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Socioeconomic Characteristics of Pig Producers and Their Husbandry Practices in the Sub-Humid Zone of Northern Guinea Savannah, Nigeria
Ajala Margaret Kofoworola
Agricultural Journal , 2013,
Abstract: The study attempts to investigate the socioeconomic characteristics of pig producers and their husbandry practices in the sub-humid zone of Northern Guinea savannah, Nigeria. The results show that certain socioeconomic variables are associated with the herd size of pigs kept. Household size, investment on pigs, number of pigs sold in the last 12 months, income from pigs sold, the number of pigs started with and pig keeping experience are found to be statistically significantly related with pig herd size. On the other hand, age and level of education are found to be positively related to pig herd size, although the relationships are not statistically significant. It is also shown that the management system practised in the study area is the semi-intensive system, with poor feeding, inadequate housing and healthcare attention. The implications for a programme of pig improvement and livestock extension services are noted.
Climate Change Mitigation Activities and Determinants in the Rural Guinea Savannah of Nigeria  [cached]
Falola Abraham,Fakayode Segun Bamidele,Akangbe Jones Adebola,Ibrahim Hussein Kobe
Sustainable Agriculture Research , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/sar.v1n2p170
Abstract: Nigeria loses about $750 million annually to the depletion of its 350 000 hectares of land by direct human activities and climate change. Consequently, the Sahara Desert has been moving southwards by 600 metres annually. 10 000 farming families have already been forced to move off the degraded land that has become barren. In the light of this, this study examined climate mitigation activities and determinants in Nigeria. Specifically, the study examined climate change knowledge/perception, cost implications and mitigation practices of rural households as well as factors responsible for the level of mitigation activities. 120 household respondents were selected across 8 communities in the Guinea Savannah of Kwara State, Nigeria. Study analytical tools used were descriptive statistics, principal component and Tobit analysis. Results showed that households perceived the effects of increased temperatures, reduced rainfall, desertification, flooding and increased crop pest and disease infestations. Crop harvest losses due to changing climate were large and worrisome. Principal component analysis PCA results implied that prevalent practices undertaken to combat climate change were crude and non-radical. These activities were inorganic and organic fertilizers use, mulching, bush fallow and crude agro-forestry practices. Factors determining the extent of mitigation activities were found to include educational status, type of farming activities and farm size. The study therefore calls for radical efforts at educating the rural masses on climate change devastations and the need for mitigating climate change, use of early maturing crop varieties. Green zone/forest should be developed while tree planting and afforestation should be encouraged and possibly enforced.
Growth and Yield Response of Thevetia periviana J. to Applied Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilizers in the Southern Guinea Savannah of Nigeria  [PDF]
C.M. Aboyeji,J.A. Olofintoye
Journal of Agronomy , 2011,
Abstract: A field experiment was conducted during the 2010 rainy season to study the growth and yield response of Thevetia peruviana J. to rates of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers at the Research Farm of the Bio-fuel and Alternative Renewable Energy Ltd., Edidi, Kwara State in the Southern Guinea Savannah of Nigeria. The treatments were combined in split plot and laid out in Randomised Complete Block Design with three replicates. The experiment comprised of nine treatments combination of three levels of nitrogen fertilizer (control, 30 and 60 kg N ha-1), three levels of phosphorus fertilizer (control, 30 and 60 kg P2O5 ha-1) and one plant population (2,500 plant ha-1) at 2 m by 2 m plant spacing. The results indicated that 30 kg P2O5 ha-1 rate of phosphorus fertilizer increased plant height, number of branches, stem girth, reduced number of days to flowering and fruit maturity and increased fruit yield which were statistically similar to application of 60 kg P2O5 ha-1 rate of phosphorus fertilizer. It can therefore be concluded that 30 kg P2O5 ha-1 rate of phosphorus fertilizer is appropriate in enhancing the fruit yield of thevetia. Further increase in phosphorus fertilizer to 60 kg P2O5 ha-1 will not be economical as it will amount to waste of fertilizer.
Effects of Moisture Deficit on the Yield of Cowpea Genotypes in the Guinea Savannah of Northern Ghana  [PDF]
Damba Yahaya, Nicholas Denwar, Matthew W. Blair
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/as.2019.104046
Abstract: Cowpea is multipurpose, leguminous, high protein crop in the tropics that provides food for humans and fodder for animals. The crop adds nitrogen and other nutrients to the soil through symbiotic relationship with rhizobia and direct decomposition of cowpea by-products. Despite its multiple benefits for humankind, the yield of cowpea is far below its potential and its production in the crop’s birthplace of Africa is especially affected by abiotic factors. Soil moisture deficit is one of the main abiotic factors that affect the yield of cowpea in the semi-arid tropics, including the Sahelian and Guinea Savannah regions in West Africa. Even though cowpea is a drought tolerant legume, different genotypes respond differently to drought, resulting in up to 100% or more yield increases in the case of resistant genotypes or 50% or more yield loss in case of susceptible types. Mitigating the effect of soil moisture deficit on cowpea production requires selection of genotypes that can withstand drought. With this in mind, the goal of this study was to identify drought tolerant cowpea germplasm for the Savannah region of Northern Ghana using cultivated genotypes from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) tested with and without irrigation at the Bontanga irrigation facility during the dry season in 2018. Fifty genotypes were used, which included 45 imported from USDA and five (5) local genotypes from the Savannah Agriculture Research Institute (SARI). The experiment had 2 × 50 factorial treatments (irrigation × genotypes) and consisted of randomized complete block design with three (3) replications per treatment. Two (2) watering regimes were introduced namely, drought stressed (no irrigation) and non-stressed/control (irrigated). Morpho-physiological, phenological and yield data were taken on the cowpeas evaluated with drought tolerance assessed based on grain yield data and derived indices. All parameters measured showed significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) except for the number of branches per plant. Genotypes PI339600, PI527263, PI527302, PI582793, PI582867 and SARI-6-2-6 produced high grain yields under both drought stress and non-stress conditions. These genotypes could be exploited for future breeding programs for developing drought tolerant cowpea varieties for the savannah ecology and other areas with similar environmental conditions.
Responses of NERICA Rice Varieties to Weed Interference in the Guinea Savannah Uplands  [PDF]
Israel K. Dzomeku,Wilson Dogbe,Ebenezer T. Agawu
Journal of Agronomy , 2007,
Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the critical period of weed infestation in two newly developed NERICA rice varieties for upland rice production to support their dissemination to farmers. Two experiments were conducted between June to November, 2005 to evaluate the responses of two NERICA rice varieties 1 (site 1) and 2 (site 2) developed by the West African Rice Development Association (WARDA) to weed interference in the uplands in the northern Guinea savannah ecological zone. The randomized complete block design was used with treatments in four replications. Gravimetric soil moisture fluctuated (p<0.01) at both locations but remained in the range of 9.7-27.0 and 11-19.6% at site 1 and 2, respectively. Generally in both experiments, weed infestation up to 6 weeks after planting (WAP) or more reduced plant height at 12 and 15 WAP, Leaf Area Index (LAI), tiller count m-2, straw weight and grain yield. Keeping the varieties weed-free up to 6 WAP or more enhanced plant height at 12 and 15 WAP, LAI, tiller count m-2, straw weight and grain yield. In the present study, the critical period of weed infestation with the two varieties of NERICA in the upland ecology were similar and was between 3 and 6 WAP. This is an important guide for the NERICA rice dissemination programme in Ghana in particular and for medium maturity rice cropping in general for optimum timing of weed control to maximize yield components and grain yield. Season-long weed infestation resulted in 66 to 72% reduction in grain yield of the varieties, confirming the vulnerability of the varieties to weed infestation. The occurrence and composition of weeds at the two locations were similar with a mean of 66% broadleaves, 33% grasses and 11% sedges. The most dominant weeds were Brachiaria lata, Celosia laxa, Cleome rutidosperma, Commelina africana, C. benghalensis, Cyperus spp., Digitaria horizontalis, Mitracarpus villosus, Mollugo nudicaulis, Paspalum scrobiculatum and Scoparia dulcis.
Control of Insect Pests of Cowpea in the Field with Allelochems from Tephrosia vogelii and Petiveria alliacea in Southern Guinea Savannah of Nigeria
T.A. Adebayo,O.A. Olaniran,W.B. Akanbi
Agricultural Journal , 2013,
Abstract: The study evaluated the effectiveness of botanical pesticides Tephrosia vogelii and Petiveria alliacea for the control of insect pests in cowpea field. Extracts from the plants were compared with a synthetic insecticide, decis. The extract of Tephrosia vogelii was the most effective of the botanicals and ranked equal to that of synthetic insecticide decis in reducing the population density and damage caused by the insects prevalent in many experimental sites in southern Guinea Savannah of Nigeria. The importance of using botanicals as insecticides in developing countries is discussed in the study.
Maize Yield Response in a Long-term Rotation and Intercropping Systems in the Guinea Savannah Zone of Northern Ghana  [PDF]
W.A. Agyare,V.A. Clottey,H. Mercer-Quarshie,J.M. Kombiok
Journal of Agronomy , 2006,
Abstract: To sustain crop production, cowpea, groundnut, soybean, sorghum and cassava were compared for their potential in crop rotation or as an intercropping partner to maize over an eleven-year period in Northern Ghana. The trial in each year consisted of 12 treatments arranged in an RCBD with five replicates. There was a gradual decline in maize yield for groundnut-maize, soybean-maize and cassava-maize as compared to a rapid decline in the other rotation combinations over the years. The best combination was maize-groundnut rotation with grain yields above 3.0 t ha-1. Intercropping advantage for most combinations in the first two years was not sustained in later years, except for sorghum-maize and cassava-maize systems. Sorghum-maize combination was the best in terms of crop yield, based on Land Equivalent Ratio (LER). Cassava-maize and soybean-maize systems were the best in terms of energy value and protein yield respectively. Maize yields obtained were comparatively better in rotation than intercrops, underlining the superiority of rotation to intercropping in the long-term, consequently its potential to improve on household food security. The results so far indicate that good cropping system and proper agronomic practices can sustain maize production on the same piece of land for more than 10 years.
Dietary intakes and body mass indices of non-pregnant, non-lactating (npnl) women from the Coastal and Guinea savannah zones of Ghana
GY Kobati, A Lartey, GS Marquis, EK Colecraft, LM Butler
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2012,
Abstract: Adequate maternal nutrition prior to pregnancy is important for maternal health and favourable pregnancy outcomes. However, information on the dietary intakes of Non-Pregnant, Non-Lactating (NPNL) women in Ghana is lacking. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken to compare the dietary intakes of NPNL women of children aged 2 to 5 years who are either living in the Coastal (n=79) or Guinea Savannah (n=89) zones. Data were collected using various methods namely intervieweradministered socio-demographic questionnaire, 24hr dietary recall records, with data collected on one working and one non-working day within a week, and a 1-week food frequency questionnaire. Body mass index was derived from height and weight measurements. Women in the Coastal Savannah zone had significantly (p=0.05) more formal education (3.9 ± 2.5 years) and earned a higher (p<0.001) weekly income (Gh¢ 6.8 ± 2.7) than women in the Guinea Savannah zone with educational level and incomes of 2.2±1.6 years and Gh¢ 3.9±2.4 respectively. More women in the Coastal zone had significantly (p<0.05) fewer births and were heads of their households. Cereal-based foods were consumed daily by all women during the two-day observation period. Fish was the predominant animal source food in the diet in both zones. Significantly (p<0.05) more women in the Guinea Savannah zone did not meet their Estimated Average Requirements (EAR) for protein (81%), vitamin A (94.4%), and vitamin C (72%) compared to women in the Coastal zone (44%, 22%, and 31% respectively).The diets of both groups of women were low in calcium. Generally, women in the Coastal zone had a significantly (p<0.001) higher BMI (24.2 ± 4.6 kg/m2) than their counterparts in the Guinea Savannah zone (21.3± 2.4 kg/m2).The overall quality of dietary intakes and nutritional status of women in the Guinea Savannah zone was poorer than that of Coastal women. Dietary deficiencies are also present in NPNL women in Ghana. Efforts are needed to improve diet quality and to increase access to resources especially for women in the Guinea Savannah zone of Ghana.
Effects of Heat Stress on the Well-Being, Fertility, and Hatchability of Chickens in the Northern Guinea Savannah Zone of Nigeria: A Review  [PDF]
J. O. Ayo,J. A. Obidi,P. I. Rekwot
ISRN Veterinary Science , 2011, DOI: 10.5402/2011/838606
Abstract: The paper examines heat stress and its adverse effects as a hindrance to profitable poultry production in the tropics, with emphasis on the Northern Guinea Savannah zone of Nigeria. It elucidates the general negative effects of heat stress on physiological parameters of domestic chickens, and the specific impact of the stress on reproduction in the tropics. The deleterious effects are expressed in poor poultry well-being and reproductive performance. It is concluded that measures aimed at alleviating heat stress in domestic chickens must be adopted in order to enhance reproductive and, consequently, efficiency of modern poultry production in the tropics. 1. Introduction The Northern Guinea Savannah zone of Nigeria is located between latitude 11°N, 12′N and longitude 7°E, 8′E, at an elevation of 650?m above the sea level. The zone has an average annual maximum and minimum temperatures of 31.8 ± 3.2°C and 18.0 ± 3.7°C, respectively. The monthly average rainfall during the rainy season (May–October) is 148 ± 68.4?mm (69.2–231.9?mm), while the monthly relative humidity is 71.1 ± 9.7%. The zone is characterized by three seasons: Harmattan (November–February), hot-dry (March–May), and rainy (June–October) seasons [1, 2]. 2. Effects of Meteorological Elements on Domestic Chickens The meteorological elements constitute a complex system, which acts upon the body of domestic chickens. Jointly, they are expressed as climate, that is, long-term average conditions, or as weather. They may affect birds outside or inside the poultry houses, and their impact on birds may be beneficial or detrimental, depending on the extent of their variations. Besides, the impact of meteorological elements may be expressed singly or in combinations; for instance, Bianca [3] reported that low ambient temperature plus high air movement (cold) or high ambient temperature and high relative humidity plus solar radiation (heat) exert various effects on animal well-being, demonstrated in neuroendocrine, cardiorespiratory, and behavioural responses. The concern and emphasis for meteorological elements in recent years are due to the fact that they are not constant, but change continuously. Such changes affect the internal environment of birds, including the blood through the nervous and endocrine systems [3–5]. Each season in the zone has its positive or negative effects on livestock production. For example, the Harmattan season has been described as thermally stressful to goats [2], pigs [6], and poultry [7], while the negative impact of environmental stress on poultry is minimum during the
Tillage, Desmodium intortum, Fertilizer Rates for Carbon Stock, Soil Quality and Grain Yield in Northern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria  [PDF]
Odunze Azubuike Chidowe, Asholo David Blessing, Ogunwole Joshua Olalekan, Oyinlola Eunice Yetunde, Chinke Nkechi Mary
American Journal of Climate Change (AJCC) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ajcc.2019.82018
Abstract: Northern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria soils are continuously and intensively cultivated, resulting in soil quality degradation, carbon stock depletion, accelerated soil erosion and soil nutrient depletion. Effects of land use change on soil carbon stocks (SOC) are of concern regarding greenhouse gas emissions mitigation and sustainable crop production, because there is a need for food sufficiency while conserving the environment. Also, managing soils under intensive use and restoring degraded soils are top priorities for a sustained agronomic production while conserving soil and water resources. Hence, this study; “Tillage, Desmodium intortum, fertilizer rates for carbon stock, soil quality and grain yield in Northern Guinea Savanna” is aimed at devising possible mitigating measures for soil quality degradation, carbon stock depletion and impoverished crop yields using Zea mays as test crop. The study was a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) in split-split plot arrangement with four replicates. The four main tillage and Desmodium intortum combination treatments were: 1) Maize without Desmodium + Conventional tillage (MC), 2) Maize + Desmodium live-mulch incorporated and relayed + Conservation tillage (MDIC), 3) Maize + Desmodium in no-tillage system (MDNT), 4) Maize + Desmodium in strip tillage (MDST). The main treatment plots were each divided to accommodate four (4) rates of N (60, 80, 100 and 120 kg·ha1) as sub plots, while the N rate plots were further divided to accommodate three (3) rates of P (6.6, 13.2, and 26.4 kg·ha1) as sub-subplots. Findings support that Desmodium intercrops with Maize treatments (MDIC, MDNT, and MDST) resulted in increased organic carbon contents in 2013, with MDNT resulting in significantly higher organic carbon content (7.37 g·kg1 in 2012 and 8.37 g·kg
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