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Morphometric Traits of Muscovy Ducks from Two Agro Ecological Zones of Nigeria
Yakubu, A.,Kaankuka, FG.,Ugbo, SB.
Tropicultura , 2011,
Abstract: Morphological variation between Muscovy ducks from the guinea savannah and rainforest zones of Nigeria was examined using multivariate discriminant analysis. Data comprised eight morphometric traits measured in a total of 435 adult ducks randomly selected in the two agro-ecological zones. Common descriptive statistics showed that ducks from the rainforest zone had higher (P< 0.05) body weight, foot length and thigh circumference, while their guinea savannah counterparts were longer (P< 0.05) in the neck. Stepwise discriminant analysis indicated that foot length, neck length, thigh circumference and body length were more effective in discriminating between the duck populations. The low Mahalanobis distance of 3.39, as revealed by the canonical discriminant analysis, is an indication of high gene flow between ducks from the two agro-ecological zones. The cluster analysis also revealed the homogeneity of the genetic identity of the duck populations. The present information will be the basis for further characterization, conservation and sustainable genetic improvement strategies for indigenous ducks.
Assessment of the Prevailing Handling and Quality of Eggs from Scavenging Indigenous Chickens Reared in Different Agro-Ecological Zones of Ethiopia
Aberra Melesse,Zemene Worku,Yosef Teklegiorgis
Research Journal of Poultry Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/rjpscience.2012.64.70
Abstract: The importance of scavenging poultry production in the national economy of developing countries and its role in improving the nutritional status and income of many smallholders has been very significant. A survey based experiment was conducted in 196 households to assess the production system and egg qualities of scavenging chickens reared in highland, midland and lowland agro-ecological zones of Amhara Regional State of Ethiopia. For egg quality determination, among 196 households 30 of them who keep only local chicken ectypes were identified from each agro-ecology from which 588 eggs (196 eggs from each agro-ecology) were collected. The results indicated that about 95 and 70% of the respondents fumigate day old chicks with smoke and clip tail feathers, respectively. The flock size in highland, midland and lowland agro-ecologies was 8.5, 7.4 and 8.4 chickens, respectively. The average age at first egg lay was 6.94, 6.43 and 6.57 months for highland, midland and lowland agro-ecologies, respectively. The survivability of chickens in highland, midland and lowland agro-ecological zones was 55.0, 61.4 and 55.1%, respectively. On the average 79.1% hatchability, 58.3% chick survivability was found in the study area. The observed values of egg weight, egg length, egg width, yolk height, albumen height and Haugh unit were significantly different (p<0.05) between the investigated agro-ecologies. Accordingly, all these traits were (p<0.05) higher in midland than highland and lowland agro-ecological zones. However, agro-ecology did not show any significant effect on shape index, shell thickness, yolk width and yolk index. The respective average egg weight, shell thickness and shape index values were 39.6 g, 0.296 mm and 73.2%. The average values of yolk height, yolk width and Haugh unit were 16.1, 36.8 and 73.2 mm, respectively. In conclusion, the midland agro-ecological system appears to favor the survivability and expression of both external and internal egg quality traits of scavenging rural chickens.
Relative Technical Efficiency of Cassava Farmers in the Three Agro-Ecological Zones of Edo State, Nigeria  [PDF]
P.O. Erhabor,C.O. Emokaro
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: This study employed the use of the Stochastic Frontier Production Function in the comparative economic analysis of the relative technical efficiency of cassava farmers in the three agro-ecological zones of Edo State. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 156 cassava farmers from the three agro-ecological zones of the State and the differences in the results obtained were discussed. The empirical estimates showed individual technical efficiency values that ranged from 23 to 95%, 43 to 97% and 52 to 98% with a mean of 72, 83 and 91%, for Edo South, Edo North and Edo Central agro-ecological zones, respectively. This shows that systemic differences in relative technical efficiency levels exist between the three zones and these differences were shown to be related to particular farmer’s characteristics. Non-physical factors that served as determinants of technical inefficiency in the three zones were, farmers level of education, age, farming experience and variety of planting materials used. Gender and family size were however, not found to be significant determinants of the technical inefficiency of cassava farmers in the State. Apart from this estimates serving as a guide to potential investors in the cassava industry in the State, the relative variations in technical efficiency is also an indication of the gaps that exist in the current production technologies employed by cassava farmers in the three agro-ecological zones of the State. The gaps should serve as intervention points for government and non-governmental agencies as well as other stakeholders in the emerging cassava industry in Nigeria.
Journal of Central European Agriculture , 2011, DOI: 10.5513/jcea01/12.3.951
Abstract: The distribution of aphid vectors of Pepper veinal mottle virus (PVMV) was studied on cultivated pepper between 2003 and 2005 in the major pepper producing areas of the six agro-ecological zones in Nigeria. The aphids were isolated, identified and their transmission ability determined. Population of aphid vectors increased progressively in all the agro-ecological zones from March at the onset of raining season reaching a peak in August and then declining from September at the on set of the dry season. The Humid forest and Derived Savanna agro-ecological zones recorded highest mean population of aphids / leaf and types of aphid’s species compared with other agro-ecological zones. Six species of aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), Aphis gossipii (Glover), Aphis craccivora (Koch), Aphis spiraecola (Patch), Aphis fabae (Blanchard), and Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch), were identified on the pepper fields surveyed in all the agro-ecological zones. There was no significant difference in the occurrence of M. persicae, A. gossipii, A. craccivora, and R. maidis while A. spiraecola and A. fabae that varied in occurrence in all the zones. Ability to transmit PVMV to a healthy pepper plants varied in all the identified aphid species but R. maidis was not able to transmit PVMV from infected to a healthy pepper plant. A more sustainable approach to controlling pepper viruses is by targeting the aphid vectors and preventing the vectors from reaching the crops because the aphid vectors which are virus specific are the major means of transmitting virus to healthy plant.
Cassava Production Systems Across Some Agro-ecological Zones in South West-North West Axis of Nigeria  [PDF]
A.A. Oyekanmi,K.A. Okeleye
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: An extensive survey was conducted in 59 villages under Ecologically Sustainable Cassava Plant Protection Project (ESCaPP) across mangrove forest, rainforest, transition forest, wet savannah and dry savannah agro-ecological zones in 1994 dry season and 1995 early planting season. The objective was to study the demographic factors such as number of adult cassava farmers, gender, literacy level, access road, nearness to market, reason for growing cassava and general production practices of the farmers in south west-northwest axis of Nigeria. It was discovered that 41.6 and 42.5% of men and women were involved in cassava production. In all the villages, cassava production is on the increase replacing fallow land. The land preparation method adopted in most of the villages was determined primarily by vegetation and the nature of the soil. In wet savannah, 89, 79 and 32% of the farmers adopted slashing/hoe, bush burning and use of tractor methods of land preparation, respectively. In all the zones, 50% of the farmers embraced the use of improved varieties of cassava; although a significant 41.6% still make use of the local varieties. The result suggested that Federal and State governments of Nigeria should improve their extension activities for more awareness of improved cassava varieties and other improved production practices.
Farmers’ Perception of the Effects of Climate Change and Coping Strategies in Three Agro-Ecological Zones of Nigeria
EB Tologbonse, SJ Auta, TD Bidoli, MM Jaliya, RO Onu, FO Issa
Journal of Agricultural Extension , 2010,
Abstract: The study assessed farmers perception of the effects of climate change and coping strategies in three agro-ecological zones of Nigeria. Three agro-ecological zones namely Middle-Belt, North-Central and North–East were purposively selected and one LGA where NAERLS extension model village is located was purposively selected from each of the 3 agro-ecological zones. One village was randomly selected in addition to the NAERLS model village. Twenty five farmers were randomly selected from each village. One hundred and fifty (150) validated structured questionnaires were used to elicit information from respondents. Data were analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Farmers were fully aware of the effect of climate change and possible coping strategies such as the need for agricultural insurance, planting of drought and flood tolerant varieties and reduction of water loss through practices such as mulching and rearing of heat tolerant livestock. General perception was that climate change increases the rate of sickness/infection, reduces family income and that frequency of flood and that drought has increased. Chi-square analysis indicated a positive and significant relationship between perception of climate change and agro-ecology (X2 =23.52; p<0.05), age(X2 =5.98; p<0.05), educational level(X2 =6.47; p<0.05), coping strategy(X2 =23.29; p<0.05) and communities(X2 =37.36; p<0.05). It was recommended that efforts should be geared towards developing and making available crop varieties and livestock breeds that are tolerant to adverse conditions associated to climate change such as diseases, flood, drought and temperature. A multi-media enlightenment campaign of the effects and possible coping strategies of climate change should be adopted by all tiers of government and NGOs to reach the farmers using available extension structure on ground. Also, farming communities can run local disaster risk committees to encourage local adaptation measures as survival tactics for the purpose of ensuring food security.
Ectoparasites of sheep in three agro-ecological zones in central Oromia, Ethiopia  [cached]
Bersissa Kumsa,Kebede Beyecha,Mesula Geloye
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research , 2012,
Abstract: A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors for ectoparasites infestation in sheep in three agro-ecological zones in central Oromia, Ethiopia, from October 2009 to April 2010. The study revealed that 637 (48.1%) of the 1325 sheep examined were infested with one or more ectoparasites. The ectoparasites identified were Bovicola ovis (27.2%), Melophagus ovinus (16.4%), Ctenocephalides sp. (2.3%), Linognathus africanus (1.2%), Linognathus ovillus (0.3%), Sarcoptes sp. (1.2%), Amblyomma variegatum (4.4%), Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (1.9%), Rhipicephalus pravus (1.9%), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus (1.1%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus (0.9%), Rhipicephalus praetextatus (1.1%) and Hyalomma truncatum (1.6%). Statistically significant difference was observed in prevalence of B. ovis amongst study agroecological zones: highland 36.6%, midland 20.9% and lowland 14.0%. Significantly higher prevalence was recorded in highland agroecological zone. A significantly (OR = 0.041, p < 0.001) higher prevalence of M. ovinus in the highland (31.7%) than in both the lowland (0%) and midland (1.9%) was observed. The risk of tick infestation in the lowland and midland was 9.883 times and 13.988 times higher than the risk in the highland, respectively. A significantly higher prevalence of Ctenocephalides species was encountered in both the lowland (OR = 4.738, p = 0.011) and midland (OR = 8.078, p = 0.000) than in the highland agro-ecological zone. However, a significant difference (p = 0.191) amongst agro-ecological zones was not found for the prevalence of Linognathus and Sarcoptes species. Statistically significant variation (p > 0.05) was never recorded in the prevalence of all the identified species of ectoparasites between male and female sheep hosts. However, a significantly (p = 0.006) higher prevalence of B. ovis was recorded between young and adult sheep. The risk of B. ovis infestation was 1.45 times higher in young than the adult sheep. Furthermore, a significantly (p < 0.001) higher prevalence of M. ovinus, B. ovis and Sarcoptes sp. was found between sheep with poor and a good body condition. The ever increasing threat of ectoparasites on overall sheep productivity and tanning industry in Ethiopia warrants urgent control intervention. Further studies on the role of ectoparasites in transmission of diseases to sheep, zoonotic importance, comparative prevalence and load, and the importance of sheep as alternative hosts in different agroecological zones, breeds and management systems in Ethiopia are recommended so as to des
State of sorghum downy mildew in maize in the Sudan and sahel savanna agro-ecological zones of Nigeria
A Kutama, B Aliyu, A Emechebe
Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: The incidence, distribution and prevalence of downy mildew in maize were investigated during the 2008 growing season following a planned–two time survey across the Sudan and the Sahel savanna agro-ecological zones of Nigeria. The occurrence of the disease was investigated in 102 and 120 farmers’ fields in 34 and 40 locations in the first and second surveys respectively. Average incidence (%) of the disease was obtained from a sample of 100 plants each from three farms per stop; each farm representing a replicate. Simple random sampling technique was employed in the selection of plants. Results of the survey have revealed that 20 out of the 34 locations visited during the first survey had maize with early symptoms of the disease while only 4 out of the 40 locations visited in the second survey was having the symptoms of the disease. The incidence of the disease was 8.20% and 1.12%, in the first and second survey respectively and therefore significantly different (p>0.05) indicating that the disease was more prevalent at seedling than at grain filling stage which is an indication of the absence of certified, sorghum downy mildew (SDM) free seeds in most of the regions surveyed. The incidence was also higher in the Sudan than in the Sahel savanna (16.28% and 3.28% first and second visits respectively). This might be probably because of differences in climate of the two zones and the fact that maize was grown more in the Sudan than in the Sahel savanna zone. Although the incidence was generally low, proper measures should be taken to avoid unexpected epidemic of the disease in the future.
The Spatio-Temporal Variability of Rainfall over the Agro-Ecological Zones of Ghana  [PDF]
Winifred A. Atiah, Leonard K. Amekudzi, Emmanuel Quansah, Kwasi Preko
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2019.93034
Abstract: Rainfall variability plays an important role in many socio-economic activities such as food security, livelihood and farming in Ghana. Rainfall impact studies are thus very crucial for proper management of these key sectors of the country. This paper examines the seasonal and annual rainfall variability in the four agro-ecological zones of Ghana from the CHIRPS V2 rainfall time series spanning a period of 1981-2015. The rainfall indices were computed with the aid of the FClimDex package whereas the trends of these indices were further tested using the Mann Kendall trend test. The results show good agreement (r ≥ 0.7) between CHIRPS V2 and gauge in almost all portions of country although high biases were observed especially in DJF season over parts of the Northeastern (NE) portions of the country. The mean seasonal rainfall climatology over the country is observed to be in the range of 20 - 80 mm, 60 - 200 mm, 100 - 220 mm and 40 - 180 mm in DJF, MAM, JJA and SON seasons respectively with high intensities of rainfall dominating Southwestern portions of the country. The trend analysis revealed positive trends of consecutive dry days in the Transition, Forest and Coastal zones and negative trends in the Savannah zone of the country. Decreasing trends of consecutive wet days are observed over the Savannah, Transition and Coastal zones whereas increasing trends dominate the Forest zone. Savannah, Forest and Transition zones show weak increasing trends of the number of heavy rainfall days whilst weak decreasing trends are observed over the Coastal zone of the country. Similarly, weak increasing trends of the number of very heavy rainfall days are observed over all the agro-ecological zones except in the Transition zone. It is observed that the annual wet day rainfall total has increasing trend in the Savannah and Forest zones of the country whereas decreasing trends cover the remainder of the zones. The trends of these indices in the agro-ecological zones were all significant at a significant value of 0.05. This paper assessed the performance of the CHIRPS V2 rainfall data over the region and reports on the biases in seasonal rainfall amounts which are limited in previous studies. These findings have adverse impacts on rain-fed agricultural practices, water resource management and food security over the country.
Technical Efficiency Across Agro-Ecological Zones in Ethiopia: The Impact of Poverty and Asset Endowments
Bamlaku A. Alemu,E.A. Nuppenau,H. Bolland
Agricultural Journal , 2013,
Abstract: Currently, Ethiopia focuses on agriculture so that it can spur growth in other sectors of the economy. In order to help policy makers understand factors affecting agriculture, studies on efficiency are important. Especially, the impact of poverty and asset endowments could be highly pronounced in an agrarian country such as Ethiopia. In this regard, the objectives of this study are two fold: to investigate efficiency variations across agro-ecological zones and to examine the impacts of poverty and asset endowments on inefficiency in the study area. Data were collected from 254 randomly selected households. Stochastic frontier production function was estimated and the results of the analysis revealed a mean technical efficiency of 75.68%. F-test also showed a statistically significant difference in technical efficiency among agro-ecological zones. On the other hand, maximum likelihood estimates indicated positive and significant elasticities for asset endowments including physical (land and draft power), financial (credit access and market) and human (labor and education). However, poverty was found to reduce efficiency levels significantly. Thus, future endeavoers should envisage better market and education access and reduced liquidity constraints.
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