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Economic Value of Date Pits Replaced with Maize in Broiler Chicken Diet
A. Masoudi,M. Bojarpour,M. Chaji,M. Eslami,Kh. Mirzadeh
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/javaa.2010.1578.1581
Abstract: Study was conducted to evaluate the economic value of broiler chicken diets containing Date Pits (DP) replaced by maize. About 180 days old commercial broiler chickens randomly were assigned to four experimental diets; treatments 1-4 included dietary containing 0, 10, 20 and 30% of date pits, respectively. All diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric and formulated according to Nutrient Requirements of poultry (NRC). The results showed that in compared with control group cost (kg) of feed decreased with increasing of date pits in diets. At whole of starter and grower periods, there were no significant differences (p>0.05) in feed intake. Feed conversion ratio of diets containing 20 and 30% of date pits was significantly more than control diet (respectively, 2.44 and 2.53 vs. 1.91) (p<0.05) but there was no significant difference with diet containing 10% date pits (p>0.05). As cost (kg) of meat production there was no significant difference (p>0.05) between diets, although the cost of meat production was higher in diets containing of date pits (p>0.05). Therefore, date pits reduce the cost of diets but not meat.
Effect of Coupling Agent on the Properties of Polymer/Date Pits Composites  [PDF]
Fares D. Alsewailem,Yazeed A. Binkhder
Journal of Composites , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/412432
Abstract: The morphology of the fracture surfaces of polymer/date pits composites was investigated. Polymers used in this study were high density polyethylene (HDPE) and polystyrene (PS). Date pits in the form of granules were two types of date pits: khlaas (K) and sekari (S). Two coupling agents, diphenylmethane-4 4′-diisocyanate (DPMI) and ethylene propylene grafted with malice anhydride (EP-g-MA), were used to ease the incorporation of date pit particles into polymer matrix. The SEM micrographs of the neat composites, that is, with no coupling agents, showed coarse morphology with bad dispersion, adhesion, and distribution of date pit particles within the polymer matrix. On the other hand, PS100/K composites coupled with DPMI and EP-g-MA had reasonable dispersed phase size with good distribution and adhesion to the composite matrix which in turn improve the mechanical properties of the resulted polymer/date pits composites. 1. Introduction Biomass in the form of agricultural waste such as wheat straw, corncob, and rice husk offers feasible and environmentally benign filling materials for polymeric materials. One of these biofillers which is abundantly available in the Arabian peninsula is date pits; a byproduct of palm trees (Phoenix dactylifera L.). One date pit may contain up to 10% oils, minerals (e.g., potassium), and fibers (>6.4%). Incorporating a cost-effective filler in a polymeric matrix will only be feasible if it does not drastically alter the matrix main characteristics such as mechanical properties. The determinant issue here is the compatibility between the interfaces of a biofiller and the polymer matrix. This is important in order to have property-stable composite system. For this reason, various compatibilizers or coupling agents were suggested by some studies in the past to formulate efficient biocomposites based on polymer matrices [1–4]. Wang et al. [1] have shown that incorporating DPMI as a coupling agent for the composites of wheat straw/polyethylene (PE) increased its modulus significantly. Wood fiber/polypropylene composites with good mechanical properties may be obtained by using modified coupling agent containing isocyanate functional group [4]. Maleated polyolefins such as m-PE and polypropylene (m-PP) were found efficient compatibilizers for improving mechanical properties of PE and PP filled with wood fibers [2, 3]. Studies on polymer/date pits composites are sparse [5, 6]. In our previous study [5], we reported the formulation of the noncompatibilized polymer/date pits composites based on high density polyethylene (HDPE) and
The Effect of Graded Levels of Dietary Methionine on the Haematology and Serum Biochemistry of Broilers  [PDF]
G.O. Adeyemo,A.D. Ologhobo,O.A. Adebiyi
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2010,
Abstract: Graded levels of dietary methionine on the haematology and serum biochemistry were investigated in broilers. One hundred and fifty broiler chicks (Arbor acre breed) were use, the chicks were divided into 5 treatments consisting of 6 replicates of five chicks each. The chicks were kept in floor pens. The study lasted for 56 days at the teaching and research farm of the university of Ibadan Nigeria. No significant differences (p>0.05) were observed in the PCV, RBC and WBC values of broilers fed the different levels of methionine inclusion, at the finisher phase, but at starter phase significant differences (p<0.05) were observed, with the WBC values increasing as the inclusion rate of methionine increased. Total protein value of 4.80g/100ml and 4.48 g/100 ml were obtained for treatments 4 and 5 respectively which were not significantly (p>0.05) from each other. There were wide variations in the glucose concentration of the birds, the highest glucose concentration was observed with birds on diet 2 (220.90) while the least was observed for birds fed the control diet though significant differences (p<0.05) were observed it did not follow a particular order.
Biodiesel Production from Oils Extracted from Date Pits  [PDF]
Sulaiman Al-Zuhair, Hanifa Taher, Salama Al Dhaheri, Shereen Wajeeh, Mutasim Nour, Emad El-Najjar
Green and Sustainable Chemistry (GSC) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/gsc.2017.71004
Abstract: Biodiesel production had received a considerable attention as a green, non-toxic and renewable alternative to petroleum diesel. To avoid using vegetable oils, which are expensive and compete with food, as feedstock, waste oils have been proposed. However, these waste materials contain a large amount of free fatty acids that complicates the production process. In this work, biodiesel production using an alternative feedstock; namely oils from date-pits, has been investigated. These oils have the same favorable features of straight oils, and at the same time are considered waste, since they are extracted from a waste material. The yield of oils extracted using n-hexane in a Soxhlet apparatus was compared to that of oils extracted using methanol-chloroform solvent mixture. The extracted oils were then converted to biodiesel via transesterification with methanol in presence of Novozym®435 or Eversa®Transform. The highest oils extraction yield of 11.7%, per dry weight sample, was obtained using Soxhlet extraction apparatus compared to 8.9% using methanol-chloroform mixture. The highest biodiesel production yield was 30% of the oil used, achieved after 6 hours using Novozym®435 at 40°C, 5:1 methanol to oil molar ratio and 10wt% enzyme loading. By using a chemical alkaline catalyst, NaOH, at the same conditions, the yield was 27%.
Effect of Graded Levels of Dried Pawpaw (Carica papaya) Seed on the Performance, Haematology, Serum Biochemistry and Carcass Evaluation of Chicken Broilers  [PDF]
S.A.O. Bolu,F.E. Sola-Ojo,O.A. Olorunsanya,K. Idris
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2009,
Abstract: A feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effect of graded levels of Dried Pawpaw Seed (DPS) on growth performance, haematological parameters and carcass evaluation of chicken broilers. One hundred day-old broilers were randomly divided into four treatments groups of diets containing 0, 5, 10 and 15% DPS in a Completely Randomized Designed (CRD) for a period of six weeks. The results of this experiments showed that there were significant differences (p>0.05) in feed intake and weight gain across the dietary treatment with diet containing 5% DPS having the highest weight gain of 17.58g/bird/day, while birds fed diets with 15% DPS had the lowest weight gain (11.18 g/bird/day), nutrient utilization was higher in birds fed 5% DPS. There were significant differences (p<0.05) in the haematological parameters, serum biochemistry and carcass parameters across the dietary treatment. The results of this study indicate that DPS can be included in broiler diet at 5% level.
In Vitro Evaluation of the Antiviral Activity of an Extract of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Pits on a Pseudomonas Phage  [PDF]
Sabah A. A. Jassim,Mazen A. Naji
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2010, DOI: 10.1093/ecam/nem160
Abstract: A crude acetone extract of the pit of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) was prepared and its antiviral activity evaluated against lytic Pseudomonas phage ATCC 14209-B1, using Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 25668 as the host cell. The antiviral activity of date pits was found to be mediated by binding to the phage, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of <10 μg ml?1. The decimal reduction time (D-values), the concentration exponent (η) and the phage inactivation kinetics were determined. The date pit extracts show a strong ability to inhibit the infectivity of Pseudomonas phage ATCC 14209-B1 and completely prevented bacterial lysis, which it is hoped will promote research into its potential as a novel antiviral agent against pathogenic human viruses.
Effects of high grade bentonite on performance, organ weights and serum biochemistry during aflatoxicosis in broilers
H. C. Indresh,G. Devegowda,S. Wilfred Ruban,M. C. Shivakumar
Veterinary World , 2013, DOI: 10.5455/vetworld.2013.313-317
Abstract: Aim: To evaluate the effect of different levels of High Bentonite on growth performance, organ weight and serum biochemistry in broiler fed on diets containing aflatoxin. Materials and Methods: A total of 360 day-old commercial broiler chicks were divided at random into 8 dietary treatment groups of 42 chicks each having 3 replicates. Dietary levels of aflatoxin (0.5 ppm) and High-grade bentonite (0.5, 0.75 and 1.00%) were tested in a completely randomized design manner, forming a total of 8 dietary treatments each with three replicates. Body weight and feed intake were recorded weekly. At 5 wk, six birds from each treatment were sacrificed and liver, kidney, gizzard, pancreas, spleen, bursa of Fabricius and thymus were extracted and weighed. The serum samples were analyzed for total proteins, uric acid, serum albumin, serum globulin and the activities of gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), alanine amino transferase (ALT) and for antibody titers against Newcastle disease (ND) and infectious bursal disease (IBD) using ELISA technique. Results: A significant (P<0.05) decrease in body weight, feed consumption, relative weights of bursa, thymus, serum protein, anti body titers against NDV and IBDV, and increase in FCR, mortality, relative weight of liver, kidney, and the activity of Gamma Glutamyl Transferase (GGT) was observed. However, the relative weights of gizzard, pancreas, spleen, serum albumin, uric acid and the activity of Alanine Amino Transferase (ALT) were not influenced by inclusion of AF or HGB. Conclusion: The addition of HGB restored the harmful effects of AF on body weight, feed consumption, FCR, mortality, relative weight of liver, kidney, serum protein, IBDV and NDV. Supplementation of high grade bentonite at 1.0 per cent level was found to be beneficial in ameliorating the adverse effects of aflatoxin (AF) in broiler chickens. [Vet World 2013; 6(6.000): 313-317]
Effect of zeolite (clinoptilolite) as feed additive in Tunisian broilers on the total flora, meat texture and the production of omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acid
Zouhir Mallek, Imen Fendri, Lamia Khannous, Amal Ben Hassena, Al Ibrahim Traore, Mohamed-Ali Ayadi, Radhouane Gdoura
Lipids in Health and Disease , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1476-511x-11-35
Abstract: Zeolite (Clinoptilolites) was added to chicken feed at concentrations 0,5% or 1% and was evaluated for its effectiveness to reduce total flora in chickens and its effects on performance of the production. The broilers were given free and continuous access to a nutritionally non-limiting diet (in meal form)that was either a basal diet or a' zeolite diet' (the basal diet supplemented with clinoptilolite at a level of 0,5% or 1%). It was found that adding zeolite in the broiler diet significantly (p < 0,05) reduced total flora levels, as compared to the control, on the chicken body. In addition, it was found that zeolite treatment had a positive effect on performance production and organoleptic parameters that were measured and mainly on the increase level of Omega 3 fatty acid.This study showed the significance of using zeolite, as a feed additive for broilers, as part of a comprehensive program to control total flora at the broiler farm and to increase level of Omega 3 fatty acid on the chicken body.Zeolites represent a large and very diverse group of minerals such as water-silicates that are characterized by three-dimensional structure and belong to the class of aluminosilicates from a chemical point of view. Their structure is based on a three-dimensional skeleton consisting of SiO4 and AlO4 tetrahedrons that form interconnected channels and cavities containing weakly bound (quite mobile) water molecules and cations of alkali metals (Na, K, Li, Cs) and alkaline earth metals (Ca, Mg, Ba, Sr), which compensate for the unsaturated negative valence of AlO4 [1]. Natural zeolites are hydrated aluminosilicates that have ion-exchange and adsorption properties and have a large surface area that helps in these adsorption properties [2,3].The dietary use of naturally occurring or synthetic Zeolites has been reported to improve feed efficiency, thus leading to a beneficial growth response in broilers. Zeolite has been recommended and used effectively in reducing toxic effects
On the "pits effect" of Littlewood and Offord  [PDF]
Alexandre Eremenko,Iossif Ostrovskii
Mathematics , 2007,
Abstract: Suppose that the moduli of the coefficients of a power series are 1/n!, while the arguments are arbitrary. If an entire function f represented by such power series decreases exponentially on some ray, then it has to be an exponential. If the arguments of the coefficients are of the form 2pi n^2a, where a is irrational, then the function displays the so-called "pits effect". More precisely, under this condition, f is of completely regular growth with constant indicator.
Growth Rate, Carcass Characteristics and Organoleptic Quality of Broiler Fed Graded Levels of Palm Kernel Cake
N.J. Okeudo,K.V. Eboh,Ndidi V. Izugboekwe,E.C. Akanno
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2005,
Abstract: Four experimental diets containing 0, 10, 20 and 30% palm kernel cake (PKC) were fed to broilers from the 3RD till the 8th week of age. Thereafter, carcass characteristics and organoleptic quality determinations were carried out. The average liveweight of broilers was approximately 2kg in each dietary group at the 8th week of age, and neither final liveweight nor growth rate was significantly affected by dietary treatment (P > 0.05). Although dressing percentage and carcass weight were similar across the dietary groups (P > 0.05) per cent head and shanks contents were significantly lower in broilers fed the 30% PKC diet (P < 0.05). Inclusion of PKC in the diet resulted in significantly increased gizzard size (P < 0.05). Meat tenderness and juiciness were not affected by dietary treatment; however, flavour was significantly higher in broilers fed diets containing PKC than in broilers fed the 0% PKC diet (P < 0.05). Interestingly, hedonic score for the former was also slightly higher (P < 0.10).
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