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Effect of Zinc, Copper and Their Chemical Forms on Growth and Chemical Composition of Rice In a Calcareous Soil  [cached]
M. Zolfi Bavariani,M. Maftoon
Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources , 2011,
Abstract: Due to low availability of zinc and copper in calcareous soils and the antagonism of these nutrients with each other, the study of their effects on growth and chemical composition of rice seems to have great importance. Also, the relations among different chemical forms of Zn and Cu and plant responses are very important, which can be used in investigation of antagonisms of these nutrients as well. Therefore, by application of different levels of Zn and Cu, their effects on plant growth and nutrient concentration in the plant were studied and different forms of these nutrients in soil were determined. Results showed that zinc application increased plant growth, Zn concentration and total uptake, but decreased Cu concentration in the plant. However, copper application showed no significant effects on the plant growth, but increased Cu concentration and total uptake and decreased Zn concentration in the plant. Also, the results showed an increase in carbonatic, adsorbed and exchangeable Zn forms and exchangeable Cu form by Zn application. Carbonatic form of zinc has maximum effects on concentration and total uptake of this element in the plant. Copper application increased carbonatic and organic forms of this nutrient in soil, and there was maximum correlation between organic form of Cu and its concentration and uptake in the plant
Zinc Efficiency is Not Related to Bicarbonate Tolerance in Iranian Rice Cultivars  [PDF]
R. Hajiboland,S.Y. Salehi
Journal of Agronomy , 2006,
Abstract: In this study this hypothesis was evaluated using 6 Iranian rice cultivars with different Zn efficiency as ranked in a solution culture study. Results showed that, bicarbonate (10 mM) strongly reduced shoot and root growth and particularly root length of all studied genotypes in the exception of cv. Mianeh. The root growth particularly root length of this cultivar was even stimulated up to 70% for example in Zn deficient plants. The inhibitory or stimulatory effect of high pH was not prominent as bicarbonate, which could be the result of the effect of bicarbonate independent from accompanying pH. Zinc and Fe content of shoot and root reduced in response to bicarbonate and high pH and the reduction was similar in genotypes with different Zn efficiency and bicarbonate tolerance. It was concluded that, because of different chemical factors of soil on which these genotypes are cultivated, the Zn efficiency trait is not necessarily associated with bicarbonate tolerance in all studied rice genotypes. In soils with low bicarbonate content such as rice fields in north of Iran, bicarbonate response was not selected together with Zn deficiency tolerance in frequently cultivated genotypes. In contrast, cv. Mianeh, being cultivated in calcareous soils of west and northwest of Iran, shows a clear correlation between these two traits.
Direct and residual effect of zinc and zinc amended organic manures on the zinc nutrition of field crop
Shelley Gupta,Kalpana Handore
International Journal of Agriculture Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: Zinc (Zn) deficiency is the most widespread micronutrient disorder in rice (Oryza sativa) Theobjective of this paper was to examine alternative evaluation methods and to identify the most informativetraits that would provide realistic information for rice breeders and to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs)associated with tolerance The most severe symptom in the field was high plant mortality. Zinc interfered withtranslocation of iron from roots to above ground parts of Glycine max. (L.) Merrill var. Hawkeye. Duringperiods in which zinc impeded iron translocation, it also suppressed the production of reductant by roots.Addition of iron, as a ferric metal chelate (iron ethylenediaminedihydroxyphenylacetic acid), to the growthmedium overcame the interference of zinc. In the root epidermis, potassium ferricyanide formed a precipitate(Prussian blue) with ferrous iron derived from the previously supplied ironethylenediaminedihydroxyphenylacetic acid. The reduction of ferric iron was suppressed by zinc. In a fieldexperiment on silt loam calcareous soil, the direct and residual effect of zinc and zinc amended organicmanures were studied on rice (Oryza sativa L.) followed by barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and ricerespectively. Visual Zn deficiency symptoms were observed on rice in on zinc plots. Application of zincsignificantly increased the crop yield. The magnitude of yield response was intensified where zinc wasapplied in conjunction with organic manures. The highest Zn uptake in these three crops was recorded at 5kg Zn amended with 10t compost /ha.
Evaluation of Three Sequential Extraction Methods for Fractionation of Zinc in Calcareous and Acidic Soils
Mahboub Saffari,Jafar Yasrebi,Najafali Karimian,Xiao-Quan Shan
Research Journal of Biological Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Zinc (Zn) is essential micronutrient for crop growth. Deficiency of zinc has been frequently detected sin soils in Iran. Generally, available form of Zn can be rapidly converted to unavailable form in calcareous soils. The objective of this study was to evaluate three methods for fractionation of Zn in nine surface (0-30 cm) calcareous and acidic soils of Fars, Kerman and Gilan provinces, Iran. The results showed that a major proportion of Zn was present in the residual and carbonate-bound fractions. Zn distribution pattern obtained by Sposito method follow the order residual>>carbonate-bound>organic-bound>exchangeable>adsorbed fractions. For Singh’s method, the order was residual>>carbonate-bound>Fe crystalline oxides-bound>Fe amorphous oxides-bound>organic-bound>Mn oxides-bound>exchangeable. For Ma and Uren method the order was residual>>carbonate-bound>Fe-Al oxides-bound>Mn oxides-bound>organic-bound>adsorbed>water soluble. Correlation analysis between soil properties and the Zn fractions showed that Zn fraction distribution pattern depends on soil pH, CCE, OM, CEC and texture.
Differences in the Zinc Efficiency Among and Within Maize Cultivars in a Calcareous Soil  [cached]
A. Chaab,Gh. R. Savaghebi and B. Motesharezadeh
Asian Journal of Agricultural Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: Low availability of Zn in calcareous soils is one of the widest ranging abiotic stresses in world agriculture. Greenhouse experiment were carried out with Four cultivars of maize (301 Single Grass (A), 302 Single Grass (B), 307 Single Grass (C), 400 Single Grass (D), Zea mays L.) were used to study the influence of varied zinc (Zn) supply on Zn efficiency, shoot dry matter production, Zn uptake, Chlorophyll content, Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Relative Growth Rate (RG R). Plants were grown in a Zn-deficient calcareous soil under greenhouse conditions with (+Zn = 10 mg/ kg soil) and without (-Zn) Zn supply. Plants were harvested after 40 and 80 days. Zinc efficiency, expressed as the percentage of shoot dry weight produced under conditions of Zn deficiency compared to Zn supply, ranged between 62.3 and 75.5% in first stage and between 63.5 and 81.2% in second stage. Application of Zinc caused increase in shoot dry weight in all cultivars. Zn uptake enhanced with application of zinc and ranged from 100.80 to 231.91 :g/pot in first stage and 458.01 to 858.83 :g/pot among cultivars. Zinc application increased the Chlorophyll content, Leaf Area Index and Relative Growth Rate. Zn efficiency had high and positive relation with Shoot dry weight and Zn uptake in different cultivars.
Response of Maize to Applied Soil Zinc
M. Tariq,M. A. Khan,S. Perveen
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences , 2002,
Abstract: A field experiment was conducted to study the response of maize to varying levels of applied zinc. Zinc was applied @ 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 kg ha -1 along with 120 N, 90 P2O5 and 60 K2O kg ha -1. Results indicated that the yield and yield components were significantly increased with applied zinc over control (with out fertilizer) and NPK alone treated plots. Zinc concentration in soils, in leaves and total uptake by maize also significantly increased with applied zinc, indicated zinc was deficient in the test soil. Therefore, zinc fertilization is necessary for maize crop under prevailing conditions. Moreover, the extraction capacity of AB-DTPA > DTPA for soil zinc and showed close correlation with plant zinc, suggested former method is suitable for extracting available zinc in calcareous soils.
Effect of Sulphur and Zinc on Rice Performance and Nutrient Dynamics in Plants and Soil of Indo Gangetic Plains  [cached]
Anil Kumar Singh,Manibhushan Manibhushan,M. K. Meena,Ashutosh Upadhyaya
Journal of Agricultural Science , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/jas.v4n11p162
Abstract: Rice is the staple food of more than three billion people in the world, most of who live in Asia.Rice is important crop of Indo Gangetic Plains of Bihar, productivity of system is stagnate and somewhere going down, to ascertain the role of sulphur and zinc an experiment was conducted at main campus of ICAR Research Complex of Eastern Region Patna with four levels of both nutrients i.e. sulphur and zinc, total 16 treatments were tested in Randomized Block Design. Both the nutrients were applied to rice and their direct and residual response was ascertained to rice and lentil in sequence. Based on three years of experimentation, results revealed that rice plant height is significantly affected by sulphur and zinc. Tallest plant (101.7cm) was recorded at maturity with application 6kg Zn application Zn. With the advance of stage dry matter accumulation was increased, it was not like the LAI which was decreased after Panicle initiation stage. Highest LAI (4.29) at anthesis was produced in the plots treated with Zn at 6 kg/ha. Dry matter share of root was in general less than 15% across the levels of sulphur and zinc during all the phenological stages. Maximum rice yield (7.63 t/ha) was recorded with combined application of 30kg sulphur and 6kg zinc, whereas corresponding minimum rice yield (7.09 t/ha) was recorded with absolute control plots where no application of zinc and sulphur was done during entire experimentation period.Maximum (281.2 kg/ha) nitrogen uptake was recorded with 6kg zinc treatment. However highest uptake of P (91.1 kg/ha) and K (150.4 kg/ha) was recorded in the plot supplemented with no Zn and sulphur at 40 kg/ha, respectively. Soil parameters viz., pH, EC and organic carbon content did not influenced with the S and Zn. N, P, K, S and Znwere affected significantly due to sulphur and zinc nutrition.
A System of Farming Response of Rice to Zinc Fertilizer in Calcareous Soils of D. I. Khan  [PDF]
M. Umar Khan,M. Qasim,M. Jamil
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences , 2002,
Abstract: Response of rice variety IRRI-6 to various levels of zinc was studied in a pot culture experiment. Zinc was applied at the rate of 0, 5, 10 and 15 kg ha-1 in the form of ZnSO4 along with a basal dose of 175 kg N, 110 kg P2O5 and 100 kg K2O ha-1. The results showed that all the yield and yield components of rice increased significantly with increasing level of zinc fertilizer. However, significantly maximum plant height, average number of productive tillers per plant, panicles per plant, spikelets per panicle, 1000 paddy weight and grain and straw yield were obtained where Zn was applied at the rate of 10 kg ha-1 which was statistically at par with the treatments receiving Zn at the rate of 15 kg ha-1 except number of spikelets per panicle of rice.
Zinc Fractions of Selected Calcareous Soils of Tehran Province and Their Relationships with Soil Characteristics  [cached]
A. Reyhani Tabar,N. Karimian,M. Muazardalan,G. R. Savaghebi
Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources , 2006,
Abstract: Information about forms of zinc (Zn) is important for the evaluation of its status in soil and also understanding of the soil fertility and chemistry. To obtain such information, amounts and distribution of Zn in different fractions of 20 soil samples of Tehran province, Iran were determined by sequential extraction method and their relationships with each other and with soil characteristics were investigated. Total Zn of soils ranged from 70 to 169.9 mg/kg-1. The amount of different Zn forms relative to the sum of forms was determined to be as follows: organic less than 0.1, soluble+exchangeable 0.1, manganese-oxide-associated 0.9, carbonate 1.6, crystalline iron-oxide-associated 3.8, amorphous iron-oxide-associated 4.2, and residual form 89.3%. Simple correlation coefficients showed that pH had a negative significant correlation with all forms of Zn except organic. Silt and clay contents had significant positive correlations with total, residual, and crystalline iron-oxide-asociated Zn but CEC had significant correlation only with total Zn. Calcium carbonate equivalent showed a significant correlation with soluble+exchangeable, manganese-oxide-associated and amorphous iron-oxide-associated Zn. DTPA-extractable Zn was significantly correlated with soluble+exchangeable, carbonate, and amorphous iron-oxide-associated Zn. A significant correlation was also observed between the Zn forms themselves, which is presumably a reflection of the existence of a dynamic relation between the chemical forms of an element in soil.
Comparative Evaluation of Colemanite and Sodium Pentaborate as Boron Sources for Rice Grown in Flooded Calcareous Soil
Muhammad Saleem Sarki,Khanif Y. M.,Fauziah C. I.,Samsuri A. W.
Sustainable Agriculture Research , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/sar.v2n2p134
Abstract: Boron insufficiency in the agricultural soils is common and wide spread problem in many regions of the world. The effectiveness of crushed ore colemanite as B sources for rice crop under flooded calcareous soil were evaluated in a glass house study. We studied the effects of powder colemanite (PC) and granular colemanite (GC) in comparison with the refined sodium pentaborate fertilizer at the rates of 0, 1, 2, and 3 kg B ha-1 on growth and yield parameters of rice crop as well as the true control (0 kg B ha-1). Sodium pentaborate (SP) and (PC) application of 2 and 3 kg B ha-1 significantly increased the plant height, number of tillers and panicles per plant, number of grains per panicle, weight of 1000 grains and B concentration in grain compared the 0 and 1 kg B ha-1. Rice crop with SP and PC applied at 3 kg B ha-1 produced significantly (18% over the control) higher grain yield than the 0 kg B ha-1 treatment. Pots fertilized with SP and PC produced similar results as grain yield difference between them was not significant so these B fertilizers were very effective in supplying B to rice crop, but GC applied pots produced significantly low yield because of its bigger particle size, due to which B was not released from fertilizer. This study proved that colemanite with smaller particle size is an effective B source and it is cheaper than refined products so it should be applied for harvesting higher yields.
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