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Cultural Landscape and Migration  [PDF]
Gunnar Haaland
Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology , 2010, DOI: 10.3126/dsaj.v4i0.4515
Abstract: This paper focus on the way Nepalese migrants in Myanmar use features of the natural environment in their homeland in metaphoric constructions of a cultural landscape expressing ethnic identity. It is through such "symbolic work" that perceptions of "ethnoscapes" are shaped and indoctrinated. Although the appeal is to symbols that can serve to foster the importance of Nepaliness as a basis for belonging to an imagined community, this does not mean that the caste/ethnicity interaction boundaries are broken down. It does mean however that sectors of activities where such boundaries are made relevant have been changed and so has the cultural content organized through such interaction boundaries. Ethnoscapes do not exist by themselves from a 'primordial' past; they require ongoing expression and confirmation. Features of a natural environment most migrants have never seen is used as sources for spinning compelling webs of significance extolling the values of belonging to a group that shares a common past in that environment. I shall here present material of an ethnoscape very different from what is experienced in Nepal, namely Nepalese multi-caste/ethnic communities among Kachins, Shans, Burmese, Indian and Chinese traders in the Kachin state of Northern Myanmar. Keywords : Nepali migrants; Myanmar; ethnic identity; cultural landscape DOI: 10.3126/dsaj.v4i0.4515 Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol.4 2010 pp.99-110
Combining Aesthetic with Ecological Values for Landscape Sustainability  [PDF]
Dewei Yang, Tao Luo, Tao Lin, Quanyi Qiu, Yunjian Luo
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0102437
Abstract: Humans receive multiple benefits from various landscapes that foster ecological services and aesthetic attractiveness. In this study, a hybrid framework was proposed to evaluate ecological and aesthetic values of five landscape types in Houguanhu Region of central China. Data from the public aesthetic survey and professional ecological assessment were converted into a two-dimensional coordinate system and distribution maps of landscape values. Results showed that natural landscapes (i.e. water body and forest) contributed positively more to both aesthetic and ecological values than semi-natural and human-dominated landscapes (i.e. farmland and non-ecological land). The distribution maps of landscape values indicated that the aesthetic, ecological and integrated landscape values were significantly associated with landscape attributes and human activity intensity. To combine aesthetic preferences with ecological services, the methods (i.e. field survey, landscape value coefficients, normalized method, a two-dimensional coordinate system, and landscape value distribution maps) were employed in landscape assessment. Our results could facilitate to identify the underlying structure-function-value chain, and also improve the understanding of multiple functions in landscape planning. The situation context could also be emphasized to bring ecological and aesthetic goals into better alignment.
Core concepts of landscape ecology
Xiao Du-ning,Li Xiu-zhen,
Xiao Du-ning
,Li Xiu-zhen

环境科学学报(英文版) , 1999,
Abstract: People from different backgrounds may have various opinions and methods dealing with landscape ecology. As a basic ecology theory for decision making in land use planning and resource management, it should provide sound scientific principles, which means some core concepts for landscape ecology need to be established. This paper attempts to introduce some core concepts for landscape ecology, with brief analysis, including: the integrity of landscape system and the heterogeneity of landscape elements; scale in landscape ecology; mosaics of landscape structure; spatial aggregation and spread of ecological flow; physical cultural nature of landscape; the irreversible and human dominated landscape evolution; the multi value of landscape.
Cultural Foundations for Ecological Restoration on the White Mountain Apache Reservation  [cached]
Jonathan Long,Aregai Tecle,Benrita Burnette
Ecology and Society , 2003,
Abstract: Myths, metaphors, and social norms that facilitate collective action and understanding of restoration dynamics serve as foundations for ecological restoration. The experience of the White Mountain Apache Tribe demonstrates how such cultural foundations can permeate and motivate ecological restoration efforts. Through interviews with tribal cultural advisors and restoration practitioners, we examined how various traditions inform their understanding of restoration processes. Creation stories reveal the time-honored importance and functions of water bodies within the landscape, while place names yield insights into their historical and present conditions. Traditional healing principles and agricultural traditions help guide modern restoration techniques. A metaphor of stability illustrates how restoration practitioners see links among ecological, social, and personal dimensions of health. These views inspire reciprocal relationships focused on caretaking of sites, learning from elders, and passing knowledge on to youths. Woven together, these cultural traditions uphold a system of adaptive management that has withstood the imposition of non-indigenous management schemes in the 20th century, and now provides hope for restoring health and productivity of ecosystems through individual and collective efforts. Although these traditions are adapted to the particular ecosystems of the Tribe, they demonstrate the value of understanding and promoting the diverse cultural foundations of restoration.
History and Local Management of a Biodiversity-Rich, Urban Cultural Landscape  [cached]
Stephan Barthel,Johan Colding,Thomas Elmqvist,Carl Folke
Ecology and Society , 2005,
Abstract: Urban green spaces provide socially valuable ecosystem services. Through an historical analysis of the development of the National Urban Park (NUP) of Stockholm, we illustrate how the co-evolutionary process of humans and nature has resulted in the high level of biological diversity and associated recreational services found in the park. The ecological values of the area are generated in the cultural landscape. External pressures resulting in urban sprawl in the Stockholm metropolitan region increasingly challenge the capacity of the NUP to continue to generate valuable ecosystem services. Setting aside protected areas, without accounting for the role of human stewardship of the cultural landscape, will most likely fail. In a social inventory of the area, we identify 69 local user and interest groups currently involved in the NUP area. Of these, 25 are local stewardship associations that have a direct role in managing habitats within the park that sustain such services as recreational landscapes, seed dispersal, and pollination. We propose that incentives should be created to widen the current biodiversity management paradigm, and actively engage local stewardship associations in adaptive co-management processes of the park and surrounding green spaces.
Acta Geographica Debrecina. Landscape and Environment Series , 2008,
Abstract: There are rather limited opportunities for using the results of landscape ecology in practical nature conservation. The reasonS for this are – at least partly – the different scales and frames of the two fields. For more effective cooperation there is an opportunity for landscape ecology to determine patch-gradients that are helpful for nature protection in expanding the living space of endangered species via CORINE land use-pattern in mixed use agricultural areas. Such alternative migration tracks become valuable in places, where landscape ecological corridors and stepping stone places are missing. The method applies the gradient concept of landscape structure of McGarigal and Cushman (2005). Determination of patch-gradients can be a good background material for settlement- and infrastructure planning; and for the elaboration of medium- and long term nature protection concepts or for even general landscape protection strategies as well.
The Concept of Landscape-Ecological Nodal Structures of the Development of the Regions of the Pacific Landscape Belt of the Landscape Sphere  [PDF]
Valeriy Titovich Starozhilov
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2018.612015
Abstract: For the first time, the concept of landscape nodal structures is considered for the development of regions in the Pacific landscape belt of the landscape sphere that are promising for the development of territories. Landscape nodal structures are presented as a natural foundation for economic, social, ecological, and other forms of activity, which will enable us to consider tools of scientific and practical planning that are harmonized with the nature of forecasting economic, social, ecological and other geosystems. It is recommended, for the practical implementation of the concept, the compilation of new maps of nodal structures, as natural bases for creating models for the development of the territory. The cartographic separation of the landscape nodal structures as a whole will contribute to solving the problems of optimizing the natural environment of the regions.
Simone Rodrigues de Freitas
Holos Environment , 2003,
Abstract: The word landscape is old and popular. It has many senses from territory to scenery. Geography uses this concept since Humboldt, which pointed out its spatiality and its physical and cultural characteristics. The geographical approach of landscape concept emphasizes relationships between natural and cultural processes in a spatial portion. Depending on physical or cultural/symbolic approaches, one of both processes will prevail. In ecological approach, the main characteristics to define landscape are spatiality, heterogeneity and relationship between elements, including men or not. Here we propose a unified landscape concept defining it as a heterogeneous space portion where relationship between natural and cultural processes occur.
Countermeasures of landscape and ecological stewardship in agricultural/rural area of China

YU Zhen-Rong,ZHANG Qian,XIAO He,LIU Wen-Ping,
,张 茜,肖 禾,刘文平

中国生态农业学报 , 2012,
Abstract: Integrated measurement of agricultural and rural eco-environments management is critical for sustainable rural development. Ecological and landscape restorations are also key elements of rural environmental stewardship for agro-tourism, rural economic and cultural revival activities. Based on comparative reviews of European and American rural environmental stewardship policies and measures, this paper discussed problems of ecological and landscape restorations and enhancement in China's agricultural and rural environmental stewardships. The identified problems in China included weak cognitive and research of multi-functions of agriculture and rural environments. Also improvements were needed in engineering technology of ecological landscapes and finding integrative strategies. Furthermore, agriculture and rural ecological landscape stewardships needed to be strengthened. The paper suggested several countermeasures for strengthening rural landscape and ecological restorations of China's rural environmental stewardship. Such countermeasures included: (1) promoting and enhancing agricultural/rural multi-functions such as restoration of ecological service of agro-landscapes, agro-landscape biodiversity protection, enforced management of disaster adaptability and soil-water safety, construction of rural landscape and development of agro-tourism; (2) strengthening farmer participation in rural environmental stewardship; and (3) improving cooperation of different sectors and development of integrated engineering techniques for farmers. Farmer subsidy policies for improvement of rural environmental stewardships needed in-depth studies before adoption.
Analysis on sensitivity and landscape ecological spatial structure of site resources
LI Zhen,HE Fang,WU Qiao-jun,TAO Wei,
LI Zhen
,HE Fang,WU Qiao-jun,TAO Wei

环境科学学报(英文版) , 2003,
Abstract: This article establishes a set of indicators and standards for landscape ecological sensitivity analysis of site resources by using the theories and approaches of landscape ecology. It uses landscape diversity index(H), evenness(E), natural degree(N), contrast degree(C) to study spatial structure and landscape heterogeneity of site resources and thus provides a qualitative-quantitative evaluation method for land planning and management of small, medium scale areas. The analysis of Yantian District, Shenzhen of China showed that Wutong Mountain belonged to high landscape ecological sensitivity area, Sanzhoutian Reservoir and Shangping Reservoir were medium landscape sensitivity area and high ecological sensitivity area; Dameisha and Xiaomeisha belonged to medium sensitivity area caused by the decline of natural ecological areas. Shatoujiao, Yantian Pier belonged to low sensitivity area but urban landscape ecological development had reshaped and influenced their landscape ecological roles in a great extent. Suggestions on planning, protection goals and development intensity of each site or district were raised.
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