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Travelling times in scattering by obstacles  [PDF]
Lyle Noakes,Luchezar Stoyanov
Mathematics , 2014,
Abstract: The paper deals with some problems related to recovering information about an obstacle in an Euclidean space from certain measurements of lengths of generalized geodesics in the exterior of the obstacle. The main result is that if two obstacles satisfy some generic regularity conditions and have (almost) the same traveling times, then the generalized geodesic flows in their exteriors are conjugate on the non-trapping part of their phase spaces with a time preserving conjugacy. In the case of a union of two strictly convex domains in the plane, a constructive algorithm is described to recover the obstacle from traveling times.
Menstrual migraine  [PDF]
Simi? Svetlana,Slankamenac Petar,Cvijanovi? Milan,Bani?-Horvat Sofija
Medicinski Pregled , 2007, DOI: 10.2298/mpns0710449s
Abstract: Introduction. The prevalence of migraine in childhood and adolescence has not changed to a great extent, but it increases in adolescence, especially in female adolescents. Menstrual migraine – definition. There are two types of menstrual migraine: true menstrual migraine and menstrual related migraine. True menstrual migraine occurs predominantly around menstruation, whereas menstrual related migraine occurs during menstruation, but also at other times during the month. Causes. Exaggerated or abnormal neurotransmitter responses to normal cyclic changes in the ovarian hormones are probably the basic cause of menstrual migraines. The fall in estrogen levels during menstrual cycle is trigger for the menstrual migraine. Symptoms. Menstrual migraine has the same symptoms as other types of migraine, but the pain is stronger, IT lasts longer, AND IT IS more frequent than other types of migraines. Diagnosis. In order to make a diagnosis, women are asked to keep a headache diary for three months. If the migraine headache is severe and occurs regularly between two days before and three days after the start of menstrual bleeding, it is true menstrual migraine. Therapy. Menstrual migraines are more difficult to treat than other types of migraines. Treatment principles for menstrual migraine are the same as for migraines in general, with certain particularities. Conclusion. Hormonally associated migraine is a specific clinical entity. It is important to diagnose the type of migraine, considering the fact that a decline in estrogen level at the end of menstrual cycle triggers migraine, so it can be treated by low levels of estrogen. .
The Stigma of Migraine  [PDF]
William B. Young, Jung E. Park, Iris X. Tian, Joanna Kempner
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0054074
Abstract: Background People who have a disease often experience stigma, a socially and culturally embedded process through which individuals experience stereotyping, devaluation, and discrimination. Stigma has great impact on quality of life, behavior, and life chances. We do not know whether or not migraine is stigmatizing. Methods We studied 123 episodic migraine patients, 123 chronic migraine patients, and 62 epilepsy patients in a clinical setting to investigate the extent to which stigma attaches to migraine, using epilepsy as a comparison. We used the stigma scale for chronic illness, a 24-item questionnaire suitable for studying chronic neurologic diseases, and various disease impact measures. Results Patients with chronic migraine had higher scores (54.0±20.2) on the stigma scale for chronic illness than either episodic migraine (41.7±14.8) or epilepsy patients (44.6±16.3) (p<0.001). Subjects with migraine reported greater inability to work than epilepsy subjects. Stigma correlated most strongly with the mental component score of the short form of the medical outcomes health survey (SF-12), then with ability to work and migraine disability score for chronic and episodic migraine and the Liverpool impact on epilepsy scale for epilepsy. Analysis of covariance showed adjusted scores for the stigma scale for chronic illness were similar for chronic migraine (49.3; 95% confidence interval, 46.2 to 52.4) and epilepsy (46.5; 95% confidence interval, 41.6 to 51.6), and lower for episodic migraine (43.7; 95% confidence interval, 40.9 to 46.6). Ability to work was the strongest predictor of stigma as measured by the stigma scale for chronic illness. Conclusion In our model, adjusted stigma was similar for chronic migraine and epilepsy, which were greater than for episodic migraine. Stigma correlated most strongly with inability to work, and was greater for chronic migraine than epilepsy or episodic migraine because chronic migraine patients had less ability to work.
Comorbidities of Migraine  [PDF]
Shuu-Jiun Wang,Ping-Kun Chen,Jong-Ling Fuh
Frontiers in Neurology , 2010, DOI: 10.3389/fneur.2010.00016
Abstract: Migraine is a common neurological disorder and can be severely disabling during attacks. The highest prevalence occurs between the ages of 25 and 55 years, potentially the most productive period of life. Migraine leads to a burden not only for the individual, but also for the family and society in general. Prior studies have found that migraine occurs together with other illnesses at a greater coincidental rate than is seen in the general population. These occurrences are called “comorbidities,” which means that these disorders are interrelated with migraine. To delineate the comorbidities of migraine is important, because it can help improve treatment strategies and the understanding of the possible pathophysiology of migraine. The comorbid illnesses in patients with migraine include stroke, sub-clinical vascular brain lesions, coronary heart disease, hypertension, patent foramen ovale, psychiatric diseases (depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, panic disorder, and suicide), restless legs syndrome, epilepsy and asthma. In this paper, we review the existing epidemiological and hospital-based studies, and illustrate the connections between these illnesses and migraine.
Pediatric Migraine  [PDF]
Ubaid Hameed Shah,Veena Kalra
International Journal of Pediatrics , 2009, DOI: 10.1155/2009/424192
Abstract: Migraine is the most common cause of acute recurrent headaches in children. The pathophysiological concepts have evolved from a purely vascular etiology to a neuroinflammatory process. Clinical evaluation is the mainstay of diagnosis and should also include family history. Investigations help to rule out secondary causes. The role of new drugs in treatment of migraine is discussed and trials are quoted from literature. Indications for starting prophylaxis should be evaluated based on frequency of attacks and influence on quality of life. For management of acute attacks of migraine both acetaminophen and ibuprofen are recommended for use in children. Many drugs like antiepileptic drugs (AED), calcium channel blockers, and antidepressants have been used for prophylaxis of migraine in children. The data for use of newer drugs for migraine in children is limited, though AEDs are emerging a popular choice. Biofeedback and other nonmedicinal therapies are being used with promising results.
Migraine in Children
H Ehsani
Iranian Journal of Pediatrics , 1985,
Abstract: Headache is a symptom in many pediatric diseases. Migraine is one of these disorders that, although not very frequent in pediatric age group, is worth considering. Migraine has three different clinical manifestations, i.e., classical simple and complicated form. Etiological factors such as heredity, hormonal disturbances or food allergies are discussed. Before deciding for this diagnosis other possible causes of headache should be evaluated and ruled out. The initial treatment consists in administration of usual analgesics such as aspirin. If unresponsive, more potent drugs such as alkaloids, caffeine or pethidine can be used. For prophylaxis ergotamine or dihydroergotamine, at least for three months, is administered. Prognosis depends on the type of Migraine, but is generally not bad.
Depression and migraine
Galego, José Carlos Busto;Cipullo, José Paulo;Cordeiro, José Antonio;Tognola, Waldir Antonio;
Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S0004-282X2004000500006
Abstract: the objective of this study was to evaluate both the presence and intensity of depressive symptoms in patients with episodic migraine (em) and transformed migraine (tm) or chronic migraine, comparing them with a control group. beck depression inventory (bdi) was used for this purpose. the median of bdi score of the control group was significantly lower than the em and tm groups (p<0.0005). either the em or the tm did not show any significant difference in relation to the median of bdi scores (p=0.12). the tm group showed a higher frequency of severe depression when analyzed qualitatively by dependence analysis. symptoms of severe depression by means of qualitative analysis may strengthen a co-morbidity between depression and transformed migraine. this association might be considered rather a factor of tm perpetuation than a risk factor for the transformation of em into tm.
Vestibular migraine: Diagnosis and treatment
Batuecas-Caletrio A,Martín-Sanz E,Trinidad-Ruíz G,Espinosa-Sánchez JM
Revista de la Sociedad Otorrinolaringológica de Castilla y León, Cantabria y La Rioja , 2013,
Abstract: Vestibular migraine is one of the most common causes of recurrent vertigo. Ocasionally, diagnosis of vestibular migraine can not be easy because of variety of clinical manifestations. A good characterization of the vestibular migraine and goods diagnostic criteria are necessary in order to treat the vestibular migraine easily. In the other hand, the treatment of vestibular migraine is similar to the treatment of migraine, both acute crisis and preventive treatment. There are several consensus papers in diagnosis and treatment that are analized in this work.
Pandey Gulshan
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2012,
Abstract: Migraine is a chronic neurological disorder with heterogeneous characteristics resulting in a range of symptom profiles, burden, and disability. Migraine affects nearly 12% of the adult population in occidental countries, imposing considerable economic and social losses. The pharmacologic treatment of migraine includes preventive and acute strategies. A better understanding of the migraine pathophysiology along with the discovery of novel molecular targets has lead to a growing number of upcoming therapeutic proposals. This review focuses on new and emerging agents for the treatment of migraine.
Migraine in children and adolescents  [cached]
Hadi Kazemi MD,Ali Gorji MD
Iranian Journal of Child Neurology , 2010,
Abstract: ObjectiveHeadache is a frequent symptom in children and adolescents. Migraine is oneof the most common types of primary headache disorders in children that attimes can be extremely disabling. Many clinical features of migraine in childrendiffer from that starting in adulthood. This review discusses the epidemiology,clinical features, management, and prognosis of migraine headache in childrenand adolescents.
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