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Antioxidant Activity of Some Plant Extracts Towards Xanthine Oxidase, Lipoxygenase and Tyrosinase  [PDF]
Chin-Hui Chen,Hsiu-Chen Chan,Yi-Tsu Chu,Hsin-Yi Ho,Pi-Yu Chen,Tzong-Huei Lee,Ching-Kuo Lee
Molecules , 2009, DOI: 10.3390/molecules14082947
Abstract: Natural products have the potential to be developed into new drugs for the treatment of various diseases. The aim of the present study was to screen the antioxidant activities of some common edible fruits, garden plants and medicinal plants indigenous to Taiwan. This was performed by assessing the activities of lipoxygenase, xanthine oxidase and tyrosinase following incubation with extracts from these plants. A further aim was to use HPLC-DAD and tyrosinase to chromatographically identify the antioxidative constituents obtained from an extract exhibiting strong antioxidative properties. The acetone extracts of 27 cultivated plant species from Taiwan were tested for antioxidant activities towards xanthine oxidase, tyrosinase and lipoxygenase using spectrophotometric assays. Koelreuteria henryi, Prunus campanulata, and Rhodiola rosea showed the highest xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities. Camellia sinensis, Rhodiola rosea, and Koelreuteria henryi exhibited good tyrosinase inhibitory activities and potent anti-lipoxygenase activities. As Koelreuteria henryi had notable significant inhibitory activities towards xanthine oxidase, tyrosinase, and lipoxygenase, it was further tested with tyrosinase and HPLC-DAD. The results from this part of the study revealed that the more powerful the antioxidant capability of the extracted component, the greater the decrease in peak height obtained after reacting with tyrosinase. Additional studies are warranted to further characterize the compounds responsible for the antioxidant properties of the examined extracts.
Evaluation of Trametes Lactinea Extracts on the Inhibition of Hyaluronidase, Lipoxygenase and Xanthine Oxidase Activities in Vitro  [PDF]
Yus Azila Yahaya,Mashitah Mat Don
Journal of Physical Science , 2012,
Abstract: Trametes lactinea (T. lactinea), a macrofungus belonging to the family of Polyporaceae was investigated for its ability to inhibit hyaluronidase, lipoxygenase and xanthine oxidase activities in vitro. Results showed that extracts from the supernatant and mycelia of T. lactinea significantly inhibited the activities of hyaluronidase and lipoxygenase with more than 80% inhibition. The presence of total phenolics and flavonoids were also determined in the fungus extracts. The highest total phenolics and flavonoids were found in the supernatant of T. lactinea culture. Linear regression analysis carried out has found no correlation between the bioactive compounds (phenolics and flavonoids) and the inhibition of the enzyme activities, p > 0.05. The gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) analysis carried out has identified the presence of other bioactive compounds in the extracts that may act as the enzyme inhibitors.
In vitro Antioxidant, Lipoxygenase and Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activities of Fractions from Cienfuegosia digitata Cav., Sida alba L. and Sida acuta Burn f. (Malvaceae)  [PDF]
K. Konate,A. Souza,A.Y. Coulibaly,N.T.R. Meda
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: In this study polyphenol content, antioxidant activity, lipoxygenase (LOX) and Xanthine Oxidase (XO) inhibitory effects of n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions of aqueous acetone extracts from S. alba L., S. acuta Burn f. and Cienfuegosia digitata Cav. were investigated. The total phenolics, flavonoids, flavonols and total tannins were determined by spectrophotometric methods using Folin-ciocalteu, AlCl3 reagents and tannic acid, respectively. The antioxidant potential was evaluated using three methods: inhibition of free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydramzyl (DPPH), ABTS radical cation decolorization assay and Iron (III) to iron (II) reduction activity (FRAP). For enzymatic activity, lipoxygenase and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities were used. This study shows a relationship between polyphenol contents, antioxidant and enzymatic activities. Present results showed that ethyl acetate and dichloromethane fractions elicit the highest polyphenol content, antioxidant and enzymatic activities.
Xanthine urolithiasis  [cached]
Gargah Tahar,Essid Afif,Labassi Aymen,Hamzaoui Mourad
Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation , 2010,
Abstract: Hereditary xanthinuria type I, a defect of purine matabolism, results from a genetic deficiency of xanthine oxidase. It is an uncommon cause of stone formation in children. We report here two children with xanthine urolithiasis. The first patient was an 8-year-old boy who presented with repeated episodes of hematuria evaluated with excretory urography, which demonstrated radio-lucent pelvic stone in the right kidney, causing hydronephrosis. He had pyelolithotomy, and the extracted stone consisted of pure xanthine. Family study revealed an asymptomatic xanthinuria in younger brother. The second patient was a 5-year-old boy who had a 2-week history of abdominal pain and gross hematuria. Conventional excretory intravenous urography showed a non-functioning right kidney. Nephrectomy was performed, and histology revealed end-stage pyelonephritis. The calculi consisted of pure xanthine. In both patients, plasma and urinary concentrations of uric acid were low but xanthine and hypoxanthine concentrations were markedly elevated. Xanthine uroli-thiasis is usually a benign condition, easy to prevent or cure by appropriate alkalinization, forced hydration and restriction of dietary purines. However asymptomatic, and therefore undiagnosed, stones may invade the kidney and urinary tract, resulting in destruction of parenchyma, nephrec-tomy and renal failure.
Antimicrobial Activity of Indigofera suffruticosa  [PDF]
S nia Pereira Leite,Jeymesson Raphael Cardoso Vieira,Paloma Lys de Medeiros,Roberta Maria Pereira Leite,Vera Lúcia de Menezes Lima,Haroudo Satiro Xavier,Edeltrudes de Oliveira Lima
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2006, DOI: 10.1093/ecam/nel010
Abstract: Various organic and aqueous extracts of leaves of Indigofera suffruticosa Mill (Fabaceae) obtained by infusion and maceration were screened for their antibacterial and antifungal activities. The extracts were tested against 5 different species of human pathogenic bacteria and 17 fungal strains by the agar-solid diffusion method. Most of the extracts were devoid of antifungal and antibacterial activities, except the aqueous extract of leaves of I. suffruticosa obtained by infusion, which showed strong inhibitory activity against the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 5000 μg ml−1. The MIC values to dermatophyte strains were 2500 μg ml−1 against Trichophyton rubrum (LM-09, LM-13) and Microsporum canis. This study suggests that aqueous extracts of leaves of I. suffruticosa obtained by infusion can be used in the treatment of skin diseases caused by dermatophytes.
Palynomorphology of Some Species of Indigofera L.  [PDF]
C.U. Nwachukwu,H.O. Edeoga
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: Palynomorphology of eight species of Indigofera of the tribe Galegeae from Nigeria was investigated with the aid of light microscope. Results from this investigation revealed that these plants were characterised by different pollen grains whose structure differ markedly. The variations in the grains were so obvious that they could be added to other taxonomic information and used in an attempt to determine the relevance of palynomorphology in resolving the confusion in the nomenclature of these taxa. The monoporate, tricolpate and polyporate pollen grain aperture of the eight species of Indigofera are being documented for the first time in these taxa. Similarly the pollen grain shape: circular (round) in I. paniculata, I. stenophylla, I. tinctoria and I. senegalensis, elliptic in I. hirsuta and oval in I. terminalis I. pulchra and I. prieureana are equally distinct and significant in the characterization of these taxa.
PSEUDO CHOLINESTERASE LEVEL
Samina Javed
The Professional Medical Journal , 2001,
Abstract: 200 healthy persons in Punjabi population have been assessed for level of pseudo cholinesterase inmales and females of different age groups (Substrate: butyryl thiocholine iodide). There was no evidenceof any age dependency or sex specific distinction in children (1-10 years) nor were there any age dependentchanges observed in males(15-60 years). In females(10-40 years) an age dependent difference ofcholinesterase values became apparent regardless of pregnancy or use of hormonal contraceptives. The catalyticconcentration was found lower in younger females(12-40 years) than in older ones (above 40 years) whereenzyme level in old age group did not differ from those of males and children.
Antiulcerogenic activity of Indigofera truxillensis Kunth
Cola-Miranda, Maira;Barbastefano, Victor;Hiruma-Lima, Clélia Akiko;Calvo, Tamara Regina;Vilegas, Wagner;Brito, Alba Regina Monteiro Souza;
Biota Neotropica , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S1676-06032006000300004
Abstract: the genus indigofera (fabaceae) is used in folk medicine to treat gastrointestinal pain. in this study, we investigated the antiulcerogenic properties of indigofera truxillensis kunth. oral administration of meoh extract did not produce any signals of acute toxicity. the antiulcerogenic activity was assessed in different models of acute gastric ulcers (100% ethanol, piroxicam 30 mg.kg-1, hypothermic restraint stress and pylorus ligature) in mice and rats. the animals were treated with the drugs lanzoprazole (30 mg.kg-1) or cimetidine (100 mg.kg-1) as positive controls depending on the performed model. in another experiment with ethanol-induced ulcers in rats, n-ethylmaleimide (nem), a sulfhydryl group blocker, was also used. the meoh extract, at doses of 250, 500 and 1000 mg.kg-1, inhibited the gastric lesions in all experiments: a) by 62%, 69% and 32%, respectively, in piroxicam-induced lesions, b) by 43%, 71% and 98%, in ethanol-induced lesions, c) by 69%, 64 and 89%, in hypothermic-restraint stress-induced lesions, d) by 73%, 82% and 84%, in pylorus ligature lesions. significant changes in the total gastric acid levels were also found after intraduodenal administration of the meoh extract in the ligated pylorus model. pre treatment with nem reduced partially the antiulcerogenic activity of the meoh extract in ethanol-induced gastric lesions. this result indicates an increase in the levels of non-protein sulfhydryl groups by meoh extract in the gastric mucosa. these results indicate that the meoh extract has antisecretory and citoprotective effects that may be related to the presence of flavonoids detected by phytochemical analysis.
Estudo farmacognóstico de Indigofera microcarpa Desv. (Fabaceae)
Lima, Adriana Karla de;Amorim, Elba Lúcia Cavalcanti de;Aquino, Thiago Mendon?a de;Lima, Cláudia Sampaio de Andrade;Pimentel, Rejane Magalh?es de Mendon?a;Higino, Jane Sheila;Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino de;
Revista Brasileira de Ciências Farmacêuticas , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-93322003000400004
Abstract: pharmacognostical study of indigofera microcarpa with diagnostic aims was performed. the anatomy of the leaves, stem and roots and the presence of typical features of this family and the genus indigofera was described and confirmed. the phytochemistry screening showed the presence of phenols, tannins, flavanones, steroids, terpenoids, saponins and quaternary compounds.
Indigofera suffruticosa: An Alternative Anticancer Therapy  [PDF]
Jeymesson Raphael Cardoso Vieira,Ivone Ant nia de Souza,Silene Carneiro do Nascimento,S nia Pereira Leite
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2007, DOI: 10.1093/ecam/nel102
Abstract: Indigofera suffruticosa Mill (Fabeceae) occurs in the Northeast countryside and has intensive popular use in the treatment of infectious, inflammatory and other processes. The main aim of the present work was to investigate the cytotoxic and antitumor effects of aqueous extracts of leaves of I. suffruticosa obtained by infusion and maceration as well as to evaluate the toxicological properties. Aqueous extracts did not exhibit cytotoxicity against HEp-2 (human epidermoid cancer cell) cell lines by MTT method. From the aqueous extract by infusion, the toxicological assay showed low order of toxicity. The antitumor effect of aqueous extracts by infusion (64.53%) and maceration (62.62%) against sarcoma 180 in mice at a dose of 50 mg kg−1 (intraperitoneally), based on low order of toxicity was comparable to the control group, which showed 100% development. Considering the low order of toxicity and that it is highly effective in inhibiting growth of solid tumors, the aqueous extracts of leaves of I. suffruticosa may be used as an alternative anticancer agent.
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