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Photostimulation of male broiler breeders to different photoperiods
MH Floyd, NC Tyler
South African Journal of Animal Science , 2011,
Abstract: The effect of photostimulation of male broiler breeders (n = 144) to different photoperiods (8-h control and 9, 9.5, 10, 10.5, 11, 11.5, 12, 12.5, 13, 14 and 18 h) applied at 20 weeks of age, on age at first semen production, testis weights, as predicted by comb area, and semen characteristics at the reported age at first egg of females provided the same photostimulation photoperiods, as well as semen characteristics during the production cycle and comb area and testis weights at 51 weeks, was investigated. Photostimulation photoperiod did not affect age at first semen production, sperm motility, morphology or predicted testis weights. Sperm concentration, at the reported age at first egg of females on the same photostimulation photoperiod, decreased with increasing photostimulation photoperiod. Large variation in the male response to photostimulation was observed, however, photostimulation to 12 h or higher resulted in reduced variation in the age at first semen production. Males provided with the longer photostimulatory photoperiods had smaller testis weights at 51 weeks of age, although this was not associated with decreased sperm concentration, increased abnormal sperm morphology or reduced comb area. When male and female broiler breeders are reared on the same lighting regimen, initial male reproductive potential is not adversely affected, provided that the photostimulation photoperiod does not exceed the saturation daylength of 13 h, above which, sperm concentration is lower at the reported female age at first egg, which could negatively affect egg fertility near peak production, and the onset of adult photorefractoriness appears to be advanced, which could negatively affect egg fertility towards the end of production.
Chronic Renal Insufficiency in an Adolescent Male with Bilateral Urolithiasis: A Case Report
OM Ibadin, IE Woghiren, T Marchie
Nigerian Journal of Paediatrics , 2003,
Abstract: The rare case of a 15-year-old male adolescent with chronic renal insufficiency, bilateral hydronephrosis, and urolithiasis, is presented. Characteristic features included abdominal mass, delayed presentation, marked growth retardation and profound anaemia. In the absence of a lithotripser, a combination of ureteroplasty and nephrectomy of the more severely affected kidney was carried out. Other constraints encountered in the course of management included parental poverty and ignorance and dearth of facilities for renal replacement therapy. Key Words: Chronic renal insufficiency, Bilateral urolithiasis Nigerian Journal of Paediatrics 30(3) 2003:96-99
UROLITHIASIS
Safdar H Javed Sial
The Professional Medical Journal , 1997,
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To lay bare the possible different epidemiological factors of urinary disease at Faisalabad.DESIGN: Prospective study. Setting: Allied Hospital Faisalabad. PERIOD: three years, May 1992 to April1995. PATIENTS: A total of 157 consecutive patients with urolithiasis irrespective of age and sex. Thedifferent aspects of urinary stone disease and management are discussed.
The effect of age at photostimulation of male broiler breeders on testes growth and the attainment of sexual maturity
NC Tyler, RM Gous
South African Journal of Animal Science , 2009,
Abstract: Male broiler breeders were photostimulated at different ages (56, 77, 98, 119, 147 and 161 d) during the period of growth prior to achieving sexual maturity to observe their response to photoperiod stimulation. Birds were sampled at regular intervals to measure the average testis weight - these values responding curvilinearly to the age at photostimulation, similar to the attainment of sexual maturity observed previously in females. However, males reached sexual maturity at an earlier age than females, as measured by the start of semen production. Based on the age at first semen production, no differences in the mean age at sexual maturity (ranging from 164 to 172 d) resulted from the different ages at photostimulation. Testis weights from males on different photostimulation treatments showed that some males respond to early stimulation, but from 189 d of age some of these early photostimulated males still had an average testis weight of less than 10 g, while males photostimulated 98 d and later all had an average testis weight over 10 g. Serum testosterone concentration measured at 351 d also showed that early photostimulation resulted in two groups of birds that either responded or not. At 351 d the serum testosterone concentration was more evenly distributed in males photostimulated after 98 d, while males photostimulated before 98 d had either high or low serum testosterone concentrations. Directional asymmetry was observed in testis weights, with the left testis being bigger than the right. Other bilateral traits measured also showed directional asymmetry, an indication of developmental instability. However, the degree of relative asymmetry was not related to treatment. All males should respond to photostimulation by 98 d but some respond earlier, and these could be used by broiler breeding companies to eliminate seasonality in these birds.
Urolithiasis in Children
ST Esfahani
Iranian Journal of Pediatrics , 1999,
Abstract: Urolithiasis used to be a surgical problem and was supposed to be cured when the calculi were removed by operation. Nowadays, it is known that most urinary calculi are built under special medical circumstances that should be treated when rebuilding of the calculi has to be prevented. Some calculi can be solved by medical treatment. In this article different aspects of urolithiasis in children and current medical methods of its prophylaxias and therapy are discussed.
Paternity and Dominance Loss in Male Breeders: The Cost of Helpers in a Cooperatively Breeding Mammal  [PDF]
Sophie Lardy, Aurélie Cohas, Emmanuel Desouhant, Marion Tafani, Dominique Allainé
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0029508
Abstract: Paternity insurance and dominance tenure length are two important components of male reproductive success, particularly in species where reproduction is highly skewed towards a few individuals. Identifying the factors affecting these two components is crucial to better understand the pattern of variation in reproductive success among males. In social species, the social context (i.e. group size and composition) is likely to influence the ability of males to secure dominance and to monopolize reproduction. Most studies have analyzed the factors affecting paternity insurance and dominance tenure separately. We use a long term data set on Alpine marmots to investigate the effect of the number of subordinate males on both paternity insurance and tenure of dominant males. We show that individuals which are unable to monopolize reproduction in their family groups in the presence of many subordinate males are likely to lose dominance the following year. We also report that dominant males lose body mass in the year they lose both paternity and dominance. Our results suggest that controlling many subordinate males is energetically costly for dominant males, and those unable to support this cost lose the control over both reproduction and dominance. A large number of subordinate males in social groups is therefore costly for dominant males in terms of fitness.
Seasonal Variation of Acute Urolithiasis  [cached]
Albert Tiu,Vincent Tang,Samuel Gubicak,Paul Knight
Australasian Medical Journal , 2010,
Abstract: BackgroundUrolithiasis is a common condition. It often affects patients in the prime of life causing significant burden to the society. In our study we are interested in determining whether seasonal variation is a risk factor of acute urolithiasis. Method A retrospective study was performed at a tertiary hospital in Canberra, ACT, Australia. Data pertaining to patient demographics, history of renal colic and management were extracted from charts over a 10-year period. Climatic data for the Australia Capital Territory during this period was retrieved from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology and correlated to renal colic presentations.ResultsData was obtained for 637 patients all with radiologically confirmed calculi of the urinary tract. The median age at diagnosis was 50 years of age. Overall 37.4% of patients had a previous history of urolithiasis and the male to female ratio was 2.8:1. Presentation was most common in the autumn months (32.8%), with the fewest cases of urolithiasis during the winter months (18.7%). At presentations the majority of the calculi were ≤ 5mm and located within the distal ureter. Conservative treatments were instituted more often when stone size was ≤ 5mm. Proximal ureteric calculi were more likely to be treated with surgical intervention.ConclusionWe demonstrate an association between the presentation of primary urolithiasis and season. A better understanding in the subject may help future health care planning to deal with the seasonal increase in presentations of renal colic to the urology service.
Xanthine urolithiasis  [cached]
Gargah Tahar,Essid Afif,Labassi Aymen,Hamzaoui Mourad
Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation , 2010,
Abstract: Hereditary xanthinuria type I, a defect of purine matabolism, results from a genetic deficiency of xanthine oxidase. It is an uncommon cause of stone formation in children. We report here two children with xanthine urolithiasis. The first patient was an 8-year-old boy who presented with repeated episodes of hematuria evaluated with excretory urography, which demonstrated radio-lucent pelvic stone in the right kidney, causing hydronephrosis. He had pyelolithotomy, and the extracted stone consisted of pure xanthine. Family study revealed an asymptomatic xanthinuria in younger brother. The second patient was a 5-year-old boy who had a 2-week history of abdominal pain and gross hematuria. Conventional excretory intravenous urography showed a non-functioning right kidney. Nephrectomy was performed, and histology revealed end-stage pyelonephritis. The calculi consisted of pure xanthine. In both patients, plasma and urinary concentrations of uric acid were low but xanthine and hypoxanthine concentrations were markedly elevated. Xanthine uroli-thiasis is usually a benign condition, easy to prevent or cure by appropriate alkalinization, forced hydration and restriction of dietary purines. However asymptomatic, and therefore undiagnosed, stones may invade the kidney and urinary tract, resulting in destruction of parenchyma, nephrec-tomy and renal failure.
Obstructive urolithiasis in ruminants AND#8211; A review
D. M Makhdoomi,Mohsin A Gazi
Veterinary World , 2013, DOI: 10.5455/vetworld.2013.233-238
Abstract: Obstructive urolithiasis is the retention of urine subsequent to lodgment of calculi anywhere in the urinary conduct from up to urethral orifice. The disease results in heavy economic losses to the livestock industry as it is attributed the fifth most prevalent cause of death in feedlot. Obstructive urolithiasis is a serious, potentially fatal condition, most commonly causing symptoms in castrated male animals, but also occurring in breeding males. Many surgical approaches and techniques for the diagnosis and the treatment of the disease have been described with their relative merits and demerits in the literature. [Vet World 2013; 6(4.000): 233-238]
Nutritional stretegies to prevent Urolithiasis in Animals
Lipismita samal,Ashok Kumar Pattanaik,Chinmoy Mishra,Biswa Ranjan Maharana
Veterinary World , 2011,
Abstract: Urolithiasis is a common problem in both ruminants and non-ruminants and nutrition plays a significant role in predisposing urolithiasis. The nutritional factors mainly influence urinary constituents and pH, which affect stone nucleation and growth. While surgery can render a patient stone-free, non-operative treatment modalities are required to prevent and reduce the risk of recurrent urolithiasis. Moreover, long-term pharmacological therapy and its potential side effects often lead to subsequent failure. In this regard, nutritional management is the best preventive strategy against urolithiasis. [Vet. World 2011; 4(3.000): 142-144]
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