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Jacob Smith Udohitinah,Abiodun Oluwafemi Oluwadare
BioResources , 2011,
Abstract: This study was centered on finding a locally sourced alternative to imported long-fibre pulp for Nigerian pulp and paper mills. Fibre characteristics, chemical composition, and paper properties of pulp handsheets at different levels of kappa number and freeness in the range of 10 oSR and 62 oSR were evaluated using air-dried bast fibre obtained from decorticated kenaf plants grown in southern guinea savanna near Jebba, Nigeria. Kenaf bast fibre compared well with softwood, with an average fibre length of 2.90 mm, a flexibility ratio of 57%, and a Runkel ratio of 0.76. Ash, lignin, and pentosan contents were 0.6%, 12.5%, and 10.6%, respectively, while the cellulose content was 55.5%. Under alkali charge of 15.0 and, sulphidity of 17.5 with constant temperature, cooking time, and liquor-to-fibre ratio of 4.5:1, the screen yield was between 48.8 to 52.8 % with kappa number 12.04 to 20.5. Unbleached pulpsheets at kappa number between 15 and18.5 and pulp freeness 55 oSR and bleached pulp freeness between 148 and 336 mLs had better quality paper in terms of overall pulpsheet strength properties.
Pro Ligno , 2012,
Abstract: Fibre characteristics determine utilizationpotentials of timbers. Fibre dimensions influencewood pulpability, durability and physico-mechanicalproperties. Fibre length, width, lumen width and wallthickness of six tropical timbers from three families(Meliaceae, Sterculiaceae and Ulmaceae) wereinvestigated from heartwood splinters (20×2×2mm)delignified in 1:1 glacial acetic acid and hydrogenperoxide [at 600C], teased out and stained. Fibrelengths range from 0.79mm for Holoptelea grandis(Ulmaceae) to 1.88mm for Khaya ivorensis(Meliaceae) similar to the mean (2mm) for tropicalhardwoods and pulpable length (0.65-1.2mm). TheMeliaceae has moderately long fibres (1.61mm) butmedium-sized for Ulmaceae (1.19mm) andSterculiaceae (1.59mm). Cedrella odorata(Meliaceae) has wide fibres (36.5μm) and lumina(27.6μm), Celtis milbraedii (Ulmaceae) has narrowfibres (17.49μm) and lumen (8.97μm), all withinpulpable range (i.e., 9-40μm). Fibre wall thicknessranges from 3.31μm (for H. grandis) to 5.49μm (forPterygota macrocarpa, Sterculiaceae) and is withinpulpable range (2.90-5.15μm). Fibre walls forMeliaceae and Sterculiaceae are thick (>4μm) butmedium (2-4μm) for Ulmaceae. Runkel ratio of 2.65(for C. odorata) to 3.9 (for C. milbraedii) is greaterthan stipulated for pulping (1.25). However,Flexibility Coefficients (within 75-50 category) andfibre dimensions for timbers from the three familiesindicate their pulping suitability. It is anticipated thewood and construction industries exploit their fibrecharacteristics for structural applications andengineering of fibre-based products.
Evaluation of pulp and paper making characteristics of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.)
IC Madakadze, TM Masamvu, T Radiotis, J Li, DL Smith
African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology , 2010,
Abstract: Shortage of conventional raw material for the pulp and paper products together with the increasing world demand for paper has renewed interest in non-wood fibres. Non-wood pulping capacity has been increasing steadily over the last decade. A lot of crops grown for biomass, like switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), are good examples of plants with potential for pulp production. Raw material chemical composition, kraft pulp yield and properties, and fibre characteristics of elephant grass or hybrid pennisetum (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. cv. SDPN3) and switchgrass (cv. Cave-in-Rock) were determined in an effort to evaluate them as raw materials for pulp and paper production. Elephant grass had α-cellulose and Klasson lignin contents of 45.6 and 17.7%, respectively. The respective values for switchgrass were 41.2 and 23.89 %. Pulp yields, following a mild kraft process, were 48 and 50% for switchgrass and elephant grass, respectively. The corresponding kappa numbers were 15.5 and 9.2. The weight-weighted fibre length averaged 1.32 mm. Pulp freeness was higher for switchgrass (330 mL) than for elephant grass (139 mL). Elephant grass had a burst index above 5.85 kP.m2 g-1. These characteristics demonstrate the suitability of both elephant grass and switchgrass for pulp production.
A flax fibre proteome: identification of proteins enriched in bast fibres
Naomi SC Hotte, Michael K Deyholos
BMC Plant Biology , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2229-8-52
Abstract: The abundance of many proteins in fibres was notably different from the surrounding non-fibre cells of the cortex, with approximately 13% of the 1,850 detectable spots being significantly (> 1.5 fold, p ≤ 0.05) enriched in fibres. Following mass spectrometry, we assigned identity to 114 spots, of which 51 were significantly enriched in fibres. We observed that a K+ channel subunit, annexins, porins, secretory pathway components, β-amylase, β-galactosidase and pectin and galactan biosynthetic enzymes were among the most highly enriched proteins detected in developing flax fibres, with many of these proteins showing electrophoretic patterns consistent with post-translational modifications.The fibre-enriched proteins we identified are consistent with the dynamic process of secondary wall deposition previously suggested by histological and biochemical analyses, and particularly the importance of galactans and the secretory pathway in this process. The apparent abundance of β-amylase suggests that starch may be an unappreciated source of materials for cell wall biogenesis in flax bast fibres. Furthermore, our observations confirm previous reports that correlate accumulation proteins such as annexins, and specific heat shock proteins with secondary cell wall deposition.Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) has attracted human attention since the beginning of agriculture [1,2]. This is due in part to the unusual properties of the bast (i.e. phloem) fibres, which because of their great length and high tensile strength have found use in textiles and many other products [3]. Fibre length is achieved almost entirely through intrusive growth, which is a process limited to very few cell types in plants [4,5]. The elongation stage is succeeded by a dynamic process of secondary wall deposition, in which a matrix of galactose-rich polymer in the nascent wall is gradually and centripetally replaced by highly crystalline cellulose [6]. Because secondary wall deposition increases the tensile
Effect of Bast Fibre Cultivation on Soil Fertility
A. K. M. Maqsudul Alam,M. Nasimul Gani,M. Rahman,M. R. Islam
Journal of Biological Sciences , 2001,
Abstract: An experiment was conducted to study the estimate of total biomass (shedded leaves plus roots) during bast fibre crop (jute, kenaf and mesta) cultivation and the performance of biomass in soil fertility. The newly released four varieties of Bangladesh Jute Research Institute were used in the trial viz. Deshi jute BJC-83, Tossa jute OM-1, kenaf HC-95 and mesta HS-24. Each of the new variety produces good amount of biomass and enriches the soil fertility. The highest biomass produced with HC-95 (7.30 t ha-1) and lowest BJC-83 (5.23 t ha-1). Appreciable performance recorded with each of the variety in enriching the soil fertility on post harvest soil. Highest organic carbon (1.31%) nitrogen (0.13%) phosphorus (18 ppm) and potassium (0.183 meq/100) were found with the variety HC-95. The percent increment of organic carbon (OC), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) by the HC-95 were 87.14, 150.00, 63.64 and 30.71 respectively over the initial soil nutrient content. According to the performance of the production of biomass and soil enrichment the varieties were in the order of HC-95> HS-24> OM-1> BJC-83.
Processing pineapple pulp into dietary fibre supplement
NB Ackom, K Tano-Debrah
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2012,
Abstract: Several tonnes of conventionally consumed dietary fibre-containing fruit components are discarded as wastes in the processing of fruits into fruit juices, resulting in the loss of food nutrients and the increased production of organic waste. A study was done to investigate the processing of pineapple pulp waste from a processing plant, into a powdered product to be used as a dietary fibre supplement. The proximate composition and the functional properties of the raw material and final product were determined. The pasting characteristics or properties of wheat flour fortified with the product up to 20 % were also determined using a viscoamylograph. The wheat flour fortified at 10 % level was used to prepare cookies and muffins after which it was subject to a performance test. Proximate analysis of the product showed crude fibre content of about 30 %; crude protein: 8.5 %; crude fat: 1.5 %; total ash: 5.2 %, and ascorbic acid: 20 mg/100 g. The fat and water absorption capacities were 2.5 g/g and 2.0 g/g of product respectively. The foaming and gelation capacities of the product were found to be 2.8 % and 12 %, respectively. Changes in the pasting characteristics of the whole-wheat flour with the 10% level of fortification were not statistically significant. Acceptance levels of the cookies and muffins made from the composite flour were high and much preference was shown for samples from the fortified flour compared to samples from whole-wheat flour without fortification. This study demonstrated a potential way of harnessing pineapple pulp, a dietary fibre source, which is lost in fruit processing. This will improve the economic value to pineapple, which is widely cultivated in Ghana. It also demonstrated a way of increasing the dietary fibre content of some popular foods to help increase the fibre intake and health of the general population.
Pulp and Paper Potentials of Plantain Pseudostem
IO Oladele, BO Adewuyi
Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana) , 2008,
Abstract: Homogenized pastes were prepared by adding top-bond white glue as binder to natural fibrous material prepared out of different proportions of bamboo (Ozizentera arbonica), coconut husk (Cocus nucifera<.i>), sponge (Acanthus montanus) and wood (cordial). Test samples were prepared from dried cast samples for creep and hardness tests. The results of the analysis were used to determine the material that has close properties to the commercially sourced gasket used as control. The overall assessment of the compatibility and suitability tests confirmed the possible applicability of the materials as gasket in fuel pump, carburetors and in engine oil pumps. The locally produced materials have been tested and found suitable as substitute to the conventional material in this order: Coconut husk mixed with sponge (Ch+Sp) in uniform proportion; Coconut husk (Ch) alone without any mixture, and the mixture of the four fibres (Ba+Ch+Sp+Wd).
Bin Li,Haiming Li Mail,Quanqing Zha,Rohan Bandekar
BioResources , 2011,
Abstract: For the thermomechanical pulping (TMP) process both wood chip quality and the refining process have important effects on the resulting pulp and paper quality. Properties of wood raw material give a framework for final pulp properties. During TMP refining the specific energy consumption and refining intensity strongly impact fibre and pulp qualities. Increasing specific energy consumption benefits the development of fibres and improves their properties. However, high intensity refining tends to shorten the fibres and produces more fines content when compared with low intensity refining. This review focuses on the influence of key variables of chip qualities and the refining process on TMP pulp and paper qualities.
Pulp moulding machines for the production of packing paper elements  [PDF]
Luki? Ljubomir S.,Krgovi? Milorad V.,Jarakovi? Ilija M.
Hemijska Industrija , 2005, DOI: 10.2298/hemind0508180l
Abstract: Paper pulp molds are now commonly applied in the technology of modern packing for a wide range of products. The technological process of producing the paper molds has three basic phases: paper pulp preparation, in which water and waste paper are the basic raw materials, the formation of product in tool pulp moulding machines and process drying. The firm "SERVOTEH" from Belgrade has developed various pulp moulding machines for different operating conditions (manual, semiautomatic and automatic operation), different manufacturing capacities and an alternative number of tools. The system of "SERVOTEH" pulp moulding machines covers several construction solutions: a sinking system, veer system and rotation system. This paper presents the technological process, as well as the integral and concept approach to the design of pulp moulding machines and system tools.
The ways to prevent pollution of the pulp and paper industry in China
Yan HongbangNational Environmental Protection Agency,No,Xizhimennei Nanxiaojie,Beijing,China,

环境科学学报(英文版) , 1992,
Abstract: Water pollution from the pulp and paper industry is one of the most serious environment problems in China. In order to prevent and treat pollution of the pulp and paper industry, the following works have been done in recent years: 1. Making necessary policies, measures and regulations; 2. Making overall planning and rational layout; 3. Relying mainly on internal treatment developing external treatment as supplement; 4. Improving the technology of treating wastewater of the pulp and paper industry.
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