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Sewage Sludge: An Important Biological Resource for Sustainable Agriculture and Its Environmental Implications  [PDF]
Khalid Usman, Sarfaraz Khan, Said Ghulam, Muhammad Umar Khan, Niamatullah Khan, Muhammad Anwar Khan, Shad Khan Khalil
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2012.312209
Abstract: Intensive farming generally needs large addition of organic matter to maintain fertility and enhance crop yields. Sewage sludge/biosolids are by-products of municipal and industrial wastewater treatment and a rich source of organic nutrients. Sewage sludge having high content of organic matter, macro- and micro-nutrients, can be used as fertilizer/soil conditioner for food, vegetable crop, horticultural plants and pasture, which in most cases can be beneficially recycled. In the past sewage sludge was regarded as a waste product due to expected high level of contaminants such as pathogens, pollutants and synthetic materials discharged in sewer from homes and industries, which were often incinerated, dumped in occasion or land fill. As a result of rapidly increasing population, urbanization and industrialization, wastewater production and sewage sludge generation have increased manifold. Due to high cost of mineral fertilizers and escalating trends in their prices, there is an increasing trend of using sewage sludge in agriculture, especially under intensive cropping in arid and semi arid regions of the country. Therefore, application of sewage sludge to agricultural soils may be sustainable and economical due to nutrient cycling and disposal of sewage sludge. However, there may be a risk in use of sewage sludge due to potentially harmful contents present in the sludge such as heavy metals and pathogens. This paper, therefore, presents a review on various aspects of sewage sludge used in agriculture.
Sustainable and Innovative Solutions for Sewage Sludge Management  [PDF]
Ludovico Spinosa,Azize Ayol,Jean-Christophe Baudez,Roberto Canziani,Pavel Jenicek,Angelique Leonard,Wim Rulkens,Guoren Xu,Lex Van Dijk
Water , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/w3020702
Abstract: Sludge produced by municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) amounts to only a few percent by volume of the processed wastewater, but its handling accounts for up to 50% of total operating costs. Moreover, the need to achieve a sustainable sludge management strategy has become of great concern. It follows that as conventional and more traditional options, such as land spreading for agricultural purposes, are progressively restricted, and often legally banned, the development of innovative systems to maximize the recovery of useful materials and/or energy is required. A change toward more sustainable procedures can be promoted through an integrated approach, including the assessment of management routes capable of maximizing the recycle/recovery benefits, through low energy impact systems, and the development of operational systems appropriate to local circumstances. Based on the above considerations, an integrated system is proposed in this paper. It includes Anaerobic digestion, Dewatering/Drying, and Pyrolysis/Gasification processes which are efficiently coupled for the recovery of products for material reuse and/or energy purposes. Such an integrated system should also allow the recovery of one or more materials, depending on the combination of processes which best fit specific local situations.
The Cumulative Effects of Sewage Sludge Compost on Raphanus sativus L: Growth and Soil Properties  [PDF]
Vanessa N. Lima, Ricardo V. Trótski O. Silva, Patrícia Nunes, Paulo H. da Silva, Kyriale Morant, Rosileide F. S. Andrade, Aline E. Nascimento, Galba M. Campos-Takaki, Arminda Saconi Messias
Green and Sustainable Chemistry (GSC) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/gsc.2016.61001
Abstract: The main goal of this research study was to establish the physicochemical characteristics of sewage sludge, and the nutrients needed to enhance the properties of soil with a view to exploiting were potential for agriculture. The example used was the cultivation of radish (Raphanus sativus). The findings are intended as a contribution towards making agriculture sustainable. This study was carried out to assess the response of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) to doses of sewage sludge applied in medium texture soils, and the socioeconomic contributions that such cultivation of radish would make. Levels of 0.25 and 75 ton/ha of sewage sludge plus the equivalent dose of 25 ton/ha of sewage sludge vermin compost by California Red were used after making a randomized experimental design with three replicates. 30 days after sowing radish seeds, the following data were collected: the number of leaves per plant (NLP); plant height (PH in cm); root diameter (RD) and tubercle production (TP ton/ha). In addition, the pH, EC-electric conductivity (EC), and soil organic matter (SOM) were determined. Statistical analysis showed that 25 and 50 tons/ha gave the best results for the parameters assessed. The estimated increase in family mean income from selling radish crops fertilized with sewage sludge is around 17%.
New environment-friendly and cost-saving fertiliser recommendation system for supporting sustainable agriculture in Hungary and beyond
Nándor FODOR,Péter CSATHó,Tamás áRENDáS,Tamás NéMETH
Journal of Central European Agriculture , 2011, DOI: 10.5513/jcea01/12.1.880
Abstract: In the current economic situation the former, intensive fertiliser recommendation system is unfit to help Hungarian farmers in their fertilising practice. The aim of the new system has been to apply the lowest possible NPK rates required to achieve safe and high yields as well as allowing minimal agricultural NP losses to surface and subsurface waters. The new system was developed by using the correlations revealed by analyzing the results of long-term fertilisation experiments set up in Hungary between 1960 and 2000. Several field experiments as well as comparative analyses confirmed the correctness of the basic principles as well as of the methods of calculating fertiliser rates of the new system. An estimated amount of 3,200,000 € was saved for the Hungarian farmers in 2007 alone by giving recommendations for more than 160,000 ha arable land applying the new system.
Nutritional analysis of eucalyptus seedlings subject to the application of sewage sludge
Giovanni de Oliveira Garcia,Ivo Zution Gon?alves,Jo?o Carlos Madal?o,Aline Azevedo Nazário
Engenharia Ambiental : Pesquisa e Tecnologia , 2009,
Abstract: In order to evaluate the application of doses of sewage sludge on mineral nutrition of seedlings in an experiment was conducted from August to October 2007 in the Study and Dissemination of Technology in Forest, Water Resources and Sustainable Agriculture in 50 L containers filled with an Oxisol. The experiment was riding in a completely randomized design in a 5 × 5 (five treatments and five periods of incubation) with four replications. The treatments consisted of application of five doses of sewage sludge (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 ton.ha-1) and the incubation periods of 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 days. In each period of incubation was performed a nutritional analysis which was withdrawn a plan being forwarded to the laboratory for determination of a nutritional analysis. Considering the specific case of sludge characterized in the present work, the implementation of the amounts shown increased concentrations of N, P, K, Zn and Cu decrease the levels of Mg, Bo, and the remaining Fe foliar Mn constant. Furthermore the incubation period established has not provided any changes in foliar nutrient studied.Key Words – Biosolids, Mineral nutrition, Eucalyptus grands.
Characteristics of sewage sludge and distribution of heavy metal in plants with amendment of sewage sludge
DAI Jia-yin,CHEN Ling,ZHAO Jian-fu,MA Na,
DAI Jia-yin
,CHEN Ling,ZHAO Jian-fu,MA Na

环境科学学报(英文版) , 2006,
Abstract: In order to better understand land application of sewage sludge, the characterization of heavy metals and organic pollutants were investigated in three different sewage sludges in Shanghai City, China. It was found that the total concentrations of Cd in all of sewage sludge and total concentrations of Zn in Jinshan sewage sludge, as well as those of Zn, Cu, and Ni in Taopu sludge are higher than Chinese regulation limit of pollutants for sludge to be used in agriculture. Leachability of Hg in all of studied samples and that of Cd in Taopu sewage sludge exceed the limit values of waste solid extraction standard in China legislation. Based on the characteristics for three kinds of sewage sludge, a pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of soil amended with Quyang sewage sludge on the accumulation of heavy metal by Begonia semperflorens-hybr; Ophiopogon japonicus (L.F.) Ker-Gaw; Loropetalum chindense-var. rubrum; Dendranthema morifolium; Viola tricolor; Antirrhinum majus; Buxus radicans Sieb; Viburnum macrocephalum; Osmanthus fragrans Lour; Cinnamomum camphora siebold and Ligustrum lucidum ait. Results showed that 8 species of plant survived in the amended soil, and moreover they flourished as well as those cultivated in the control soil. The heavy metal concentration in plants varied with species, As, Pb, Cd and Cr concentration being the highest in the four herbaceous species studied, particularly in the roots of D. morifolium. These plants, however, did not show accumulator of As, Pb, Cd and Cr. The highest concentration of Ni and Hg was found in the roots of D. morifolium, followed by the leaves of B. semperflorens-hybr. Levels of Zn and Cu were much higher in D. morifolium than in the other plant species. D. morifolium accumulated Ni, Hg, Cu and Zn, which may contribute to the decrease of heavy metal contents in the amended soil. Treatment with sewage sludge did not significantly affect the uptake of heavy metals by the L. chindense-var. rubrum, however, it significantly affected the uptake of heavy metals by D. morifolium.
Avalia o do potencial agron mico de vermicomposto produzido a partir de lodo de esgoto doméstico Evaluation of the agronomic potential of vermicompost produced from domestic sewage sludge  [cached]
Paulo R. das D. da Silva,Maria D. Landgraf,Maria Olímpia O. Rezende
Revista Brasileira de Ciências Agrárias , 2011, DOI: 10.5039/agraria.v6i4a909
Abstract: O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar o potencial agron mico de vermicomposto obtido a partir de lodo de esgoto doméstico e misturas de lodo de esgoto doméstico e solo, segundo os critérios do Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento (MAPA), visando ao seu uso sustentável, isto é, transformando um resíduo indesejável em um produto comercial com valor agregado. Os resultados obtidos para os vermicompostos produzidos, se comparados com as exigências de especifica es, garantias e limites de contaminantes da resolu o n0 375, mostraram-se satisfatórios para pelo menos uma das misturas de lodo de esgoto doméstico e solo, evidenciando o potencial que este resíduo possui para ser utilizado como fertilizante ou condicionador de solos. The main objective of this research was to evaluate the agronomic potential of the vermicompost produced from domestic sewage sludge and mixtures of domestic sewage sludge and soil, following the criteria of the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply (MAPA), aiming at a sustainable use for domestic sewage sludge, transforming an undesirable residue into a valuable commercial product. The results obtained for the so produced vermicomposts, in comparison to the specifications, warranties and contaminating limits requirements of the resolution No. 375, were satisfactory for at least one of the domestic sewage sludge and soil mixtures, proving the potential of this residue for application in agriculture as fertilizer or soil conditioner.
Evaluation of the Pozzolanic Activity of Sewage Sludge Ash  [PDF]
M. A. Tantawy,A. M. El-Roudi,Elham M. Abdalla,M. A. Abdelzaher
ISRN Chemical Engineering , 2012, DOI: 10.5402/2012/487037
Abstract: Raw sewage sludge was characterized by XRD, FTIR, SEM, and TGA techniques and incinerated in temperature range 650–950°C for 2?h. The effect of incineration temperature on the microstructure and pozzolanic activity of the resultant ash was investigated by techniques mentioned above as well as Chapelle test. It was concluded that incineration of sewage sludge affects the microstructure and pozzolanic activity of the resultant ash. During incineration at temperatures lower than 800°C, amorphous silica captures fixed carbon resulting from incomplete combustion conditions whereas at higher temperatures crystallization of amorphous silica was enhanced. Hydration products formed from hydrothermal treatment of silica fume with lime is amorphous whereas that of sewage sludge ash is fibrous. Hence, incineration of sewage sludge ash must be optimized at 800°C to preserve the pozzolanic activity of the resultant ash. 1. Introduction Sewage is the collection of wastewater effluents from domestic, hospital, commercial, industrial establishments, and rain water. The objective of sewage treatment is to produce treated sewage water and sewage sludge suitable for safe discharge into the environment or reuse [1]. The most common treatment options for sewage sludge include anaerobic digestion, aerobic digestion, and composting. Choice of the treatment method depends on the amount of sludge and other site-specific conditions [2]. Sewage sludge tends to accumulate heavy metals existing in the wastewater. The composition of sewage sludge and its content of heavy metals vary widely depending on the sludge origins and treatment options [3]. In past decades, sewage sludge was primarily disposed to landfills and seawaters [4]. Space limitations on existing landfills and increasing environmental concerns such as groundwater pollution from landfill leachate, odor emission and soil contamination have prompted the investigation of alternative disposal routes [5]. Sewage sludge has been used in agriculture as fertilizer and soil amendment [6]. However heavy metals such as Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd, Pb, Hg, and Cr are principal elements restricting the use of sludge for agricultural purposes [3]. The solidification/stabilization of sewage sludge in cementitious matrix has been evaluated [7]. Sewage sludge adversely affects durability of concrete, mainly due to the organic material which retards setting and heavy metals which interfere with the hardening reactions [8]. Hence, sewage sludge addition in concrete was limited to 10?wt.% and the solidified concrete was recommended for use in certain
Effects of sewage sludge and sewage sludge compost amendment on soil properties and Zea mays L. plants (heavy metals, quality and productivity)
VACA, Rocío;LUGO, Jorge;MARTíNEZ, Ricardo;ESTELLER, María V.;ZAVALETA, Hilda;
Revista internacional de contaminación ambiental , 2011,
Abstract: the use of organic wastes in agriculture can improve the soil's productive capacity, and physical and chemical characteristics. this study evaluated the effects of sewage sludge, sewage sludge compost and inorganic fertilizer applications on nickel, copper and zinc contents in soil and corn grains (zea mays l); maize productivity, and grain nutritional quality. sewage sludge and sewage sludge compost at 18 mg ha-1 and a mineral fertilizer (n-p-k) with a formulation of 150-75-30 were applied. significant differences were observed in organic matter, phosphorus and zinc content between sewage sludge-soil and compost-soil, and inorganic fertilizer-soil (p ≤ 0.05). copper concentration was significantly high in compost-soil (p ≤ 0.05). productivity in compost-soil and sewage sludge-soil mixtures was higher than in inorganic fertilizer-soil. grain quality, measured by relative percentage of starch, total nitrogen, protein, acid detergent fiber and neutral detergent fiber were adequate for human consumption. application of sewage sludge or compost did not increase heavy metal concentrations in grain with respect to inorganic fertilizer-soil.
Impacts of Sewage Sludge in Tropical Soil: A Case Study in Brazil  [PDF]
Wagner Bettiol,Raquel Ghini
Applied and Environmental Soil Science , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/212807
Abstract: A long-term assay was conducted to evaluate the environmental impacts of agriculture use of sewage sludge on a tropical soil. This paper describes and discusses the results obtained by applying a interdisciplinary approach and the valuable insights gained. Experimental site was located in Jaguariúna (SP, Brazil). Multiyear comparison was developed with the application of sewage sludge obtained from wastewater treatment plants at Barueri (domestic and industrial sewage) and Franca (domestic sewage), S?o Paulo State. The treatments were control, mineral fertilization, and sewage sludge applied based on the N concentration that provides the same amount of N as in the mineral fertilization recommended for corn crop, two, four, and eight times the N recommended dosage. The results obtained indicated that the amount of sewage sludge used in agricultural areas must be calculated based on the N crop needs, and annual application must be avoided to prevent overapplications. 1. Introduction Sewage sludge contains organic matter and is rich in macro- and micronutrients, so the agricultural and forestry disposal is widely recommended [1–3]. However, sewage sludge also contains contaminants (heavy metals, organic compounds, and human pathogens) which should be considered when it is utilized in agricultural and forestry soils [1, 4]. Researches about sewage sludge disposal in soil are focused on its effects on soil fertility, plant development, and contamination by heavy metals and organic compounds. However, applications of this residue modify biological, chemical, and physical properties of the soils, consequently the dynamics of its microbiota, organic matter decomposition, nutrient cycling, physical structure of the soil, and pest and plant disease severity [4–10]. The studies on sewage sludge are conducted mainly under temperate conditions, with few studies in tropical climate. The few studies in tropical conditions are conducted mainly to assess the nutritional effects and problems with heavy metal from sewage sludge application. These studies are rarely performed by determining long-term environmental impacts of agricultural use of sewage sludge. Due to the fact that sewage sludge amount in Brazil is rapidly increasing, since its production was initiated twenty years ago, it is extremely important to gain knowledge and to learn about the long-term effects of sewage sludge applications on soil chemical, biological, and physical properties. Therefore, the objectives of this paper are to present and discuss the long-term effects of continued application of sewage
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