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FPGA-Based Fused Smart-Sensor for Tool-Wear Area Quantitative Estimation in CNC Machine Inserts  [PDF]
Miguel Trejo-Hernandez,Roque Alfredo Osornio-Rios,Rene de Jesus Romero-Troncoso,Carlos Rodriguez-Donate,Aurelio Dominguez-Gonzalez,Gilberto Herrera-Ruiz
Sensors , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/s100403373
Abstract: Manufacturing processes are of great relevance nowadays, when there is a constant claim for better productivity with high quality at low cost. The contribution of this work is the development of a fused smart-sensor, based on FPGA to improve the online quantitative estimation of flank-wear area in CNC machine inserts from the information provided by two primary sensors: the monitoring current output of a servoamplifier, and a 3-axis accelerometer. Results from experimentation show that the fusion of both parameters makes it possible to obtain three times better accuracy when compared with the accuracy obtained from current and vibration signals, individually used.
Soft Compensation for CNC Crankshaft Grinding Machine Tool  [PDF]
Yongjun Liu,Jinwei Fan,Wei Miao
Advances in Mechanical Engineering , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/254709
Abstract: Wear and deformation CNC grinding machine tool, will be aggravated over time of which will influence the manufacturing precision. To reduce the effect, the soft compensation method by modifying NC instruction was put forward to maintain the manufacturing precision of CNC crankshaft grinding machine tool. The error sources were analyzed, the errors caused by grinding force were calculated, and the precise grinding kinematics model was deduced by the multibody kinematics. Numerical simulation and manufacturing experiment were carried out and the rank tests were taken for the manufactured crankshafts. Experiments show that the manufacturer precision of the crank can be enhanced by 63.69%, 52.06%, 42.27%, and 30.96% by soft compensation of 10 years of service life and 10?μm grinding depth, 4 years of service life and 10?μm grinding depth, 10 years of service life and 6?μm grinding depth, and 4 years of service life and 6?μm grinding depth, respectively. Soft compensation can be applied to the machine tool in which the manufacturer precision has declined and the NC instruction with compensation should be updated periodically. 1. Introduction Reliability of machine tool can be represented by two parameters of the fault probability of machine tool signed by and the defective rate of manufactured parts signed by [1]. and will be increased over time meanwhile. is affected by the ageing and degradation of the components and parts, and is affected by the wear and deformation ignoring the human and environment factors. Replacing and maintenance are good manners when is high, which is inoperative when is high. To lengthen the using life of machine tool and reduce the production cost, the soft error compensation for machine tool was proposed to maintain the machining precision and using reliability in this paper. Error model and compensation were deduced from CNC crankshaft grinding machine tool and the validity of error compensation was analyzed by statistical method. Crankshaft is used in automobile and generator widely to transform the linear movement to rotational movement. The crankshaft machining precision will affect the power performance and stabilization of the engine. So, it has important significance of researching on the machining precision of crankshaft for improving the comprehensive performance for engine. The study focus on errors settling of CNC machine tool is error measuring and identifying, kinematics and dynamics of noncircular grinding, and the compensation method. Zhu et al. proposed one method of measuring the geometrical errors by laser
Singer CNC sewing and embroidery machine  [PDF]
Lokodi Zsolt,Alexandru Morar
Scientific Bulletin of the ''Petru Maior" University of T?rgu Mure? , 2011,
Abstract: This paper presents the adaptation of a classic foot pedal operated Singer sewing machine to a computerized numerical control (CNC) sewing and embroidery machine. This machine is composed of a Singer sewing machine and a two-degrees-of-freedom XY stage designed specifically for this application. The whole system is controlled from a PC using adequate CNC control software.
Mini lathe machine converted to CNC  [PDF]
Alexandru Morar,Bereczki Zsombor
Scientific Bulletin of the ''Petru Maior" University of T?rgu Mure? , 2012,
Abstract: This paper presents the adaptation of a mechanical mini-lathing machine to a computerized numerical control (CNC) lathing machine. This machine is composed of a ASIST mini-lathe and a two-degrees-of-freedom XZ stage designed specifically for this application. The whole system is controlled from a PC using adequate CNC control software.
Surface Roughness Prediction Techniques for CNC Turning  [PDF]
B. Sidda Reddy,G. Padmanabhan,K. Vijay Kumar Reddy
Asian Journal of Scientific Research , 2008,
Abstract: This study deals with the development of a surface roughness prediction model for machining aluminum alloys using multiple regression and artificial neural networks. The experiments have been conducted using full factorial design in the design of experiments (DOE) on CNC turning machine with carbide cutting tool. A second order multiple regression model in terms of machining parameters has been developed for the prediction of surface roughness. The adequacy of the developed model is verified by using co-efficient of determination, analysis of variance (ANOVA), residual analysis and also the neural network model has been developed using multilayer perception back propagation algorithm using train data and tested using test data. To judge the efficiency and ability of the model to predict surface roughness values percentage deviation and average percentage deviation has been used. The experimental results show, artificial neural network model predicts with high accuracy compared with multiple regression model.
CNC Milling Machine Simulation in Engineering Education  [cached]
Ernesto Lo Valvo
International Journal of Online Engineering (iJOE) , 2012, DOI: 10.3991/ijoe.v8i2.2047
Abstract: In this work an effective simulator for a CNC milling machine is presented. It has been developed in EMC2, a free Opens Source NC software running in Linux environment, developed by an international community. It can be installed on a common PC and is able to: control a CNC machine; read part programs; display the tool path; send instructions to the CNC machine for the cutting process. In this work a new feature has been implemented, which can both display a 3D model of the machine and simulate all the motions of the movable parts of a real 3 axis end milling machine. This simulator lets the users not only verify the toolpath but also detect any possible collision by using the very computer which controls the milling machine. This system is very efficient and easy to use as powerful tool in Engineering education.
Analysis of open CNC architecture for machine tools
Asato, O. L.;Kato, E. R. R.;Inamasu, R. Y.;Porto, A. J. V.;
Journal of the Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-73862002000300009
Abstract: the evolution of digital circuit technology, leadind to higher speeds and more reliability allowed the development of machine controllers adapted to new production systems (e.g., flexible manufacturing systems - fms). most of the controllers are developed in agreement with the cnc technology of the correspondent machine tool manufacturer. any alterations or adaptation of their components are not easy to be implemented. the machine designers face up hardware and software restrictions such as lack of interaction among system's elements and impossibility of adding new function. this is due to hardware incompatibility and to software not allowing alterations in the source program. the introduction of open architecture philosophy propitiated the evolution of a new generation of numeric controllers. this brought the conventional cnc technology to the standard ibm - pc microcomputer. as a consequence, the characteristics of the cnc (positioning) and the microcomputer (easy of programming, system configuration, network communication etc) are combined. some researchers have addressed a flexible structure of software and hardware allowing changes in the hardware basic configuration and all control software levels. in this work, the development of open architecture controllers in the osaca, omac, hoam-cnc and osec architectures is described.
Analysis of open CNC architecture for machine tools  [cached]
Asato O. L.,Kato E. R. R.,Inamasu R. Y.,Porto A. J. V.
Journal of the Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences , 2002,
Abstract: The evolution of digital circuit technology, leadind to higher speeds and more reliability allowed the development of machine controllers adapted to new production systems (e.g., Flexible Manufacturing Systems - FMS). Most of the controllers are developed in agreement with the CNC technology of the correspondent machine tool manufacturer. Any alterations or adaptation of their components are not easy to be implemented. The machine designers face up hardware and software restrictions such as lack of interaction among system's elements and impossibility of adding new function. This is due to hardware incompatibility and to software not allowing alterations in the source program. The introduction of open architecture philosophy propitiated the evolution of a new generation of numeric controllers. This brought the conventional CNC technology to the standard IBM - PC microcomputer. As a consequence, the characteristics of the CNC (positioning) and the microcomputer (easy of programming, system configuration, network communication etc) are combined. Some researchers have addressed a flexible structure of software and hardware allowing changes in the hardware basic configuration and all control software levels. In this work, the development of open architecture controllers in the OSACA, OMAC, HOAM-CNC and OSEC architectures is described.
Design and Implementation of a Three Dimensional CNC Machine
Venkata Krishna Pabolu,Prof. Sri K.N.H. Srinivas
International Journal on Computer Science and Engineering , 2010,
Abstract: This paper discusses the design and implementation of low cost three dimensional computerized numerical control (CNC) machines for Industrial application. The primary function of this microcontrollerbased CNC machine is to cut the metal in to required shape. This discuss is focused on communication between Personal computer (PC) and a numerical control machine. The objective to devise a computer controlled cutting machine arose from increasing demand for flexibility and cutting with respect to edge quality. The system has an 8 bit microcontroller based embedded system to achieve costeffectiveness and also maintains the required accuracy and reliability for complex shapes. The backbone of the system is a cleverly designed mechanical system along with the embedded system resulting in accuracy. The system uses C# as a programming language and .NET platform for user interface.
Tool Wear Optimization for General CNC Turning Using Fuzzy Deduction  [PDF]
Tian-Syung Lan
Engineering (ENG) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2010.212128
Abstract: Tool wear is frequently considered in the modern CNC (computer numerical control) turning industry. Most existing optimization researches for CNC finish turning were either accomplished within certain manufacturing circumstances, or achieved through numerous equipment operations. Therefore, a general deduction optimization scheme proposed is deemed to be necessary for the industry. In this paper, four parameters (cutting depth, feed rate, speed, tool nose runoff) with three levels (low, medium, high) are considered to optimize the tool wear for finish turning based on orthogonal array. Additionally, nine fuzzy control rules using triangle membership function with respective to five linguistic grades for tool wear are constructed. Considering four input and twenty output intervals, the defuzzification using center of gravity is then completed and introduced as the S/N (signal-to-noise) ratio. Thus, the optimum general deduction parameters can then be received. The confirmation experiment for optimum general deduction parameters is furthermore performed on an ECOCA-3807 CNC lathe. It is shown that the tool wear ratio from the fuzzy deduction optimization parameters is significantly advanced comparing to those from benchmark. This paper not only proposes a general deduction optimization scheme using orthogonal array, but also contributes the satisfactory fuzzy linguistic approach to tool wear in CNC turning with profound insight.
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