-methylellagic acid (2), fisetinidol-(4α-8)-catechin (3), and (+)-catechin (4). Compound 1 is a new phenolic glycoside and compounds 2 and 3 were isolated from the Sanguisorba genus for the first time. Compounds 1–4 were also assayed for their antioxidant activities using the DPPH free radical assay.
Antioxidant compounds in Salvia officinalis L. shoot and hairy root cultures in the nutrient sprinkle bioreactor
Izabela Grzegorczyk,Halina Wysokińska
Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae , 2010, DOI: 10.5586/asbp.2010.001
Abstract: The study focused on the production of compounds with antioxidant activity in hairy root and shoot cultures of Salvia officinalis grown in laboratory-scale sprinkle nutrient bioreactors. HPLC analysis showed that production of rosmarinic acid in transformed roots (34.65 ±1.07 mg l-1) was higher that in shoot culture (26.24 ±0.48 mg l-1). In the latter diterpenoids: carnosic acid (1.74 ±0.02 mg l-1) and carnosol (1.34 ±0.01 mg l-1) were also found. Biomass accumulation after a growth period in the bioreactor was also studied. An 18-fold increase in hairy root biomass was recorded after 40 days of culture. In sage shoot culture, biomass increased 43 times after 21 days of bioreactor run. The current operating conditions of the bioreactor were not suitable for the propagation of Salvia officinalis mainly due to the hyperhydricity problem of leaves and stems.
Terpene Glycosides from the Roots of Sanguisorba officinalis L. and Their Hemostatic Activities  [PDF]
Wei Sun,Zi-Long Zhang,Xin Liu,Shuang Zhang,Lu He,Zhe Wang,Guang-Shu Wang
Molecules , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/molecules17077629
Abstract: Guided by a hemostasis bioassay, seven terpene glycosides were isolated from the roots of Sanguisorba officinalis L. by silica gel column chromatography and preparative HPLC. On the grounds of chemical and spectroscopic methods, their structures were identified as citronellol-1-O-α-l-arabinofuranosyl-(1→6)-β-d-glucopyranoside (1), geraniol-1-O-α-l-arabinofuranosyl-(1→6)-β-d-glucopyranoside (2), geraniol-1-O-α-l-arabinopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-d-glucopyranoside (3), 3β-[(α-l-arabinopyranosyl)oxy]-19α-hydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid 28-β-d-glucopyranoside (4), 3β-[(α-l-arabinopyranosyl)-oxy]-19α-hydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid 28-β-d-glucopyranoside (ziyu-glycoside I, 5), 3β,19α-hydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid 28-β-d-glucopyranoside (6) and 3β,19α-di-hydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid 28-β-d-glucopyranoside (7). Compound 1 is a new mono-terpene glycoside and compounds 2, 3 and 5 were isolated from the Sanguisorba genus for the first time. Compounds 1–7 were assayed for their hemostatic activities with a Goat Anti-Human α2-plasmin inhibitor ELISA kit, and ziyu-glycoside I (5) showed the strongest hemostatic activity among the seven terpene glycosides. This is the first report that ziyu-glycoside Ι has strong hemostatic activity.
Triterpenes and flavonoids from the roots of Mauritia flexuosa
Koolen, Hector H. F.;Soares, Elzalina R.;Silva, Felipe M. A. da;Souza, Antonia Q. L. de;Rodrigues Filho, Edson;Souza, Afonso D. L. de;
Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-695X2011005000201
Abstract: mauritia flexuosa l. f., arecaceae, is an endemic species of south america. this species was studied with the intent to isolate the constituents of its roots. after the fractionation of the n-hexane and methanolic extracts from the roots of m. flexuosa, six triterpenes were obtained: friedelin, taraxerone, lupenyl acetate, lupenone, betulin and betulinic acid, along with three flavonoids: rutin, quercitrin and quercetin. all the compounds were identified by analysis of nmr and ms data and comparison with the literature. all those compounds are been reported for the first time in mauritia, and the chemosystematic significance of the flavonoids isolated in this genus is discussed.
Triterpenes and flavonoids from the roots of Mauritia flexuosa  [cached]
Hector H. F. Koolen,Elzalina R. Soares,Felipe M. A. da Silva,Antonia Q. L. de Souza
Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia , 2012,
Abstract: Mauritia flexuosa L. f., Arecaceae, is an endemic species of South America. This species was studied with the intent to isolate the constituents of its roots. After the fractionation of the n-hexane and methanolic extracts from the roots of M. flexuosa, six triterpenes were obtained: friedelin, taraxerone, lupenyl acetate, lupenone, betulin and betulinic acid, along with three flavonoids: rutin, quercitrin and quercetin. All the compounds were identified by analysis of NMR and MS data and comparison with the literature. All those compounds are been reported for the first time in Mauritia, and the chemosystematic significance of the flavonoids isolated in this genus is discussed.
Identification of Autotoxic Compounds in Fibrous Roots of Rehmannia (Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch.)  [PDF]
Zhen-Fang Li, Yan-Qiu Yang, Dong-Feng Xie, Lan-Fang Zhu, Zi-Guan Zhang, Wen-Xiong Lin
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0028806
Abstract: Rehmannia is a medicinal plant in China. Autotoxicity has been reported to be one of the major problems hindering the consecutive monoculture of Rehmannia. However, potential autotoxins produced by the fibrous roots are less known. In this study, the autotoxicity of these fibrous roots was investigated. Four groups of autotoxic compounds from the aqueous extracts of the fibrous roots were isolated and characterized. The ethyl acetate extracts of these water-soluble compounds were further analyzed and separated into five fractions. Among them, the most autotoxic fraction (Fr 3) was subjected to GC/MS analysis, resulting in 32 identified compounds. Based on literature, nine compounds were selected for testing their autotoxic effects on radicle growth. Seven out of the nine compounds were phenolic, which significantly reduced radicle growth in a concentration-dependent manner. The other two were aliphatic compounds that showed a moderate inhibition effect at three concentrations. Concentration of these compounds in soil samples was determined by HPLC. Furthermore, the autotoxic compounds were also found in the top soil of the commercially cultivated Rehmannia fields. It appears that a close link exists between the autotoxic effects on the seedlings and the compounds extracted from fibrous roots of Rehmannia.
Organic and mineral fertilization and chemical composition of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) essential oil
Sodré, Ana Carolina B.;Luz, José Magno Q.;Haber, Lenita L.;Marques, Marcia O. M.;Rodrigues, Carlos R.;Blank, Arie F.;
Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-695X2011005000186
Abstract: melissa officinalis l., lamiaceae, is an herb with great growth prospects in the cosmetic industry due to its essential oil. in order to improve its production, it is necessary to study related agricultural practices. this study evaluated the effect of organic and mineral fertilization on the chemical composition of lemon balm (melissa officinalis l.) essential oil. the assay was conducted at the "fazenda experimental do glória" of the federal university of uberlandia, and essential oil extraction and gc/ms analyses were completed by the centre for research and development on plant genetic resources of the campinas agronomic institute. the assay was conducted in a randomized complete block design with three replications. the tested treatments were six types of fertilization (0, 1, 2, 4, 8 kg.m-2 of cattle manure and mineral fertilizing with 60 g.m-2 of npk 4-14-8 + 4 g.m-2 of boric acid) with four replications. the essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation in a modified clevenger apparatus. the chemical composition was analyzed by gc/ms. the essential oil presented the same compounds for all treatments; however, the relative proportion of some chemical constituents was altered according to the treatment. neral, geranial, and citronellal were the major constituents.
Organic and mineral fertilization and chemical composition of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) essential oil  [cached]
Ana Carolina B. Sodré,José Magno Q. Luz,Lenita L. Haber,Marcia O. M. Marques
Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia , 2012,
Abstract: Melissa officinalis L., Lamiaceae, is an herb with great growth prospects in the cosmetic industry due to its essential oil. In order to improve its production, it is necessary to study related agricultural practices. This study evaluated the effect of organic and mineral fertilization on the chemical composition of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) essential oil. The assay was conducted at the "Fazenda Experimental do Glória" of the Federal University of Uberlandia, and essential oil extraction and GC/MS analyses were completed by the Centre for Research and Development on Plant Genetic Resources of the Campinas Agronomic Institute. The assay was conducted in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The tested treatments were six types of fertilization (0, 1, 2, 4, 8 kg.m-2 of cattle manure and mineral fertilizing with 60 g.m-2 of NPK 4-14-8 + 4 g.m-2 of boric acid) with four replications. The essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation in a modified Clevenger apparatus. The chemical composition was analyzed by GC/MS. The essential oil presented the same compounds for all treatments; however, the relative proportion of some chemical constituents was altered according to the treatment. Neral, geranial, and citronellal were the major constituents.
Liquid shoot culture of Salvia officinalis L. for micropropagation and production of antioxidant compounds; effect of triacontanol
Izabela Grzegorczyk,Halina Wysokińska
Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae , 2008, DOI: 10.5586/asbp.2008.013
Abstract: Liquid shoot culture of Salvia officinalis L. in MS medium containing IAA (0.1 mg l-1) and BAP (0.45 mg l-1) was developed and evaluated in relation to shoot multiplication and antioxidant compound (carnosic acid, carnosol and rosmarinic acid) accumulation. In the liquid medium, on average, 3 new shoots per explant (shoot tip) were obtained within 3 weeks. The shoots produced 8.2±0.02 mg of diterpenoids and 31.2±0.29 mg of rosmarinic acid per gram of dry weight. Shoot proliferation and diterpenoid content increased when triacontanol (5, 10 or 20 pg l-1) was added to the liquid medium. In optimum conditions (at 20 pg l-1 TRIA) almost 7 shoots were formed per explant after 3 weeks. An increase in diterpenoid production (expressed as the sum of carnosol and carnosic acid) ranged from 30% to 50% and dependended on triacontanol concentration tested. The level of diterpenoids in triacontanol-treated shoots was similar to the content of compounds in commercial herbal product (dried leaves of S. officinalis) (10-12 mg g-1 dry wt). Triacontanol did not increase rosmarinic acid production, but the content of the phenolic as compound in shoots grown in liquid culture (31 mg g-1 dry wt) was even 24 times higher compared to samples of dried leaves of S. officinalis plants. We also demonstrated that the highest amounts of CA, Car and RA were accumulated in young, top parts of sage shoots. This observation could be useful for improving the selection of material for the extraction of natural antioxidants from S. officinalis.
Tissue culture techniques in the proliferation of shoots and roots of Calendula officinalis
Victório, Cristiane Pimentel;Lage, Celso Luiz Salgueiro;Sato, Alice;
Revista Ciência Agron?mica , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S1806-66902012000300017
Abstract: the high demand for plant material from calendula officinalis in the production of herbal medicines and cosmetics, turns the technique of plant-tissue culture into one of the alternatives for the improvement of crops over a short period of time. a protocol for tissue culture was developed from segments of seedlings of c. officinalis, in order to improve the proliferation of shoots and roots. we used a murashige and skoog (ms?n) medium, reduced to half the concentrations of nh4no3 and kno3 to verify the effect of different types of explants (basal, intermediate, and apical), a medium containing beach sand as support instead of agar, and the effect of auxins and cytokinins (tdz tidiazuron; bap, 6-benzylaminopurine, iaa, indol-3-acetic acid, iba, indol-3-butyric acid, naa, naphthalene-acetic acid) on plant development in vitro. the results showed pronounced rooting from the apical explants, as well as a greater elongation of shoots and number of leaves. the solid medium was more suitable for the c. officinalis cultures. shoot proliferation was dependent on cytokinins with better results from the influence of tdz or bap compared to the other treatments. plants regenerated from the medium containing tdz displayed a glazed appearance and morphogenetic deformations. the highest rate for rooting (80%) was obtained using iaa 0.1mgl-1. through in-vitro propagation, healthy c. officinalis plants were obtained with roots which can acclimatise, allowing the continuous supplement of raw material.
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