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Fair Allocation Without Trade  [PDF]
Avital Gutman,Noam Nisan
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: We consider the age-old problem of allocating items among different agents in a way that is efficient and fair. Two papers, by Dolev et al. and Ghodsi et al., have recently studied this problem in the context of computer systems. Both papers had similar models for agent preferences, but advocated different notions of fairness. We formalize both fairness notions in economic terms, extending them to apply to a larger family of utilities. Noting that in settings with such utilities efficiency is easily achieved in multiple ways, we study notions of fairness as criteria for choosing between different efficient allocations. Our technical results are algorithms for finding fair allocations corresponding to two fairness notions: Regarding the notion suggested by Ghodsi et al., we present a polynomial-time algorithm that computes an allocation for a general class of fairness notions, in which their notion is included. For the other, suggested by Dolev et al., we show that a competitive market equilibrium achieves the desired notion of fairness, thereby obtaining a polynomial-time algorithm that computes such a fair allocation and solving the main open problem raised by Dolev et al.
Mechanism Design for Fair Division  [PDF]
Richard Cole,Vasilis Gkatzelis,Gagan Goel
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: We revisit the classic problem of fair division from a mechanism design perspective, using {\em Proportional Fairness} as a benchmark. In particular, we aim to allocate a collection of divisible items to a set of agents while incentivizing the agents to be truthful in reporting their valuations. For the very large class of homogeneous valuations, we design a truthful mechanism that provides {\em every agent} with at least a $1/e\approx 0.368$ fraction of her Proportionally Fair valuation. To complement this result, we show that no truthful mechanism can guarantee more than a $0.5$ fraction, even for the restricted class of additive linear valuations. We also propose another mechanism for additive linear valuations that works really well when every item is highly demanded. To guarantee truthfulness, our mechanisms discard a carefully chosen fraction of the allocated resources; we conclude by uncovering interesting connections between our mechanisms and known mechanisms that use money instead.
Fair trade practices in the Northwest Brazilian Amazon
Martins, Rafael D'Almeida;
BAR. Brazilian Administration Review , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1807-76922011000400005
Abstract: this paper describes and analyzes the arte baniwa project, a sustainable development project based on the production and commercialization of baniwa indigenous basketwork with the support of the instituto socioambiental (isa), a major ngo in brazil. the project seeks to enhance the value of the baniwa basket-making tradition, increase production within the limits of the sustainable use of natural resources, generate income for indigenous producers and their political associations, and train indigenous leadership in the skills of business management. the methodology encompasses a literature review on fair trade and builds upon ethnographic and participative research methods. the narrative and analysis of the case study comprise a framework that is two-fold: first, it looks at existing inter-organizational tiers between actors and identifies the presence of two different logics within the project; second, it encompasses the reality of many emerging fair trade initiatives in brazil which harness market forces to pursue local sustainable development. the paper argues that isa has acted as a boundary organization by communicating, translating and mediating between traditional (indigenous) knowledge and western culture. by doing so, it was able to mobilize the project's capacity to promote sustainable development.
Fair Trade Practices in the Northwest Brazilian Amazon  [PDF]
Rafael D’Almeida Martins
BAR. Brazilian Administration Review , 2011,
Abstract: This paper describes and analyzes the Arte Baniwa project, a sustainable development project based on the production and commercialization of Baniwa indigenous basketwork with the support of the Instituto Socioambiental (ISA), a major NGO in Brazil. The project seeks to enhance the value of the Baniwa basketmaking tradition, increase production within the limits of the sustainable use of natural resources, generate income for indigenous producers and their political associations, and train indigenous leadership in the skills of business management. The methodology encompasses a literature review on fair trade and builds upon ethnographic and participative research methods. The narrative and analysis of the case study comprise a framework that is two-fold: first, it looks at existing inter-organizational tiers between actors and identifies the presence of two different logics within the project; second, it encompasses the reality of many emerging fair trade initiatives in Brazil which harness market forces to pursue local sustainable development. The paper argues that ISA has acted as a boundary organization by communicating, translating and mediating between traditional (indigenous) knowledge and Western culture. By doing so, it was able to mobilize the project’s capacity to promote sustainable development.
Mechanism Design for Fair Allocation  [PDF]
Abhinav Sinha,Achilleas Anastasopoulos
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: Mechanism design for a social utility being the sum of agents' utilities (SoU) is a well-studied problem. There are, however, a number of problems of theoretical and practical interest where a designer may have a different objective than maximization of the SoU. One motivation for this is the desire for more equitable allocation of resources among agents. A second, more subtle, motivation is the fact that a fairer allocation indirectly implies less variation in taxes which can be desirable in a situation where (implicit) individual agent budgetary constraints make payment of large taxes unrealistic. In this paper we study a family of social utilities that provide fair allocation (with SoU being subsumed as an extreme case) and derive conditions under which Bayesian and Dominant strategy implementation is possible. Furthermore, it is shown how a simple modification of the above mechanism can guarantee full Bayesian implementation. Through a numerical example it is shown that the proposed method can result in significant gains both in allocation fairness and tax reduction.
The Trade Fair: Introducing ESP Multimedia at a Technical University in Taiwan
Shu-Chiao Tsai,B. Davis
International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning (iJET) , 2008,
Abstract: This discussion provides an overview of steps in developing and assessing ESP multimedia courseware at a technical university in Taiwan. The courseware is designed to expand language skills that foster Chinese learners of English as they develop communicative skills for international business. Student evaluations of the prototype for its Trade Fair component suggests that it is useful for situating the learning process and simulating social cues, which in turn supports building the communicative skills needed for the kinds of interaction demanded by tourism, travel, hospitality, and similar areas of international business.
The governance of fair trade system: evidence from small honey producers in Rio Grande do Sul
Vieira, Luciana Marques;Maia, Tatiana;
BAR. Brazilian Administration Review , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1807-76922009000400007
Abstract: this paper discusses fair trade [ft] certification as a way to include small producers in global value chains, and identifies the main barriers for small honey producers from rs to meet these criteria. a new trading system such as ft has been providing access for food products coming from small farmers from developing countries. the method of this study integrates global value chain analysis and the methodology proposed by paul (2005) to analyse ft as development projects. this study is three-fold: first to characterise the ft system; then to present the role of governance by third party certifiers such as flo-cert and finally to provide empirical evidence of the main difficulties that small producers have to comply with ft, such as export and organisation capacity. our findings show that large retailers recently became big players in the ft system. the certification costs are high but can provide market access though there is a risk of overspecialisation.
The Governance of Fair Trade System: Evidence from Small Honey Producers in Rio Grande do Sul  [PDF]
Luciana Marques Vieira,Tatiana Maia
BAR. Brazilian Administration Review , 2009,
Abstract: This paper discusses Fair Trade [FT] certification as a way to include small producers in global value chains, and identifies the main barriers for small honey producers from RS to meet these criteria. A new trading system such as FT has been providing access for food products coming from small farmers from developing countries. The method of this study integrates global value chain analysis and the methodology proposed by Paul (2005) to analyse FT as development projects. This study is three-fold: first to characterise the FT system; then to present the role of governance by third party certifiers such as FLO-CERT and finally to provide empirical evidence of the main difficulties that small producers have to comply with FT, such as export and organisation capacity. Our findings show that large retailers recently became big players in the FT system. The certification costs are high but can provide market access though there is a risk of overspecialisation.
Fair Trade and the Role of Small Farmers and ARBs on Food Sovereignty in the Philippines
Errol Ramos
Kasarinlan : Philippine Journal of Third World Studies , 2011,
Abstract: In light of global economic uncertainties, food shortages in many parts of the world, and climate change that greatly affects global agricultural production, how can small farmers and agrarian reform beneficiaries (ARBs), a large majority of which own one or less than one hectare of land, be truly the champions of food sovereignty and ultimately become the frontrunners of the new agricultural revolution in the Philippines? The answer would lie somehow on how small farmers and ARBs will be motivated to produce and how the government and the private sector will contribute effectively in arresting the decline of agricultural productivity. This paper explores how small farmers and ARBs must take the lead in agricultural development for the country to achieve food sovereignty and win in globalization.
The role of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) to facilitate the international trade in animals and animal products : policy and trade issues  [cached]
G.K. Bruckner
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research , 2010, DOI: 10.4102/ojvr.v76i1.78
Abstract: The international trade in animals and animal products has become a sensitive issue for both developed and developing countries by posing an important risk for the international spread of animal and human pathogens whilst at the same time being an essential activity to ensure world-wide food security and food safety. The OIE has since its founding in 1924, applied a democratic and transparent decision-making process to continuously develop and review international standards for animal health and zoonoses to facilitate trade in animals and animal products. The role of the OIE is also mandated by the World Trade Organization (WTO) as international reference point for standards related to animal health. In support of its overall objective of promoting animal health world-wide, the OIE has also launched several other initiatives such as the improvement of the governance of veterinary services within its member countries and territories and to enhance the availability of diagnostic and scientific expertise on a more even global geographical distribution. Several trade facilitating concepts such as country, zonal and compartment freedom from disease as well the trade in disease free commodities has been introduced to enhance the trade in animals and animal products for all its members including those from developing and transitional countries who are still in the process of enhancing to full compliance with international sanitary standards.
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