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Microalgae of Odisha Coast as a Potential Source for Biodiesel Production
World Environment , 2012, DOI: 10.5923/j.env.20120201.03
Abstract: In recent years microalgae have been proved as the potential source for biodiesel production due to high oil content. In the present study three brackish water microalgal strains (Chlorococcum sp., Chlorella sp. and Scenedesmus sp.) of Odisha coast were screened for the suitability for biodiesel production. Among all, Scenedesmus sp. seems to be the best one for high lipid productivity (24.66mg/L/day) with high biomass yield of 0.9g/L at stationary phase. Also the Scenedesmus sp. possesses the most adequate fatty acid profile. The present study suggested that Scenedesmus sp. is appropriate for biodiesel production for its high lipid content; this strain was selected for higher scale studies.
Current Status and Prospects of Biodiesel Production from Microalgae  [PDF]
Xiaodan Wu,Rongsheng Ruan,Zhenyi Du,Yuhuan Liu
Energies , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/en5082667
Abstract: Microalgae represent a sustainable energy source because of their high biomass productivity and ability to remove air and water born pollutants. This paper reviews the current status of production and conversion of microalgae, including the advantages of microalgae biodiesel, high density cultivation of microalgae, high-lipid content microalgae selection and metabolic control, and innovative harvesting and processing technologies. The key barriers to commercial production of microalgae biodiesel and future perspective of the technologies are also discussed.
Microalgae Lipid and Biodiesel Production: A Brazilian Challenge  [PDF]
Carolina T. Miranda, Roberta F. Pinto, Daniel V. N. de Lima, Carolina V. Viegas, Simone M. da Costa, Sandra M. F. O. Azevedo
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2015.615254
Abstract: Global increases in atmospheric CO2 and climate change are drawing considerable attention to identify sources of energy with lower environmental impact than those currently in use. Biodiesel production from microalgae lipids can, in the future, occupy a prominent place in energy generation because it represents a sustainable alternative to petroleum-based fuels. Several species of microalgae produce large amounts of lipids per biomass unit. Triacylglycerol is the fatty acid used for biodiesel production and the main source of energy reserves in microalgae. The current literature indicates that nutrient limitations can lead to triacylglycerol accumulation in different species of microalgae. Further efforts in microalgae screening for biodiesel production are needed to discover a native microalgae that will be feasible for biodiesel production in terms of biomass productivity and oil. This revision focuses in the biotechnological potential and viability of biodiesel production from microalgae. Brazil is located in a tropical region with high light rates and adequate average temperatures for the growth of microalgae. The wide availability of bodies of water and land will allow the country to produce renewable energy from microalgae.
Microalgae Isolation and Selection for Prospective Biodiesel?Production  [PDF]
Van Thang Duong,Yan Li,Ekaterina Nowak,Peer M. Schenk
Energies , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/en5061835
Abstract: Biodiesel production from microalgae is being widely developed at different scales as a potential source of renewable energy with both economic and environmental benefits. Although many microalgae species have been identified and isolated for lipid production, there is currently no consensus as to which species provide the highest productivity. Different species are expected to function best at different aquatic, geographical and climatic conditions. In addition, other value-added products are now being considered for commercial production which necessitates the selection of the most capable algae strains suitable for multiple-product algae biorefineries. Here we present and review practical issues of several simple and robust methods for microalgae isolation and selection for traits that maybe most relevant for commercial biodiesel production. A combination of conventional and modern techniques is likely to be the most efficient route from isolation to large-scale cultivation.
Production of Biodiesel from Lipid of Porphyridium cruentum through Ultrasonic Method  [PDF]
Raymond Kwangdinata,Indah Raya,Muhammad Zakir
ISRN Renewable Energy , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/107278
Abstract: A research on production of biodiesel from lipid of phytoplankton Porphyridium cruentum through ultrasonic method has been done. In this research, we carried out a series of phytoplankton cultures to determine the optimum time of growth and biodiesel synthesis process from phytoplankton lipids. Process of biodiesel synthesis consists of two steps, that is, isolation of phytoplankton lipids and biodiesel synthesis from those lipids. Oil isolation process was carried out by ultrasonic extraction method using ethanol 96%, while biodiesel synthesis was carried out by transesterification reaction using methanol and KOH catalyst under sonication. Weight of biodiesel yield per biomass Porphyridium cruentum is 40,27%. Characterization of biodiesel was well carried out in terms of physical properties which are density and viscosity and chemical properties which are FFA content, saponification value, and iodine value. These values meet the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM D6751) standard levels, except for the density value which was 0.9461 g·cm?3 and the FFA content which was 4.6671%. 1. Introduction That energy crisis is attacking the world today is a problem that must be resolved and addressed. The continuous exploitation of the fossil fuels which are nonrenewable energy resulted in dwindling existence. This will have an impact on the scarcity of fossil fuels, thereby increasing the price of fuel oil (BBM) world. This situation has made most of the countries in the world (one of them is Indonesia) seek sources of alternative fuel that can be developed from other basic materials that are renewable and environmentally friendly [1]. Therefore, to meet the level of oil consumption and encourage the development and utilization of renewable alternative energy, biofuels 1 (biofuels) such as biodiesel can be used [2]. Earth is mostly composed of water environment which is rich of potential renewable resources, especially in Indonesian waters. Indonesia has the chance of being the biofuels producing country as we know that Indonesia has the immense of the natural capital, especially the environmental water. Indonesia is an archipelago with two-thirds of the area being the sea and the longest coastline in the world, which is 80,791.42?km, and is rich in aquatic biological resources, which are very abundant in both kind and quantity. One of Indonesia’s natural potential is microalgae or phytoplankton, which can be used as an alternative source of biodiesel, because it contains lipid, in addition to protein, carbohydrates, and vitamins. The lipid content
Screening of Microalgae for Biodiesel Feedstock  [PDF]
Xi Chen, Guoqiang He, Zhiping Deng, Nan Wang, Wei Jiang, Sanfeng Chen
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2014.47044
Abstract:

Three heterotrophic microalgae identified as Scenedesmus sp. Y5, Scenedesmus sp. Y7 and Chorellasp. Y9 were isolated and screened from natural water based on biomass yield and lipid productivity. Fatty acids’ composition analysis showed that both Y5 and Y7 mainly contained C16:0, C18:1 (n - 9), C18:2 (n - 6) and C18:3 (n - 3) and Y9 mainly contained C16:0, C18:0 and C18:2 (n - 6), suggesting that these microalgae can be ideal feedstock for biodiesel. Considering the specific growth rate and lipid productivity, the culture conditions were optimized for Scenedesmus sp. Y5, Scenedesmus sp. Y7 and Chorellasp. Y9. Based on the optimization of cultural conditions, all of these three microalgae were tested in fed-batch fermentation, and their biomass productivities were 4.960 g·L-1·d-1, 5.907 g·L-1·d-1 and 4.038 g·L-1

TUBULAR PHOTOBIOREACTOR FOR MICROALGAE BIODIESEL PRODUCTION  [PDF]
Nkongolo Mulumba,Ihab H. Farag
International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology , 2012,
Abstract: Biodiesel production from algae is a promising technique. Microalgae have the potential to produce 5,000-15,000 gallons of biodiesel/(acre-year). However, there are challenges; these include high yieldof algae biomass with high lipid content and the effective technique to harvest the grown algae, extract the algal oil and transesterify the oil to biodiesel. In this project Tubular PhotoBioReactor (TPBR) was designed and achieved a ten times increase in algae concentration. It produced 1g of dry algal biomass per liter of medium within 12 days, with a lipid content of 12% approximately. Healthy algal culture grew well in the TPBR reaching 56x106 cells/mL of culture medium. The 10 fold increase is higher than those reported for open ponds and helical photobioreactor.
Exploitation of Oil-bearing Microalgae for Biodiesel
生物柴油原料资源高油脂微藻的开发利用

Donghui Song,Lijun Hou,Dingji Shi,
宋东辉
,侯李君,施定基

生物工程学报 , 2008,
Abstract: As a renewable energy sources to replace conventional fossil fuels, biodiesel fuels have been becoming increasingly requirements to global fuels market. Biodiesel derived from oil crops cannot realistically satisfy even more fraction of the raw material existing costs and soil competitive demand for its growth. Microalgae appear to be the advantage of costs that is capable of higher photosynthetic efficiency, larger biomass, faster growth compared to those of oil crops. Lipid content of many microalgae is usually 80% of its dry weight. Genetic microalgae with high-oil productivity by genetic manipulations are capable of making microalgal biodiesel economically competitive with petrodiesel through large-scale production of genetic microalgal biomass. As demonstrated here, the use of biodiesel fuels in home and abroad are currently introduced, and the cost advantage of microalgae as the raw material is analyzed; And moreover, the progress of microalgal genetic engineering in regulation of lipid metabolism and the problems in the construct of genetic microalgae strains as well as approaches for making microalgal biodiesel appear to be an important source of renewable fuel that has the potential to completely displace fossil diesel are discussed in this review.
High Lipid Induction in Microalgae for Biodiesel Production  [PDF]
Kalpesh K. Sharma,Holger Schuhmann,Peer M. Schenk
Energies , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/en5051532
Abstract: Oil-accumulating microalgae have the potential to enable large-scale biodiesel production without competing for arable land or biodiverse natural landscapes. High lipid productivity of dominant, fast-growing algae is a major prerequisite for commercial production of microalgal oil-derived biodiesel. However, under optimal growth conditions, large amounts of algal biomass are produced, but with relatively low lipid contents, while species with high lipid contents are typically slow growing. Major advances in this area can be made through the induction of lipid biosynthesis, e.g., by environmental stresses. Lipids, in the form of triacylglycerides typically provide a storage function in the cell that enables microalgae to endure adverse environmental conditions. Essentially algal biomass and triacylglycerides compete for photosynthetic assimilate and a reprogramming of physiological pathways is required to stimulate lipid biosynthesis. There has been a wide range of studies carried out to identify and develop efficient lipid induction techniques in microalgae such as nutrients stress (e.g., nitrogen and/or phosphorus starvation), osmotic stress, radiation, pH, temperature, heavy metals and other chemicals. In addition, several genetic strategies for increased triacylglycerides production and inducibility are currently being developed. In this review, we discuss the potential of lipid induction techniques in microalgae and also their application at commercial scale for the production of biodiesel.
Prospective of biodiesel production utilizing microalgae as the cell factories: A comprehensive discussion
NM Verma, S Mehrotra, A Shukla, BN Mishra
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2010,
Abstract: Microalgae are sunlight-driven miniature factories that convert atmospheric CO2 to polar and neutral lipids which after esterification can be utilized as an alternative source of petroleum. Further, other metabolic products such as bioethanol and biohydrogen produced by algal cells are also being considered for the same purpose. Microaglae are more efficient than the conventional oleaginous plants in capturing solar energy as they have simpler cellular organization and high capacity to produce lipids even under nutritionally challenged and high salt concentrations. Commercially, microalgae are cultivated either in open pond systems or in closed photobioreactors. The photobioreactor systems including tubular bioreactors, plate reactors and bubble column reactors have their own advantages as they provide sterile conditions for growing algal biomass. Besides, other culture conditions such as light intensity, CO2 concentration, nutritional balance, etc, in closed reactors remain controlled. On the other hand, though the open ponds provide a cost-effective option to utilize natural light facility for algal cells, the tough maintenance of optimal and stable growth conditions makes it difficult to manage the economy of the process. Further, these systems are much more susceptible to contamination with unwanted microalgae and fungi, bacteria and protozoa that feed on algae. Recently, some work has been done to improve lipid production from algal biomass by implementing in silico and in vitro biochemical, genetic and metabolic engineering approaches. This article represents a comprehensive discussion about the potential of microalgae for the production of valuable lipid compounds that can be further used for biodiesel production.
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