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 Information Technology Journal , 2009, Abstract: Due to the proliferation in the number of vehicles on the road, traffic problems are bound to exist. This is due to the fact that the current transportation infrastructure and car park facility developed are unable to cope with the influx of vehicles on the road. To alleviate the aforementioned problems, the smart parking system has been developed. With the implementation of the smart parking system, patrons can easily locate and secure a vacant parking space at any car park deemed convenient to them. Vehicle ingress and egress are also made more convenient with the implementation of hassle free payment mechanism. With vehicle detection sensors aplenty on the market, the choices made may defer due to the different requirements in addition to the its pros and cons. Subsequently, the various sensor systems used in developing the systems in addition to the recent research and commercial system on the market are examined as vehicle detection plays a crucial role in the smart parking system.
 International Journal of Intelligent Systems and Applications , 2012, Abstract: Smart Parking Systems obtain information about available parking spaces, process it and then place the car at a certain position. A prototype of the parking assistance system based on the proposed architecture was constructed here. The adopted hardware, software, and implementation solutions in this prototype construction are described in this paper. The effective circular design is introduced here having rack-pinion special mechanism which is used to lift and place the car in the certain position. The design of rack pinion mechanism is also simulated using AUTODESK INVENTOR and COMSOL software.
 International Journal of Computer Science Issues , 2013, Abstract: Car parking has become an immense issue, especially in big cities. There are two main reasons: Firstly, the growth in population, secondly, the security. Moreover, the car theft has become an evil art haunting drivers. In this paper, we provide an interface and a software/ hardware module for Intelligent Car Park Management System (ICPMS). The ICPMS will provide an extensive management for vehicles including parking facilities and security. The ICPMS is validated using a test case scenario and extensive experimentation proves the feasibility of the approach.
 计算机应用 , 2007, Abstract: The Open Service Gateway Initiative (OSGi) Home Gateway can provide mobile users with various services, including smart home management, remote control, etc. Meanwhile, Web Service makes it possible for any application system to access dynamically all kinds of services anywhere. However, current solutions for smart home are mostly based on home gateway, without taking Web Service into account. Therefore, this paper proposed a new design and implementation for smart home combining OSGi Home Gateway with Web Service technology. Based on the detailed design of the system modules, this paper also gave the result of accessing the OSGi Web Service by PDA to supervise the status of home appliances.
 World Journal of Engineering and Technology (WJET) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/wjet.2016.42014 Abstract: The searching of parking burns a lot of barrels of the world’s oil every day. Car parking problem is a major contributor in congestion of traffic and has been, still a major problem with increasing vehicle size in the luxurious segment and also confines parking spaces in urban cities. The rapid growth in the number of vehicles worldwide is intensifying the problem of the lack of parking space. As the global population continues to urbanize, without a well-planned, convenience-driven retreat from the car, these problems will worsen in many countries. The current unmanaged car parks and transportation facilities make it difficult to accommodate the increasing number of vehicles in a proper, convenient manner so it is necessary to have an efficient and smart parking system. Smart parking management systems are capable of providing extreme level of convenience to the drivers. In this paper, a proposed web App system, named “Park Easy” is based on the usage of smart phones, sensors monitoring techniques with a camera which is used as a sensor to take photos to show the occupancy of cars parks. By implementing this system, the utilization of parking spaces will increase. It allocates available parking space to a given driver to park their vehicle, renew the availability of the parking space when the car leaves and compute the charges due. Smart parking App, “Park Easy”, will also enable most important techniques to provide all the possible shortage route for parking from any area of the city mainly, it helps to predict accurately and sense spot/vehicle occupancy in real-time.
 Journal of Information Security (JIS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jis.2018.94020 Abstract: Smart parking systems are a crucial component of the “smart city” concept, especially in the age of the Internet of Things (IoT). They aim to take the stress out of finding a vacant parking spot in city centers, due to the increasing number of cars, especially during peak hours. To realize the concept of smart parking, IoT-enabling technologies must be utilized, as the traditional way of developing smart parking solutions entails a lack of scalability, compatibility with IoT-constrained devices, security, and privacy awareness. In this paper, we propose a secure and privacy-preserving framework for smart parking systems. The framework relies on the publish/subscribe communication model for exchanging a huge volume of data with a large number of clients. On one hand, it provides functional services, including parking vacancy detection, real-time information for drivers about parking availability, driver guidance, and parking reservation. On the other hand, it provides security approaches on both the network and application layers. In addition, it supports mutual authentication mechanisms between entities to ensure device/ data authenticity, and provide security protection for users. That makes our proposed framework resilient to various types of security attacks, such as replay, phishing, and man-in-the-middle attacks. Finally, we analyze the performance of our framework, which is suitable for IoT devices, in terms of computation and network overhead.
 Computer Science , 2014, DOI: 10.1145/2653481.2653484 Abstract: Parking sensor network is rapidly deploying around the world and is regarded as one of the first implemented urban services in smart cities. To provide the best network performance, the MAC protocol shall be adaptive enough in order to satisfy the traffic intensity and variation of parking sensors. In this paper, we study the heavy-tailed parking and vacant time models from SmartSantander, and then we apply the traffic model in the simulation with four different kinds of MAC protocols, that is, contention-based, schedule-based and two hybrid versions of them. The result shows that the packet interarrival time is no longer heavy-tailed while collecting a group of parking sensors, and then choosing an appropriate MAC protocol highly depends on the network configuration. Also, the information delay is bounded by traffic and MAC parameters which are important criteria while the timely message is required.
 Indian Journal of Computer Science and Engineering , 2011, Abstract: Car parking lots are an important object class in many traffic and civilian applications. With the problems of increasing urban trafficcongestion and the ever increasing shortage of space, these car parking lots are needed to be well equipped with automatic parkingInformation and Guidance systems. Goals of intelligent parking lot management include counting the number of parked cars, and identifyingthe available location. This work proposes a new system for providing parking information and guidance using image processing. The proposed system includes counting the number of parked vehicles, and dentifying the stalls available. The system detects cars through images instead of using electronic sensors embedded on the floor. A camera is installed at the entry point of the parking lot. It capturesimage sequences. The image sequences are then analyzed using digital image processing for vehicle detection and according to the status ofvehicle occupancy inside, real time guidance and information is provided to the incoming driver.
 Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.66.036118 Abstract: An asymmetric exclusion process type process, where cars move forward along a closed road that starts and terminates at a parking garage, displays dynamic phase transitions into two types of condensate phases where the garage becomes macroscopically occupied. The total car density $\rho_o$ and the exit probability $\alpha$ are the two control parameters. At the transition, the number of parked cars $N_p$ diverges in both cases, with the length of the road $N_s$, as $N_p\sim N_s^{y_p}$ with $y_p=1/2$. Towards the transition, the number of parked cars vanishes as $N_p\sim \epsilon^\beta$ with $\beta=1$, $\epsilon=|\alpha -\alpha^*|$ or $\epsilon=|\rho^*_o -\rho_o|$ being the distance from the transition. The transition into the normal phase represents also the onset of transmission of information through the garage. This gives rise to unusual parked car autocorrelations and car density profiles near the garage, which depend strongly on the group velocity of the fluctuations along the road.
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