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Concept annotation in the CRAFT corpus
Michael Bada, Miriam Eckert, Donald Evans, Kristin Garcia, Krista Shipley, Dmitry Sitnikov, William A. Baumgartner, K. Bretonnel Cohen, Karin Verspoor, Judith A. Blake, Lawrence E. Hunter
BMC Bioinformatics , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2105-13-161
Abstract: This paper presents the concept annotations of the Colorado Richly Annotated Full-Text (CRAFT) Corpus, a collection of 97 full-length, open-access biomedical journal articles that have been annotated both semantically and syntactically to serve as a research resource for the biomedical natural-language-processing (NLP) community. CRAFT identifies all mentions of nearly all concepts from nine prominent biomedical ontologies and terminologies: the Cell Type Ontology, the Chemical Entities of Biological Interest ontology, the NCBI Taxonomy, the Protein Ontology, the Sequence Ontology, the entries of the Entrez Gene database, and the three subontologies of the Gene Ontology. The first public release includes the annotations for 67 of the 97 articles, reserving two sets of 15 articles for future text-mining competitions (after which these too will be released). Concept annotations were created based on a single set of guidelines, which has enabled us to achieve consistently high interannotator agreement.As the initial 67-article release contains more than 560,000 tokens (and the full set more than 790,000 tokens), our corpus is among the largest gold-standard annotated biomedical corpora. Unlike most others, the journal articles that comprise the corpus are drawn from diverse biomedical disciplines and are marked up in their entirety. Additionally, with a concept-annotation count of nearly 100,000 in the 67-article subset (and more than 140,000 in the full collection), the scale of conceptual markup is also among the largest of comparable corpora. The concept annotations of the CRAFT Corpus have the potential to significantly advance biomedical text mining by providing a high-quality gold standard for NLP systems. The corpus, annotation guidelines, and other associated resources are freely available at http://bionlp-corpora.sourceforge.net/CRAFT/index.shtml webcite.
The ancient craft of gold beating
Eric D. Nicholson
Gold Bulletin , 1979, DOI: 10.1007/BF03215119
Abstract: Transferable gold coatings, the manufacture and application of which were reviewed in Gold Bulletin a year ago, are now widely used for decorative purposes. True beaten gold leaf, however, remains the material of choice for prestige gilding in which durability is called for. Gold beating by hand has been practised for some five thousand years and the exponents of this ancient craft, to whom ‘address is requisite’, are justifiably proud of the traditions associated with it.
DEVELOPMENT OF INTERACTIVE MULTIMEDIA COURSEWARE (E-CRAFT) FOR CRAFT EDUCATION  [PDF]
Salyani OSMAN,,Noraidah SAHARI,,Nor Azan Mat ZIN
The Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education , 2012,
Abstract: The way of teaching and learning traditional crafts have always used traditional apprenticeship learning methods where the expert facilitates transfer of practice skill sets to novices. As a craft has been taught in conventional approach, the students and experts have been facing several problems especially when expert needs to teach a group of students. An appropriate mapping of craft education and Information and Communication Technologies using Multimedia technology for instance, has the potential in transforming traditional craft learning into more flexible environment. This paper reports on a research project on development of an interactive multimedia courseware package for teaching and learning traditional craft called e-CRAFT. The e-CRAFT is specially designed for songket weaving course taught to certificate and diploma students from Fakulti Seni Kraf Tenunan in their first year study at Institut Kraf Negara, Malaysia (National Craft Institute). The courseware was developed in a web-based environment and overall development process was based on the Dick and Carey's process model and conceptual Instructional Design framework. It is made up of eight learning modules: Introduction, Materials & Tools, Knowing Motifs, Learn How to Weave, Quizzes & Test, Online Discussion, Glossary and Help module. In order to test whether the courseware is suitable in terms of usability, pilot testing was done to a sample of 10 students. The results from pilot test received positive feedback which signifies the courseware is considered acceptable for effectiveness study and help for further improve of the e-CRAFT courseware.
Defining Craft Quality Theory Framework in Sloyd Education  [cached]
Mika Mets?rinne,Manne Kallio
Techne Series : Research in Sloyd Education and Craft Science A , 2011,
Abstract: Constructing a unique craft quality theory for artifact production is an essential part of sloyd teacher students′ research studies during which students are faced with establishing the perspectives of craft methodology for the master s thesis. The student s craft quality theory construction is based not only on his inherent needs or problems with the product and process but on constructing and testing the theory as a whole. To construct a craft quality theory based on the discipline knowledge of sloyd education, the student shall define the values representing the craft as well as its unseen qualities. The purpose of this article is to describe the perspectives sloyd teacher students (N69) apply to craft quality theory construction in their master s theses. The perspectives applicable to constructing a craft quality theory are based on the idea of educational growth towards research-based crafts teachership. The main results constitute the analyses of students craft research tasks and craft quality targets defined as theory constructions. In conclusion, the results are compared to the perspectives in theory construction in the capacity of a craft quality theory framework. Keywords: method, sloyd, teacher students, master′s theses, phenomenography URN:NBN:no-29960
FISHING AS LIVELIHOOD IN WEST BENGAL  [PDF]
NASRIN BANU
Indian Streams Research Journal , 2013,
Abstract: Fishing is one of the oldest means of livelihood of mankind and fisheries sectors play an important role in the national economy and in the socio-economic development of in India. West Bengal is one of the leading fish producing states in the country and the largest producer of fish seeds in the country. Fishery-related livelihoods are complex, dynamic and adaptive. A livelihood comprises the assets (natural, physical, human, financial and social capital), the activities and the access to these (mediated by institutions and social relations) that together determine the living gained by the individual or households. This paper is an attempt to focus on fisheries livelihoods in West Bengal. This study is based on secondary sources of data. The results show that fisheries livelihoods are more popular in southern districts in the state and it is less popular in the northern part of the states.
CRAFT: ClusteR-specific Assorted Feature selecTion  [PDF]
Vikas K. Garg,Cynthia Rudin,Tommi Jaakkola
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: We present a framework for clustering with cluster-specific feature selection. The framework, CRAFT, is derived from asymptotic log posterior formulations of nonparametric MAP-based clustering models. CRAFT handles assorted data, i.e., both numeric and categorical data, and the underlying objective functions are intuitively appealing. The resulting algorithm is simple to implement and scales nicely, requires minimal parameter tuning, obviates the need to specify the number of clusters a priori, and compares favorably with other methods on real datasets.
Examining Design and Craft Education in Iceland. Curriculum development and present situation Examining Design and Craft Education in Iceland. Curriculum development and present situation  [cached]
Brynjar Olafsson,Gisli Thorsteinsson
FORMakademisk , 2010,
Abstract: This article reports a research project that examined the background, status, understanding of and attitude to Design and Craft education (H nnun og smíei) in Icelandic elementary schools. The main conclusions showed that certain aspects of Design and Craft need to be further defined in order to strengthen its position in the school system. Concepts were not clearly defined and research on Design and Craft education was lacking. The participants’ attitudes to Design and Craft were positive and the subject was popular amongst students. However, results showed a lack of understanding of the differences between basic terms such as Art, Design and Craft. All of the interviewees thought Design and Craft were important subjects for individualized learning and wanted to give them a more prominent role in general education. Design and Craft education in the Icelandic National Curriculum has not been fully realised. The research identified that schools have not allocated extra hours for the subjects, even though local authorities were supportive and flexibility existed in the time schedule. Lack of finances was, furthermore, not a hindrance to increased Design and Craft education. This article reports a research project that examined the background, status, understanding of and attitude to Design and Craft education (H nnun og smíei) in Icelandic elementary schools. The main conclusions showed that certain aspects of Design and Craft need to be further defined in order to strengthen its position in the school system. Concepts were not clearly defined and research on Design and Craft education was lacking. The participants’ attitudes to Design and Craft were positive and the subject was popular amongst students. However, results showed a lack of understanding of the differences between basic terms such as Art, Design and Craft. All of the interviewees thought Design and Craft were important subjects for individualized learning and wanted to give them a more prominent role in general education. Design and Craft education in the Icelandic National Curriculum has not been fully realised. The research identified that schools have not allocated extra hours for the subjects, even though local authorities were supportive and flexibility existed in the time schedule. Lack of finances was, furthermore, not a hindrance to increased Design and Craft education.
The Internationalisation Process of the Smaller Firm: An Examination of the Craft Microenterprise
Ian Fillis
The Open Business Journal , 2008, DOI: 10.2174/1874915100801010053]
Abstract: This work involves an examination of the internationalisation process of the smaller firm, focusing on the craft enterprise in the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland. Craft sector analysis was carried out in order to determine historical precedents as well as to assist in the identification of industry and firm level factors impinging upon domestic and export market behaviour. A range of internationalisation theories are discussed, with the conclusion that the majority of these frameworks fail to readily explain smaller firm exporting behaviour. More recent developments such as the born global firm, the instant international and networking for internationalisation are deemed more appropriate fits for smaller firm internationalisation research. Quantitative results identify the majority of craft firms as microenterprises with almost one half operating as a single person business. Qualitative analysis enabled profiling of craft firm types to be carried out. Four orientations are uncovered: the entrepreneur, the idealist, the lifestyler and the latecomer. A composite framework of the factors uncovered in the analysis is constructed in order to better explain the process of smaller firm internationalisation.
Potential for Commercialization and Value Chain Improvement of Wild Food and Medicinal Plants for Livelihood Enhancement in Uganda  [cached]
Akankwasah Barirega,John RS Tabuti,Patrick Van Damme,Jacob Godfrey Agea
Current Research Journal of Biological Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Uganda is endowed with a wide diversity of wild plant species that can be commercialized for livelihood enhancement and poverty reduction. These wild plants are increasingly becoming a valuable source of livelihoods for many people through household use as well as trading as medicine, food and craft materials. However existing literature on commercialization of wild food and medicinal plants in Uganda is largely anecdotal and disjointed. In this review, we analyze available literature on importance of wild plants in sustaining people’s livelihoods, value chains as production and marketing approaches in commercialization of wild plants, the demand and supply for wild plants products and its implication for commercialization of wild food and medicinal plants, ecological implications for commercializing wild plants and the potential for wild plant commercialization to contribute to household income. The literature points to gaps in literature, which necessitate further studies to assess the importance of wild plants in the daily life of households, market potential of the wild plants and their contribution to the local people’s livelihoods.
Changes in Livelihood and Caste Relations in Udipur  [PDF]
Madhusudan Subedi
Himalayan Journal of Sociology and Anthropology , 2014, DOI: 10.3126/hjsa.v6i0.10690
Abstract: There have been changes in the economic and social relations in Nepal. The market has been providing opportunities for choosing livelihood options. Livelihood diversification, particularly non-farm, appears to be growing in extent and importance in recent years. Although local wage labor has increased in farm sector, agriculture is not a path out of poverty. The relationship between caste and hereditary occupations has been less significant and there has occurred a significant shift in the bases of power. There is an increase in class consciousness and a decrease in caste consciousness; wealth is replacing birth as the basis of social power and prestige. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/hjsa.v6i0.10690 ? Himalayan Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol.6 2014: 86-102
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