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Joy without demands: Hospital clowns in the world of ailing children  [cached]
Lotta Linge
International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health & Well-Being , 2011, DOI: 10.3402/qhw.v6i1.5899
Abstract: The aim of the present study was to achieve, using an affect theory approach (Tomkins, 1962; 1963; 1991), a deeper theoretical understanding of the psychological significance of hospital clowns’ work in caring for ailing children viewed from a care-giver perspective. The methodological approach was qualitative and based on 20 interviews with healthcare staff: 3 men and 17 women. The result showed how the staff emphasized a psychological quality of care alongside the physical quality of care. The hospital clowns’ “unexpected possibility” provided a safe area for recovery, for both the children and the staff. The theoretical interpretation showed the presence of the affects surprise/startle, interest/excitement, and enjoyment/joy as well as specifically how “joy without demands” often had a lingering effect in the form of vitality. Joy without demands is discussed in relation to psychological theory with emphasis on: a confirmation of the body's possibilities, a magical attachment, a chance to transcend boundaries, and a non-demanding situation.
Joyful and serious intentions in the work of hospital clowns: A meta-analysis based on a 7-year research project conducted in three parts
Lotta Linge
International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health & Well-Being , 2013, DOI: 10.3402/qhw.v8i0.18907
Abstract: The present meta-analysis focuses on a 7-year research project entitled “Hospital clowns—in encounters with ailing children” and funded by the Swedish Childhood Cancer Foundation. The aim of the meta-analysis, which is based on the project's three studies, was to attempt to achieve a deeper psychological and more nuanced understanding of the unique encounters taking place between the hospital clowns and ailing children in the study. The methodological procedures were qualitative and included 51 interviews with four informant groups: the clowns, staff, children, and their parents. The meta-analysis revealed the unique aspects of hospital clowns’ work with respect to: a) a quality of care that transcends boundaries, that is, a magical safe area where demands and adjustment were temporarily set aside and where the lighter side of life took precedence; b) a non-demanding quality of care, where joy could be experienced without requiring something in return, where the child's terms mattered and where the child perspective was clearly in focus; and c) a defusing quality of care, which is expressed as a positive counterweight that was otherwise lacking in medical care, where the hospital clowns used different solutions that bypassed regular hospital routines by temporarily distracting and making things easier for the children, parents, and staff in various care situations. Finally, the aim of the theoretical framework, in its synthesizing form, was to promote further psychological understanding of the area of humor that exists between fantasy and reality—an intermediate or transitional area that the hospital clowns created together with the children. In this transitional area, the hospital clowns’ unique contribution can be interpreted, in psychological terms, as being available as a vicarious therapeutic clown figure in a magical world that parallels reality.
When to Cast a Love Spell: Unsecure Attachment and Relational Distress as an Interactive Determinants of a Tendency to Magical Thinking
Aleksandra Niemyjska , Paulina Gieszczyk , Angelika Markowska , Ma gorzata Paj czkowska , Aleksandra Niemyjska
Studia Psychologiczne , 2011, DOI: 10.2478/v10167-011-0003-x
Abstract: Threat of important resources of any individual may be accompanied by thinking based on the laws of magic (Keinan, 1994; Rozin, Millman and Nemeroff, 1986). The aim of three studies was to examine how different sorts of distress occurring in a romantic context such as insecure attachment style and situationally manipulated bonds deprivation versus connection are associated with a tendency to magical thinking (MT) about the loved one. As expected, attachment anxiety was a positive predictor of MT especially among people who were not in a romantic relationship or those experiencing deprivation of romantic bonds. Individuals with high attachment anxiety were characterized by greater levels of magical thinking at the beginning of the relationship than in the later stages. Avoidant attachment allowed the negative prediction of magical thinking but only among those who presently were in romantic relationships or those experiencing increased situational closeness to the partner. The regulatory function of MT is being discussed.
Clowns Benefit Children Hospitalized for Respiratory Pathologies
Mario Bertini,Elena Isola,Giuseppe Paolone,Giuseppe Curcio
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1093/ecam/neq064
Abstract: The study aims at evaluating health-generating function of humor therapy in a hospital ward hosting children suffering from respiratory pathologies. The main scope of this study is to investigate possible positive effects of the presence of a clown on both the clinical evolution of the on-going disease, and on some physiological and pain parameters. Forty-three children with respiratory pathologies participated in the study: 21 of them belonged to the experimental group (EG) and 22 children to the control group (CG). During their hospitalization, the children of the EG interacted with two clowns who were experienced in the field of pediatric intervention. All participants were evaluated with respect to clinical progress and to a series of physiological and pain measures both before and after the clown interaction. When compared with the CG, EG children showed an earlier disappearance of the pathological symptoms. Moreover, the interaction of the clown with the children led to a statistically significant lowering of diastolic blood pressure, respiratory frequency and temperature in the EG as compared with the control group. The other two parameters of systolic pressure and heart frequency yielded results in the same direction, without reaching statistical significance. A similar health-inducing effect of clown presence was observed on pain parameters, both by self evaluation and assessment by nurses. Taken together, our data indicate that the presence of clowns in the ward has a possible health-inducing effect. Thus, humor can be seen as an easy-to-use, inexpensive and natural therapeutic modality to be used within different therapeutic settings.
Kindergarten children's attachment security, inhibitory control, and the internalization of rules of conduct  [PDF]
Tobias Heikamp,Gisela Trommsdorff,Michel D. Druey,Ronald Hübner,Antje von Suchodoletz
Frontiers in Psychology , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00133
Abstract: Starting from research on relations between attachment and the development of self-regulation, the present study aimed to investigate research questions on relations among inhibitory control, internalization of rules of conduct (i.e., behavior regulation, concern occasioned by others transgressions, confession, reparation after wrongdoing), and attachment security. Attachment security and internalization of rules of conduct of German kindergarten children (N = 82) were assessed by maternal reports. Children's inhibitory control was measured with the Stop-task. Regression analyses revealed that inhibitory control was positively related to attachment security and to internalization of rules of conduct. Mediational analysis using a bootstrapping approach indicated an indirect effect of attachment security on internalization processes via inhibitory control. Implications for further research on the development of inhibitory control and internalization of rules of conduct are discussed.
Rela es entre a saúde mental da gestante e o apego materno-fetal Relations between pregnant women's mental health and maternal-fetal attachment  [cached]
Patrícia Alvarenga,Maria Virgínia Machado Dazzani,Cristiane Ajnamei dos Santos Alfaya,Eulina da Rocha Lordelo
Estudos de Psicologia (Natal) , 2012,
Abstract: O estudo investigou as rela es entre variáveis sociodemográficas, saúde mental da gestante e o apego materno-fetal no terceiro trimestre de gesta o. Participaram do estudo 261 gestantes selecionadas através de amostragem por acessibilidade em quatro maternidades públicas. As gestantes responderam individualmente uma ficha de dados sociodemográficos, a Escala de Apego Materno-Fetal e o SRQ-20. A análise de regress o revelou que o número de filhos (4%) e a saúde mental materna (4,2%) explicaram parte da variancia no apego materno-fetal. A escolaridade da m e e do pai n o esteve associada a essa variável. O modelo de regress o múltipla considerando os quatro fatores analisados, explicou 8,2% da variancia nos escores de apego materno-fetal. Discutem-se as implica es dessas variáveis na forma o do vínculo da m e com o bebê durante a gesta o. This study investigated the relations among sociodemographic variables, pregnant women mental health, and maternal-fetal attachment in the third trimester of pregnancy. Participants were 261 pregnant women recruited from public maternity wards using a convenience sampling technique. Each pregnant woman completed a sociodemographic data form, the Maternal-Fetal Attachment Scale, and the SRQ-20. Regression analysis revealed that the number of children (4%) and mothers' mental health (4.2%) accounted for part of the variance in maternal-fetal attachment scores. Father's and mother's schooling was not associated with this variable. Taking the four analyzed factors into account, a multiple regression model accounted for 8.2% of the variance in the maternal-fetal attachment scores. The implications of these variables for mother-infant bonding during pregnancy are discussed.
The disruptive behavior disorders and the coexisting deficits in the context of theories describing family relations  [PDF]
Nowak, Marta,Gaw?da, Agnieszka,Jelonek, Ireneusz,Janas-Kozik, Ma?gorzata
Archives of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy , 2013,
Abstract: Aim. The aim of the study is to understand behavior disturbances and widely comprehended deficits attached to it, with regards to quality of family relations.Method. To explain the etiology and the consequences of the diagnosis of disruptive behavior disorder the authors analyzed literature which allowed combining the theory of attachment and the theory of deficits.In the first part of the script the authors described Bowlby’s theory of attachment, which arranges attachment behaviors in behavioral attachment system. To expand comprehension of the subject theymentioned psychoanalytic and system concepts. The second part of the paper is devoted to the definition of deficit phenomenon and determining its different areas on the basis of observations made by the researchers dealing with this matter.Conclusion. In authors’ opinion the deficits occurring in children suffering from disruptive behavior disorder are connected with improper family relations. The disruptive behavior disorders may be a way of defense against narcissistic injury as well as motor discharging of the emotional difficulties.
Program to encourage the process of attachment in children with developmental disorders pervasive through children’s massage  [cached]
Ana María Ruiz Galán,Ma del Carmen Pérez González,Susana Bravo Ferrón,Isabel Romero del Hombrebueno
NURE Investigación , 2010,
Abstract: During the first year of life, children develop a double-faced emotional tie with their parents or caregivers that provide them the essential confidence to approach psychological and social competences. This special link is called attachment.Attachment may be modified by different situations like the absence of an appropriate person to make tie, the absence of an identification through physical care are assured or the impossibility to assure the child psychical and emotional care (due to depression, psychosis, interest failing or any other wide range of subjects). So, during the first year of life, children may suffer from several kinds of disorders.According to DSM-IV-CR, Pervasive Developmental Disorder is characterized by difficulties in social relations, imaginative activities and verbal and nonverbal communication as well as reduced and repetitive interests.This work aims to decreasing anxiety and improving attachment between children with PDD and their mothers through the infantile massage. Establishing a program that involves 5 sessions of 90 minutes each, with theoretical and practical information about infantile massage, crying, birth, life changes, different roles, feelings of guilt, etcetera. Thanks to it, children with PDD get a quantitative and qualitative improvement of attachment that gets them closer to the external world, reduces their anxiety for changes and allows them a better adaptation to life.
Attachment and Related Variables  [PDF]
Umit Morsunbul,Figen Cok
Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar , 2011,
Abstract: Attachment which is defined as strong emotional bond people develop for significant others have been investigated by researchers for long years. Attachment theory proposes that attachment patterns developed in the first stages of life are carried onto next stages of life with internal working models. Additionally it is also proposed that attachment patterns are important to determine individual’s social-emotional competence. This study aims to review how attachment patterns differ according to life stages, continuity/discontiniuty of attachment patterns developed in the first stages of life and evaluate the relations between attachment patterns and social-emotional competence. The basic features of social relations model, relationship between attachment patterns and identity development, and risk taking behavior in adolescence have also been investigated in this review.
Belief in the causative power of words as a manifestation of magical thinking in late childhood
Agnieszka Bieńkowska
Polish Psychological Bulletin , 2011, DOI: 10.2478/v10059-011-0029-3
Abstract: The purpose of the research was to present one of the manifestations of magical thinking in late childhood, i.e. belief in the causative power of words, and relations between this phenomenon and language. One hundred and three primary school students (43 girls and 60 boys), grades 4 to 6, aged 10 to 13 were studied. A significant relation was found between belief in the direct effect of words on reality, and correct comprehension and number of phraseological units concerning the causative power of words.
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