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Survey for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza from Poultry in Two Northeastern States, Nigeria  [PDF]
Ibrahim Waziri Musa,Paul Ayuba Abdu,Anthony Kojo Bedu Sackey,Sunday Blessing Oladele
Veterinary Medicine International , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/531491
Abstract: Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is a major global zoonosis. It has a complex ecological distribution with almost unpredictable epidemiological features thus placing it topmost in the World Organization for Animal Health list A poultry diseases. Structured questionnaire survey of poultry farmer’s knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) in two Nigerian states revealed the presence of risk farming practices that may enable avian influenza high chance of introduction/reintroduction. There existed significant statistical association between farmer’s educational levels and AI awareness and zoonotic awareness ( ). Poultry rearing of multiage and species (81%), multiple sources of stock (62%), inadequate dead-bird disposal (71%), and access to live bird markets (LBMs) (62%) constituted major biosecurity threats in these poultry farming communities. Haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test detected antibodies against H5 avian influenza (AI) in 8 of the 400 sera samples; rapid antigen detection test kit (RADTK) was negative for all the 400 cloaca and trachea swabs. These results and other poultry diseases similar to AI observed in this study could invariably affect avian influenza early detection, reporting, and control. We recommend strong policy initiatives towards poultry farmers’ attitudinal change and increasing efforts on awareness of the implications of future HPAI outbreaks in Nigeria. 1. Introduction Avian influenza is a highly contagious disease of primarily birds. It is worldwide known to cause devastating effects in poultry to which different strategies ranging from vaccination to stamping out, were employed to control outbreaks in recent past [1–6]. In recent times AI appears to receive most scientific investigations seeking for ways and means of AI virus containment. Notwithstanding, AI has been reemerging with increasing public health impact. In this world without borders to disease spread, no region is protected against a pandemic, and no nation remains safe when all others are at risk of AI incursion [7, 8]. The world is now a global village in terms of international animal trade and movement hence the future wave of pandemic influenza may be difficult to predict. Global population growth with increasing levels of poverty and food insecurity seems to initiate changing approaches in agro-livestock practices. The poultry subsector has long been recognised for its potential to significantly contribute to food security and poverty alleviation. As such, it has become so dynamic and highly intensified over the last few decades [8]. This
Economic Impact of Avian Bird Flu on the Poultry Industry in Nigeria
Daniel S. Ugwu
Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: This study reviewed the available literature on the economic impact of the Bird Flu epidemic on the Nigerian poultry industry. It was noted that the Avian Bird Flu is an infection of poultry caused by an influenza A virus of the H5 or H7 subtypes, and that several different strains of the virus have been shown to infect humans. Avian bird flu caused by influenza A viruses can affect a variety of domestic and wild bird species. A perspective on the Nigerian poultry revealed the population of birds in the poultry industry in the country is about 140 million and the industry contributes about 9% to the country`s GDP. However, the industry has witnessed lots of ups and downs as a result of favourable and unfavourable government policies, and shocks from disease epidemic climaxed by the deadly bird flu. With the detection of the virus H5N1 in the northern part of Kaduna and its spread to 13 of Nigeria`s 36 states as well as the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) Abuja, the Federal Government was able to form a Technical Committee of Experts for the prevention and control of HPA 1 in Nigeria, among other key strategies. The impact of the Avian Bird Flu epidemic could be classified to two: Financial impact and derived economic impact. The financial impact were essential colossal financial losses with respect to Government losses/expenditures in terms of prevention and control expenditures and compensations to farms farmers and agro-institutions/establishment`s. It also include losses to individuals. Farms and other stakeholders in financial terms. Derived economic impact were identified as negative or positive. Negative economic impact encompasses the psychological, social, political and environmental impacts of the epidemic. Positive derived economic impact include the strengthening of institution`s, capacity building of personnel and intensified research in response to the outbreak of the avian bird flu epidemic in February, 2006. In order to contain the avian flu in the future, it is recommended that veterinary services should be adequately staffed with adequate budget provision as well as establishment of more well equipped veterinary research institutes and laboratories. It is also recommended that all poultry industries should be registered for effective communication, enforcement of international guidelines and standards on avian flu prevention and control as well provision of capacity building and facilities.
Avian Influenza in Nigeria: Suggestions for Eradication  [PDF]
M. Anaeto,G. Chioma
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2007,
Abstract: Avian Influenza is a disease caused by the highly pathogenic H5N1 virus. The disease has spread through Europe, Asia and has reached Nigeria-the first African country to record the disease in February, 2006. To date, only one human case has been reported in the country. However, the viral scare almost paralyzed the poultry industry in the country. The economic impact of the disease cannot be under-estimated and efforts should be geared towards curtailing the spread. Hence, this paper reviews and present updates on bird flu, its zoonotic impact and seeks to elucidate some of the best practices to help in the eradication of this pandemic disease.
Occurrence of Avian Influenza in Chickens in Nasarawa State, Nigeria
A. Yakubu,M.U. Liman,E.A.O. Laseinde
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012,
Abstract: Avian Influenza is currently the most important constraint to the productivity of village and urban chicken flocks. Before January 2006, there were no reported cases of Bird Flu in Nigeria. Nasarawa State falls within the guinea savannah zone of North Central Nigeria. It is predominantly an agricultural state with an estimated chicken population of 3,750,000. At present, it is one of the few states in the country with an outbreak of Avian Influenza. The first incidence was reported in February, 2006 at Garaku in Kokona local government area of the state. This led to the culling of 9,242 local fowls and those of mixed breeds, Birds were also of mixed ages. Some of the clinical signs observed included, severe depression, swollen head and face, discoloured and swollen legs, ruffled feathers, staggering gait, broken eggs, nasal and oral cavity discharges and sudden death. The confirmatory test involving 6 samples was carried out in Padova, Italy. Nasarawa State Action Committee on Avian Influenza which was already in place swung into action to avert the spread of the disease. No case of human infection has been reported.
Serosurvey of antibody to highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) in pigs, north central Nigeria
CA Meseko, F Cilloni, A Oladokun
Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Avian influenza is a disease of economic and public health importance that has been described in most domestic animals and humans. Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 epidemic in Nigeria was observed in agro-ecological zones where pigs and chickens are raised in shared environment with chances of interspecies transmission. We investigate the likelihood of transmission of the disease to pigs in North Central Nigeria where there were several cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 in both commercial and free range poultry. Two hundred and twenty swine sera collected in Kaduna and Plateau states were screened for influenza A/H5N1 antibody by haemagglutination inhibition test according to standard protocol. All the sera tested were negative for influenza A/H5 antibody (HA titre < 22). Our inability to detect appreciable antibody level to avian influenza A/H5N1 therefore may be due to lack of infection because of low susceptibility of pigs to Influenza A/H5N1. We recommend wider serological and virological studies to identify other circulating influenza virus in pigs in different agro-ecological zones to provide useful epidemiological data on evolving influenza virus.
Serosurvey of antibody to highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) in pigs, north central Nigeria  [cached]
CA Meseko,F Cilloni,A Oladokun
Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Avian influenza is a disease of economic and public health importance that has been described in most domestic animals and human. Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 epidemic in Nigeria was observed in agro-ecological zones where pigs and chickens are raised in shared environment with chances of interspecies transmission. We investigate the likelihood of transmission of the disease to pigs in North Central Nigeria where there were several cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 in both commercial and free range poultry. Two hundred and twenty swine sera collected in Kaduna and Plateau states were screened for influenza A/H5N1 antibody by haemagglutination inhibition test according to standard protocol. All the sera tested were negative for influenza A/H5 antibody (HA titre < 22). Our inability to detect appreciable antibody level to avian influenza A/H5N1 therefore may be due to lack of infection because of low susceptibility of pigs to Influenza A/H5N1. We recommend wider serological and virological studies to identify other circulating influenza virus in pigs in different agro-ecological zones to provide useful epidemiological data on evolving influenza virus.
Situation-Based Survey of Avian Influenza Viruses in Possible “Bridge” Species of Wild and Domestic Birds in Nigeria  [PDF]
Vakuru Columba Teru,Shiiwua A. Manu,Gashash I. Ahmed,Kabir Junaidu,Scott Newman,Joseph Nyager,Vivian N. Iwar,Gideon M. Mshelbwala,T. Joannis,Junaidu A. Maina,Paul T. Apeverga
Influenza Research and Treatment , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/567601
Abstract: The highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1 subtype) recurred in Nigeria after 9 months period of no reported case. A critical look at possible sources of the re-occurrence was desirable. The objective of this study was to determine whether avian influenza viruses were present at reasonably detectable levels (0.5%) in possible “bridge” species of wild and domestic birds. The study was conducted in 8 Nigerian states. A total of 403 birds from 40 species were sampled. Virus isolation was done in embryonated chicken eggs according to standard protocols. The test results were all negative for avian influenza viruses. The overall confidence interval (CI) calculated in R using the exact binomial confidence interval function was 0–0.007406. Tawny Eagle (Aquila rapax) was the lowest sampled 0.3% (1/403) and Red-billed Firefinch (Lagonosticta senegala) the highest 11.7% (47/403). The limitations of the sample size and possibly designing effects on the study, as to make concrete conclusions were acknowledged. Species of wild birds, so identified in the study could be useful in future surveys. Furthermore, multidisciplinary and community oriented approach, blending targeted and passive surveillances was suggested. This approach was envisaged to bring about wider coverage of “bridge” species and clearer insight of their possible roles in avian influenza re-occurrences and spread in Nigeria. 1. Introduction Avian influenza (AI) is a highly contagious disease primarily of birds, and caused by influenza A viruses. Influenza A viruses in poultry can be grouped into 2. The exceptionally virulent viruses cause highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), with mortality in affected flock as high as 100%. This group belongs to subtypes H5 and H7, but it is worth noting that not all H5 and H7 viruses’ infection lead to HPAI. All other subtypes cause a milder, primarily respiratory, disease, that is, low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) unless exacerbated by secondary infections [1]. Avian influenza is one of the greatest concerns for public health that has emerged from the animal reservoir [2]. The spread of HPAI (H5N1) to countries in which hygienic standards are deficient increases the virus’s pandemic potential and raises concerns about food security particularly in rural villages [2]. Aquatic birds are the sources of avian influenza viruses [3, 4]. Aquatic birds like ducks, geese, swans (Anseriformes), and gulls, terns (Charadriiforms) are thought to be natural reservoirs for avian influenza viruses and are capable of shading the viruses asymptomatically [5, 6]. HPAI
Perception of Threat of Avian Influenza by Agricultural Extension Professionals and Poultry Farmers in Nigeria  [PDF]
Augustine J. Udoh,Ene Oku
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2010,
Abstract: Avian influenza has become a serious threat in poultry farming in recent times in Nigeria. A study was undertaken to ascertain the perception of extension professionals and poultry farmers on the threat of avian influenza towards a possible outbreak in Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria. One hundred and three (103) extension officers and 43 poultry farmers were randomly selected to take part in the study. Questionnaire was used to collect data from the respondents and the data collected were analyzed with descriptive and inferential statistics. The result of the hypotheses show no significant relationship between the level of awareness of extension officers and their perception on avian influenza (r = 0.90). Similarly, there was no significant relationship between the level of awareness of poultry farmers and their perception on avian influenza (r = 0.129). Awareness campaign on avian influenza should be intensified and with more training programs for the extension officers.
Review of highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreaks in poultry in Zaria, Nigeria
AM Wakawa, L Sa'idu, PA Abdu, TM Joannis
Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences , 2008,
Abstract: All the confirmed highly pathogenic avian influenza cases that were diagnosed in Zaria at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria, were reviewed in this study. The outbreaks occurred between the months of December, 2006 and March, 2007. The clinical signs and postmortem lesions were similar to those observed in avian influenza outbreaks elsewhere. It was observed that the cold windy harmattan condition, the addition of new birds into an already existing flock, the low compensation rate paid to farmers; and poor biosecurity measures on the affected farms might have contributed to the spread of the disease in Zaria and environs.
Avian Influenza and Employment Decisions of Poultry Farmers in the Federal Capital Territory of Nigeria  [cached]
Hassan Ishaq Ibrahim,Hussaini Iliyasu,Hussaini Yusuf Ibrahim,Napoleon D. Saingbe
Journal of Agricultural Science , 2010, DOI: 10.5539/jas.v2n1p138
Abstract: The outbreak of Avian Influenza in Nigeria has led to job losses, health problems, reduction in expected income of poultry farmers and a decrease in the demand for poultry products. This study was designed to determine the monetary value of stock lost, identify the determinants of the future employment decisions and the constraints faced by poultry farmers in the Federal Capital Territory of Nigeria. Data for the study was collected from 40 poultry farmers who have suffered losses due to the outbreak of the disease. The total monetary value of the stock lost in the study area as at 2007 was N142, 741, 000. 45% of the respondents have abandoned poultry production while 32.5% have reduced the size of their poultry business. Furthermore, only 22.5% have restarted their poultry business without reducing the quantity of the initial stock before the outbreak of the disease. The determinants of the decision to abandon were; amount of compensation received, educational level of the poultry farmer and total number of stock lost. The factors influencing the decision to reduce the scale of operation were; level of education of the farmer, years of experience in poultry production and the amount of compensation received from government. The post Avian Influenza outbreak constraints faced by the farmers were; inadequate compensation, low patronage by customers and low level of accessibility to agricultural credit institutions.
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