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Prevalence of chronic head, neck and low back pain and associated factors in women residing in the Autonomous Region of Madrid (Spain)
Jiménez-Sánchez,Silvia; Fernández-de-las-Pe?as,César; Carrasco-Garrido,Pilar; Hernández-Barrera,Valentín; Alonso-Blanco,Cristina; Palacios-Ce?a,Domingo; Jiménez-García,Rodrigo;
Gaceta Sanitaria , 2012, DOI: 10.1016/j.gaceta.2011.10.012
Abstract: objective: to compare the prevalence of chronic headache (ch), chronic neck pain (cnp) and chronic low back pain (clbp) in the autonomous region of madrid by analyzing gender differences and to determine the factors associated with each pain location in women in 2007. methods: we analyzed data obtained from adults aged 16 years or older (n = 12,190) who participated in the 2007 madrid regional health survey. this survey includes data from personal interviews conducted in a representative population residing in family dwellings in madrid. the presence ch, cnp, and clbp was analyzed. sociodemographic features, self-perceived health status, lifestyle habits, psychological distress, drug consumption, use of healthcare services, the search for alternative solutions, and comorbid diseases were analyzed by using logistic regression models. results: the prevalence of ch, cnp and clbp was significantly higher (p<0.001) in women (7.3%, 8.4%, 14.1%, respectively) than in men (2.2%, 3.2%, 7.8%, respectively). in women, ch, cnp and cblp were significantly associated with having >3 chronic diseases (or 7.1, 8.5, 5.8, respectively), and with the use of analgesics and drugs for inflammation (or: 3.5, 1.95, 2.5, respectively). in the bivariate analysis, the factors associated with pain in distinct body locations differed between men and women. conclusions: this study found that ch, cnp and clbp are a major public health problem in women in central spain. women have a higher overall prevalence of chronic pain than men. chronic pain was associated with a higher use of analgesics and healthcare services.
Romanian Migration to the Community of Madrid (Spain): Patterns of Mobility and Return  [PDF]
Silvia Marcu
International Journal of Population Research , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/258646
Abstract: The article analyzes the process by which Romanian immigrants to the Autonomous Community of Madrid (Spain) return to their country. Starting with the empirical reality and the theoretical focuses on human mobility as a form of transnationalism, the article emphasises on the characteristics which distinguish the Romanian collective from other collectives of immigrants living in Spain; circular migration that creates work networks. The paper reflects how the intensive mobility contributes to a process that is continuous and partial—hardly ever final. The first part of the article presents the phases of Romanian migration to the Autonomous Community of Madrid. It then delves into the process by which Romanians return to their country of origin, while detailing those factors that influence their decision. The conclusions point towards a renewal of studies on mobility within the framework of the European Union that links the border dynamic with the migration process. 1. Introduction The fall of the Iron Curtain (1989) meant the first exercise of freedom along with the fall of the totalitarian system for the people of Eastern Europe. A people without a tradition of international migration were to experience foreign viewpoints that were directly inspired by the models that were closest at hand, the careers of those exiled by communist governments. This new mobility was to be noted in the global tendencies of migration worldwide. Throughout the past two decades, the migration of Romanians within Europe has been closely linked to the policies of the European Community. As of the 1990s, Spain became one of the destinations of Romanian emigration. While it was slow at first, as of 2002, with the opening of the EC borders as a result of the Schengen Treaty allowing free circulation of Romanians, emigration from Romania became greater. The flow of Romanians towards Spain intensified in 2007 when Romania entered the EU. Madrid has continued to be the Autonomous Community where the majority of Romanians have settled in Spain. Networks that favored intense cyclical mobility between Romania and Spain were formed, which has made it impossible to closely follow the annual, monthly, and even daily movement by Romanians. Between 2007 and 2009, Spain and other EU countries imposed a moratorium that prevented Romanians and Bulgarians from freely entering the labour market. After 2009, Spain lifted the moratorium and allowed free circulation for Romanians and Bulgarians (The moratorium on the free circulation of Romanian and Bulgarian workers within Spanish territory lasted
Increasing Imported Malaria in Southwest Madrid, Spain
S.M. Quevedo,A.C. Velasco,D. Martin,L. Barreales
International Journal of Tropical Medicine , 2012,
Abstract: We report a continuous increase of imported malaria cases in a Madrid District, from 8 patients seen in year 1999 to 39 in year 2004, parallel to the rising of immigrant population from malarious areas along the past 6 years. We describe their epidemiological and parasitological characteristics. Plasmodium falciparum was the most frequent species observed, accounting for 68% of the cases. Most patients were immigrants recently settled in Spain who return after a visit to their countries of origin, mainly sub-Saharan countries.
Epidemiological Study of Rickettsial Infections in Patients with Hypertransaminemia in Madrid (Spain)  [PDF]
Lourdes Lledó,Rosario González,María Isabel Gegúndez,María Beltrán,José Vicente Saz
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2009, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph6102526
Abstract: A retrospective analysis was performed to detect anti-rickettsial antibodies in the serum of patients with hypertransaminemia of unknown etiology, and in that of healthy members of the general population of Madrid (Spain). Among 143 patients 16 (11.2%) were positive for anti-R. conorii IgG antibodies and 7% for R. typhi. PCR analysis was performed in patients with IgM antibodies. Among 143 healthy subjects from the general population, seven (4.9%) were positive for anti-R. conorii IgG antibodies, and 2.8% for R. typhi. These results show that anti-rickettsial antibodies are more commonly detected in patients with hypertransaminemia than in healthy people.
NAO influence on extreme winter temperatures in Madrid (Spain)  [PDF]
L. Prieto,R. Garcia,J. Diaz,E. Hernandez
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2003,
Abstract: Extremely cold days (ECDs), with minimum temperatures lower than -4.6°C, have been analysed for Madrid. This threshold corresponds to the 5th percentile of the period 1963–1999. Adopting a case analysis approach, five synoptic patterns have been identified that produce these extremely low temperatures. Three of them are associated with cold air flows over the Iberian Peninsula, and the other two with a lack of significant circulation over the region. A nonlinear association with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) has been identified using log-linear models. The NAO positive phase leads to an increase in the winter frequency of those synoptic patterns associated with stagnant air flow over Iberia, while those characterised by cold, northern flows do not appear to be similarly influenced. Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology; synoptic-scale meteorology; general or miscellaneous)
Necesidades de formación profesional en salud ocupacional: La percepción de los profesores de Madrid, Espa a Vocational School Training in Occupational Health: Perception of Teachers in Madrid, Spain
David Cobos Sanchiz,Aitana Garí Pérez
Salud de los Trabajadores , 2007,
Abstract: En el abordaje de la problemática de la salud ocupacional, la Formación Profesional ha de significarse por su posicionamiento estratégico en el refuerzo de la cultura de la prevención que hoy es necesario desarrollar. Sin embargo, a pesar de los esfuerzos legislativos en materia de formación, educación y salud ocupacional, éstos aún no han calado en la práctica cotidiana de los centros de Formación profesional de la Comunidad de Madrid (Espa a). Los docentes constatan su propia falta de formación en esta materia y reclaman nuevos materiales didácticos y un mayor esfuerzo inversor en instalaciones, materiales y equipos. Como aspectos positivos se se alan el actual desarrollo curricular -que se considera adecuado y suficiente- y la Formación en Centros de Trabajo (prácticas) como una excelente oportunidad para consolidar buenas prácticas en materia de prevención de riesgos laborales. When addressing the problem of occupational health, vocational schools must be strategically positioned to reinforce a culture of prevention. However, although there have been legislative attempts in the areas of training, education and occupational health, these have not transcended into the daily practice of vocational schools in the Autonomous Community of Madrid (Spain). Teachers acknowledge their own lack of training in this field and demand new training materials as well as greater investment efforts in facilities, didactic materials and equipment. On the positive side, current curricular development, considered appropriate and satisfactory, and practical supervised workplace-based training provide an excellent opportunity to consolidate good occupational health and safety practices.
Autonomous Activist-Research. The case of the squatters' movement in Madrid  [cached]
Martínez López, Miguel ángel,Lorenzi Fernández, Elísabeth
Revista Internacional de Sociologia , 2012,
Abstract: Citizen participation has been recently incorporated in the design and implementation of different public policies but participants have often criticised that there is little room for autonomous modes of citizen participation within institutional frameworks. Which are the specific features of autonomous processes of citizen participation compared to the most institutional ones? How does autonomous participation develop? This article deals with the methodological aspects of autonomous participation. In doing so, we will present an experience of autonomous activist-research within the squatters’ movement of Madrid which lasted for two and a half years. In particular, we focus on the methodological decisions taken by activist-researchers and describe the major contributions of this participatory process. We argue that such an activist-research process was based upon three different strategies which provided a productive framework for the participants’ involvement: a) an open, horizontal and self-managed group of activist-researchers; b) an open-source and copy-left commitment in order to fulfill an equal access to the production of knowledge; c) a qualitative and comprehensive methodology which allowed to gather a wide range of information taking into account the social diversity within the squatters’ movement. La participación ciudadana ha sido recientemente incorporada en el dise o e implementación de diferentes políticas públicas, pero quienes participan han criticado a menudo que existe poco espacio para las modalidades autónomas de participación ciudadana dentro de los marcos institucionales. Cuáles son los rasgos específicos de los procesos autónomos de participación ciudadana comparados a los más institucionales? Cómo se desarrolla la participación autónoma? Este artículo expone algunos aspectos metodológicos de la participación autónoma. Presentamos una experiencia de investigación activista autónoma desarrollada con el movimiento de okupaciones de Madrid durante dos a os y medio. En particular, nos centramos en las decisiones metodológicas adoptadas por los investigadores-activistas y describimos las principales contribuciones de este proceso participativo. De este modo, argumentamos que este proceso de investigación-activista se fundamentó en tres estrategias que proporcionaron un entorno productivo para la implicación de los participantes: a) un grupo de investigadores activistas abierto, horizontal y autogestionado; b) un compromiso con el “open-source” y “copy-left” para garantizar un acceso igualitario a la producción de conocimiento; c) un
Prevalence and correlates of skin cancer risk behaviors in Madrid (Spain)
Galán,I?aki; Rodríguez-Laso,ángel; Díez-Ga?án,Lucía; Cámara,Enrique;
Gaceta Sanitaria , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0213-91112011000100008
Abstract: objective: to estimate the prevalence and correlates of skin cancer-related behaviors in a representative sample of the population of the region of madrid (spain). methods: we performed a cross-sectional study based on a telephone survey. a total of 2,007 participants aged 18-64 years completed a questionnaire that included items on knowledge about the risk of skin cancer, sun exposure, the use of ultraviolet (uv) lamps and sunburn during the previous year. logistic regression models were constructed, adjusted for gender, age, educational level and employment status. results: sun exposure as a risk factor for skin cancer was identified by 92.3% of participants and artificial tanning by 73.6%. knowledge of risk factors was greater among university graduates and women (p<.001). a total of 14.6% were usually exposed to the sun in the summer during the hours of maximum uv radiation, while 4.3% had used uv lamps during the previous year; the use of these lamps was more frequent among women (p<.001) and young people (p<.05). the prevalence of sunburn was 13.2% and was lower among women: odds ratio (or) 0.68 (95% ci: 0.51-0.90); this prevalence declined with greater age (p linear trend <0.001) and was higher among students: or 1.60 (95% ci: 1.07-2.40). conclusions: numerous sociodemographic factors are related to uv radiation exposure and sunburn, with young people at highest risk. uv exposure is more frequent among women, whereas sunburn is more common among men.
Spatial Hedonic Pricing Models for Testing the Adequacy of Acoustic Areas in Madrid, Spain
José-María Montero,Gema Fernández-Avilés,Román Mínguez
Investigaciones Regionales , 2011,
Abstract: Road traffic noise is one of the main concerns of large cities. Most of them have classified their territory in acoustic areas and have constructed strategic noise maps. From both sources we have elaborated seven types of acoustic neighbourhoods according to both their noise gap in regard to the legal standard and the percentage of population exposed to noise. A spatial Durbin model has been selected as the strategy that best models the impact of noise on housing prices. However, results for Madrid do not confirm the hedonic theory and indicate, as one of the possibilities, that the official acoustic areas in Madrid could be incorrectly designed.
Biomonitoring of exposure to environmental pollutants in newborns and their parents in Madrid, Spain (BioMadrid): study design and field work results
Aragonés,Nuria; Pérez-Gómez,Beatriz; Astray,Jenaro; Gil,Elisa; Pérez-Meixeira,Ana María; Paz,Concha de; Iriso,Andrés; Cisneros,Margot; Santos,Amparo de; Arias,Pedro; Sanz,Juan Carlos; Asensio,ángel; Fernández,Mario Antonio; González,María José; León,América de; García-Sagredo,José Miguel; Pollán,Marina; López-Abente,Gonzalo; Frutos García,José; Martínez,Mercedes;
Gaceta Sanitaria , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0213-91112008000500014
Abstract: in spain environmental surveillance has mainly relied on measures of selected pollutants in air, water, food and soil. a study was conducted in madrid to assess the feasibility of implementing a surveillance system of exposure among the general population to specific environmental pollutants, using bio-markers. the project was basically focused on the environment surrounding newborns. hence, the study population was made up of 145 triplets of pregnant women at around 8 months' gestation, their partners, and newborns from two areas, representing the two main types of urban environments in the region, i.e., the city of madrid and its outlying metropolitan belt. multiple biologic substrates were collected from each participant in order to assess the most suitable samples for an environmental surveillance system. the selected contaminants represent the main agents to which a population like that of madrid is exposed every day, including certain heavy metals, persistent organic pollutants and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, as well as micronuclei in peripheral blood, a commonly used unspecific index of cytogenetic damage. in addition, passive air samplers were placed around subjects' place of residence. this paper reports in detail on the design and response rates, summarizes field work results, and discusses some lessons learned.
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