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Ecological function of wood-inhabiting fungi in forest ecosystem

WEI Yulian,DAI Yucheng,

应用生态学报 , 2004,
Abstract: Wood-inhabiting fungi are one of the most important parts of forest ecosystem,and play an important role in degrading the wood in forest ecosystem.The major species of these fungi include the groups of Aphyllophorales (Basidiomycota),Discomycetes (Ascomycota) and some imperfect fungi.They have the ability to degrade cellulose,hemicelluloses and lignin of wood.Three type of wood decaying have been found,i.e.,white rot,brown rot and soft rot.Many other organisms of forest ecosystem have symbiosis relationship with wood-decaying fungi.Wood-inhabiting fungi could offer the nutrition for many insects and birds,and spores of many wood-rotting species are spread by some insects.The high biodiversity of wood-decaying fungi is one of the important factors for the health of forest ecosystem.
Bioremediation of Lindane by Wood-Decaying Fungi  [PDF]
Ajda Ul?nik,Irena Kralj Cigi?,Lucija Zupan?i?-Kralj,?rtomir Tavzes
Drvna Industrija , 2012,
Abstract: The object of this paper is to study the ability of four white-rot fungi (Trametes versicolor, Hypoxylon fragiforme, Chondrostereum purpureum, and Pleurotus ostreatus) and one brown-rot fungus (Gloeophyllum trabeum) to degrade the organochlorine insecticide lindane in liquid cultures. The evaluation of lindane biodegradation was performed using two analytical procedures. In order to extract and properly quantify the remaining lindane from fungal liquid cultures, two different extraction procedures were used: extraction from filtrates and extraction from homogenized fungal cultures. White-rot fungi were able to degrade lindane. The amount of degraded lindane increased with its exposure period in the liquid cultures of all white-rot fungi used, except C. purpureum. After 21 days of exposure, over 90 % of lindane was degraded by T. versicolor, H. fragiforme, and P. ostreatus. Degradation of lindane by the brown rot G. trabeum did not occur. The extraction procedures, when liquid cultures of T. versicolor, H. fragiforme, and P. ostreatus were used, had no noticeable effect on the determined degradation after 21 days of exposure. On the other hand, the amount of remaining lindane in liquid cultures of C. purpureum and G. trabeum depended strongly on the extraction procedure. Our study indicates that mycoremediation studies of lindane should also consider adsorption onto mycelial biomass as a possible reason for the removal of the insecticide from the liquid medium, especially where shorter exposure periods are studied or fungi with poorer degradation potentials are used.
Progress report on the study of wood-decaying fungi in China
LiWei Zhou,YuCheng Dai
Chinese Science Bulletin , 2012, DOI: 10.1007/s11434-012-5457-8
Abstract: This study addressed three important aims: (1) undermining the previously obtained raw data about wood-decaying fungi (WDF) distribution and continuously investigating permanent plots to address certain scientific questions in ecology, (2) resolving the higher-level phylogeny of WDF with the help of multiple loci, and (3) testing and estimating the medicinal values of species that are closely related to well-known medicinal species. More than 1200 species and 2469 strains of WDF in China were identified from 28908 specimens collected from a series of field investigations. Using these materials, studies in multiple disciplines, such as ecology, taxonomy and phylogeny, and medicine, have been performed. With respect to ecology, the diversity of wood-decaying polypores significantly differed among a boreal forest zone, a temperate and warm temperate forest zone, and a tropical and subtropical forest zone. For instance, from north to south, the number and proportion of brown-rot species and the proportion of species found on fallen trunks were both decreased. The ecological patterns of wood-decaying polypores on gymnosperm and angiosperm trees were also explored by a case study in Northeast China. Although the total species richness was similar between the two tree groups, several other characteristics were significantly different, such as community structure and richness in certain substrates. The taxonomy and phylogeny of wide samples were referred to and their phylogenetic positions were resolved or at least partially established. In particular, phylogenetic knowledge about four genera, Fomitiporia, Ganoderma, Inonotus and Perenniporia, which include medicinal species, was essential for further research to determine the medicinal values of these types of fungi. Among these medicinal species, we mainly focused on Inonotus obliquus for its medicinal purposes. Polyphenols, polysaccharides and lanostane-type triterpenoids, extracted from the sterile conk of this species, could dramatically decrease levels of free radicals, DPPH and hydroxyl radicals, respectively. The metabolic profiles (both production and composition) of cultured I. obliquus mycelia could be altered by co-culture with other medicinal species or by induction of S-nitrosylation and denitrosylation, which may enhance the antioxidant capacity of I. obliquus.
Network Analysis Reveals Ecological Links between N-Fixing Bacteria and Wood-Decaying Fungi  [PDF]
Bj?rn Hoppe, Tiemo Kahl, Peter Karasch, Tesfaye Wubet, Jürgen Bauhus, Fran?ois Buscot, Dirk Krüger
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0088141
Abstract: Nitrogen availability in dead wood is highly restricted and associations with N-fixing bacteria are thought to enable wood-decaying fungi to meet their nitrogen requirements for vegetative and generative growth. We assessed the diversity of nifH (dinitrogenase reductase) genes in dead wood of the common temperate tree species Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies from differently managed forest plots in Germany using molecular tools. By incorporating these genes into a large compilation of published nifH sequences and subsequent phylogenetic analyses of deduced proteins we verified the presence of diverse pools corresponding to functional nifH, almost all of which are new to science. The distribution of nifH genes strongly correlated with tree species and decay class, but not with forest management, while higher fungal fructification was correlated with decreasing nitrogen content of the dead wood and positively correlated with nifH diversity, especially during the intermediate stage of wood decay. Network analyses based on non-random species co-occurrence patterns revealed interactions among fungi and N-fixing bacteria in the dead wood and strongly indicate the occurrence of at least commensal relationships between these taxa.
Pathogenic wood-decaying fungi on woody plants in China

DAI Yu-Cheng,

菌物学报 , 2012,
Abstract: The paper deals with the pathogenic wood-decaying fungi on woody plants in China. One hundred and fifty-two species have been recorded, of which 49 species (accounting for 34% of the total pathogenic species) are firstly reported as pathogenic fungi in China. Their host, type of rot, occurrence and distribution were given according to field inventories. Among these fungi, 135 species (accounting for 89%) cause a white rot, while 17 species resulted in a brown rot. Among these fungi 67, 33 and 52 species belong to common, occasional and rare species respectively.
Biodegradation of Sterculia setigera (Sterculiaceae) Chips and its Effects on Wood Basic Chemical Composition  [PDF]
A.O. Oluwadare,E.O. Asagbara
International Journal of Botany , 2008,
Abstract: In this study, wood chips of a native pulpwood, Sterculia setigera, was treated with two white-rot fungi genus of Pleurotus and Lentinus for a period of time lasting in 9 weeks. The effects of biodegradation on wood basic chemical composition were evaluated in this study. The extractive content increased from 6.3 to 10.3% for P. tuber-regium and to 15.7% for L. subnudus after 9 weeks incubation time. It was observed that both P. tuber-regium and L. subnudus degraded lignin and the lignin content of wood diminished 11.4 and 28.8% (relative percentages) after 9 weeks of incubation time respectively. The amount of inorganic matter (ash) observed was more for L. subnudus than for P. tuber-regium. The results indicated that both fungi could be used for biodegradation that preserved cellulose in S. setigera and this approach could be an environmentally friendly method in pulp and paper industry in Nigeria.
Hongos degradadores de la madera en el estado de Chihuahua, México Wood decaying fungi from Chihuahua, Mexico  [cached]
Raúl Díaz-Moreno,Ricardo Valenzuela,José Guadalupe Marmolejo,Elvira Aguirre-Acosta
Revista mexicana de biodiversidad , 2009,
Abstract: Se presenta una lista de 83 especies de hongos principalmente poliporoides degradadores de la madera que habitan en bosques de pino y encino-pino; de las cuales, 37 son registros nuevos para el estado de Chihuahua. Las familias Polyporaceae e Hymenochaetaceae fueron las más representativas, y los géneros con mayor número de especies, Phellinus e Inonotus. This paper presents a list of 83 species, most of them polypore wood decaying fungi from pine forest and oak-pine forest. Thirty seven species are new records for the state of Chihuahua. The families Polyporaceae and Hymenochaetaceae were the most abundant, and the genera with the highest number of species were Phellinus and Inonotus.
Biodegradation of lignocellulosics: microbial, chemical, and enzymatic aspects of the fungal attack of lignin
Martínez,ángel T.; Speranza,Mariela; Ruiz-Due?as,Francisco J.; Ferreira,Patricia; Camarero,Susana; Guillén,Francisco; Martínez,María J.; Gutiérrez,Ana; Río,José C. del;
International Microbiology , 2005,
Abstract: wood is the main renewable material on earth and is largely used as building material and in paper-pulp manufacturing. this review describes the composition of lignocellulosic materials, the different processes by which fungi are able to alter wood, including decay patterns caused by white, brown, and soft-rot fungi, and fungal staining of wood. the chemical, enzymatic, and molecular aspects of the fungal attack of lignin, which represents the key step in wood decay, are also discussed. modern analytical techniques to investigate fungal degradation and modification of the lignin polymer are reviewed, as are the different oxidative enzymes (oxidoreductases) involved in lignin degradation. these include laccases, high redox potential ligninolytic peroxidases (lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase, and versatile peroxidase), and oxidases. special emphasis is given to the reactions catalyzed, their synergistic action on lignin, and the structural bases for their unique catalytic properties. broadening our knowledge of lignocellulose biodegradation processes should contribute to better control of wood-decaying fungi, as well as to the development of new biocatalysts of industrial interest based on these organisms and their enzymes.
Antifungal Activities of the Extracts from Machilus versicolora Wood Against Wood-Decaying Fungi

- , 2018, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1001-7461.2018.01.30
Abstract: 采用生长速率法测定了甲醇、乙酸乙酯、丙酮、三氯甲烷和蒸馏水5种不同溶剂黄枝润楠木材提取物对木腐菌生长的抑制作用,以探明黄枝润楠木材的抑菌能力。结果表明,提取物的得率与溶剂的极性呈正相关;除蒸馏水外,其余4种溶剂对木腐菌均有不同程度的抑制作用;随着提取物浓度的增加,抑制作用增强;三氯甲烷对白腐菌的抑制率最大73.22%,甲醇对褐腐菌的抑制率最大96.93%,两提取物的EC50值均最低,分别为1.480 1 g?mL-1和0.475 2 g?mL-1;在抑制采绒革盖菌和密黏褶菌方面,提取的最适溶剂分别为三氯甲烷和甲醇。研究结果为黄枝润楠木材的合理利用提供科学依据。
In order to reveal the antifungal activities,extracts from Machilus versicolora wood were prepared by five different solvents: methanol,ethyl acetate,acetone,chloroform and hot water.The results showed that the yield of the extracts was positively correlated with the polarity of solvent.All extracts had antifungal activity against wood-decaying fungi except for hot water extracts.The higher the extract concentration was,the stronger inhibition activity was.Chloroform extract had the best antifungal effect on Coriolus versicolor while for Gloeophyllum trabeum,it was methanol extract,which were 73.22% and 96.93%.The EC50 values of the two extracts were the lowest as well,which were 1.480 1 g?mL-1 and 0.475 2 g?mL-1,respectively.The results would provide a scientific basis for the rational use of M.versicolora wood
Biodegradation of some agricultural residues by fungi in agitated submerged cultures
AAS Sinegani, G Emtiazi, S Hajrasuliha, H Shariatmadari
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2005,
Abstract: Digestibility of agricultural residues in animal feeding is deeply dependent on the amounts and types of their fibers. Biological treatment of agricultural residues is a new method for improvement of digestibility. Therefore, the capacity of a few fungi in biodegradation of some agricultural residues was studied. Losses of crude fiber (CF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) of wheat, barley, rice, wood, and pea straw were investigated in agitated submerged culture during biodegradation by fungi. Biodegradation of the plant residues is dependent on the plant and fungus species. The biodegradation order of plant residues was pea>barley>wheat>rice>wood. A. terreus and T. reesei were more able to degrade the easy degradable plant residues. Rice and wood were degraded more by Armillaria sp., Polyporus sp. and P. chrysosporium. Crude fiber, NDF and ADF of agricultural residues were reduced more by P. chrysosporium. Generally, the reduction of agricultural residues NDF by fungi was more than their ADF. However, Polyporus sp. decreased ADF of wheat straw more. Thus, for improvement of digestibility of agricultural residues, the treatment by white-rot fungi may be recommended.
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