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Population Dynamics of Cheer Pheasant (Catreus wallichii) in Jhelum Valley, Muzaffarabad, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan  [PDF]
Muhammad Siddique Awan,Aleem Ahmed Khan,Khawaja Basharat Ahmed,Masood Ahmed Qureshi
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2004,
Abstract: A sum of 28 surveys were conducted from June 2002 to June 2003 in three main zones (Pir Chinasi, Lowasi-Ghari Dopatta and Chinari-Qazinag) of Jhelum valley Muzaffarabad to collect data on distribution and population status of Cheer Pheasant (Catreus wallichii). The three main zones were divided into 8 main localities, each main locality was further divided into sub-localities or calling sites of Cheer Pheasant. A cumulative total of 194 adults in 2002 and 126 in 2003 were estimated in two breeding seasons. The density indices show one calling site in Low Gali (0.05 km2), three in Kavashan (0.75 km2), four in Pir Chinasi (1.33 km2), four in Garang (1.6 km2), four in Cheetah, seven in Sangar Bari (1.75 km2), three in Shinger (1.5 km2) and two in Khatir Nar (0.80 km2). During present study the no. of calling sites and density indices at various areas showed that maximum value of density index i.e. 1.75 km-2 recorded at Sangar Bari and minimum value of 0.50 km-2 at Low Gali. By documenting the direct and indirect evidences i.e. Call Counts, fresh ground clutching, feathers, foot prints, shepherds (n=10), locals (n=8), hunters (n=5) and wildlife staff (n=5) the total adult population in these two localities is 36 and 8 birds, respectively. T-test shows that there is no significant difference (0.71790) between the means of adults Cheer population estimated in 2002 and 2003 breeding season. The major threats to the cheer pheasant population were determined to be hunting and habitat degradation due to human related activities.
First Breeding and Nidification Record of Cheer Pheasant (Catreus wallichii) in Jhelum Valley, Muzaffarabad, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan
Muhammad Siddique Awan,Aleem Ahmed Khan,Khawaja Basharat Ahmed,Masood Ahmed Qureshi
Journal of Biological Sciences , 2004,
Abstract: Surveys were conducted from June 2002 to June 2003 in three main zones (Pir Chinasi, Lowasi-Ghari Dopatta and Chinari-Qazinag) of Jhelum valley Muzaffarabad to collect data on the breeding and nidification of Cheer Pheasant (Catreus wallichii). Three main zones were divided into 8 main localities, each main locality was further divided into sub-localities or calling sites of Cheer Pheasant. Two nests were found during survey i.e. one at sub-locality Nar Ka Daman at an attitude of 2500 m and other at Batal Ka Daman of Sangar Bari at 2600 m on July 11, 2002 and June 8, 2003, respectively. A female, hatching eggs (n=8) was flushed from first nest at sub-locality, Nar Ka Daman. The second nest was an old and inactive. The composition and measurements of both the nests were almost same. Both nests were constructed on ground under the bushes of Plactranthus rugosus and made up of 65-70% dry grasses i.e. saccharum rufipilum, Eriophorum sp. Poa angustifolia, with 10-12% twigs of Plactranthus rugosus, Indigofera heterantha and 20-26% needles of Pinus wallichiana The average size of eggs was 53x40 mm. In present study 2 pairs of adults with 13 juveniles were observed at cheetah location at elevation of 1900 m in July 10, 2002. Similarly in Kavashan (2500 m) a pair with 10 newly hatched chicks were observed in July 9, 2002.
Valeriana Wallichii Traditional Medicinal Plant Of India
R.Karthikeyan,A.Suganthi,Sapna Shrikumar,T.K. Ravi
Pharmaceutical Reviews , 2004,
Abstract: Valeriana wallichii commonly known as Indian valerian is one of the important plant species of commerce, which belongs to the family Valerianaceae. It is native to India (Himalayas). Indian valerian is used in various pharmaceutical preparations for the treatment of migraine. The active constituent if the root of valeriana wallichii is valerenic acid, valerenol, valerenone, valtrate, Isovaltrate.INTRODUCTION1-9The plant root occurs in short, irregular pieces about 5 cm long and 6-12 cm in diameters marked with transverse ridges and bearing numerous, prominent, circular tubercles, to some of which on the under surface, thick rootlets are attached. The upper surface bears the remains of leaves. The rhizome is hard and tough internally, it is greenish-brown in color. The odour is powerfully valerianaceous.DESCRIPTION12Botanical names: Valeriana wallichi ( Indian Valerian ) , Valeriana leschenauitic, Valeriana brunoniana, Valeriana officinalisFamily: Valerianaceae
Fodder Plants of Some Selected Areas of Jhelum Valley District Muzaffarabad Azad Kashmir  [PDF]
Ashfaq Ahmad Awan,Tanweer Akhtar,Muhammad Ejaz Ul Islam Dar
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: Jhelum valley is a subtropical to moist temperate region lying in the District Muzaffarabad. The present communication describes 61 species belonging to 19 families which are the source of fodder. The plants together with their local names, period of availability and other details with pertinent comments are enumerated. Results of fodder plant investigation conducted in Jhelum Valley during 2005-2006 are presented.
Leaf Flavonoid Aglycone Patterns, Ethnobotany and Conservation of Schima wallichii  [PDF]
Kunjani Joshi
Ecoprint: An International Journal of Ecology , 2006, DOI: 10.3126/eco.v13i0.1622
Abstract: Schima wallichii (DC.) Korth (Chilaune) is widely distributed in the various habitats of Himalaya. Information?regarding chemical constituents of this species is very limited. During the chemotaxonomic study of some angiosperms, falconoid aglycone : flavonal quercetin was isolated from the leaves? of Schima Wallichii using standard procedures after seperation and purification by paper chromatography and TLC (thin layer chromatography) plates in several solvent system, but other falconoid were not detected. The ethno botanical study of Schima Wallichii was also carried out. Various parts and the products of this species are locally used for medicine, fuel and other domestic purposes. This indigenous knowledge can be integrated in the local plan that can help to the poverty alleviation and economic development of the villages. But at present, this plant is under serious threat due to habitat destruction and over-exploitation. A holistic approach is, therefore, essential for the sustainable conversation of this species. In this paper , strategies for conservation of the plant, its resources and habitatshave also been proposed.
Spirowallichiione: A Rearranged Multiflorane from Euphorbia wallichii Hook F. (Euphorbiaceae)  [PDF]
Muhammad Shaiq Ali,Shakeel Ahmed,Muhammad Saleem
Molecules , 2008, DOI: 10.3390/molecules13020405
Abstract: Euphorbia wallichii of the family Euphorbiaceae yielded a new rearrangedpentacyclic triterpene of the multiflorane class which we have named spirowallichiione.The structure of this natural spirocompound was elucidated with the aid of modernspectroscopic techniques, including 2D-NMR.
Shallow Groundwater Quality of Mirpur City along the Upper Jhelum Canal  [cached]
Muhammad Ayyaz
Journal of Asian Scientific Research , 2013,
Abstract: The present study was conducted along the upper Jhelum Canal to evaluate the shallow ground water quality of Mirpur city aquifer by assessing the physical (color, odor and turbidity), chemical (pH, TDS, Cl, F, NO3, Cu, Zn, Ni and Pb) and bacteriological (E.coli) parameters of fifteen shallow ground water samples. The samples were collected during November 2011 to March 2012, with 2_ month interval from five sites along the upper Jhelum Canal, which include, Bong village (50 feet, depth), Lehri Village (45 feet, depth), Chechian (70 feet Depth), Pothi village (80 feet depth) and District Courts Mirpur Building (150 feet depth). It was observed that color of shallow ground water samples varied from colorless to yellowish, odor varied from odorless to objectionable (OB) and turbidity varied from 2 to 4 NTU. The pH, TDS, Cl, F, NO3, Cu, Zn, Ni and Pb levels ranged from 7.2 to 7.8, 250 to 1099 ppm, 21.2 to 173.2 ppm, 0.14 to 0.68 ppm, 0.4 to 28.7 ppm, (BDL) Below Detection Level to 0.08ppm, 0.06 to 0.18 ppm BDL to 0.07 ppm, BDL to 0.11 ppm respectively. E coli were present in all shallow ground water samples except at District Court Mirpur Building. The turbidity, TDS (except at Lehri and Bong) Cl, F, NO3 , Cu and Zn levels were found within the permissible limits of WHO, US- EPA, Pak- EPA for drinking water quality. The Pb, Ni, and E coli (Except at District Courts Mirpur Building ) levels exceeded the limits set for drinking water quality by WHO, US- EPA, Pak- EPA. The study also recommended various measures and practices for control and mitigation of shallow ground water contamination.
Comparative Study of the Effect of Na+, K+ and Ca++ Metals and Rhizopus species on the Growth of Acacia nilotica and Peganum harmala Seeds, Khewra Salt Mine, District Jhelum and Muzaffarabad, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan
Altaf Hussain,Mirza Shahid Baig
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2003,
Abstract: The Khewra salt mine area lies in the District Jhelum, Pakistan. The Precambrian Salt Range Formation is exposed in the foothills of southern Potwar. The Salt Range Formation consists of mainly halite (NaCl), sylvite (KCl) and gypsum (Ca So4) salts. The alkaline soil is the product of weathering of the Salt Range Formation. The soil on which the plants are growing is rich in Na+, K+ and Ca++ metals. The seeds of Acacia nilotica and Peganum harmala were collected from salt polluted soil out side of the Khewra salt mine and the non-polluted soil from Muzaffarabad, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan. These seeds were grown in different concentrations of Na+, K+ and Ca++ at room temperature (22 ± 2°C). The study of salt polluted seeds in presence or absence of fungus Rhizopus, shows that the germination rate and biomass increase with increasing concentration levels of Na+ and Ca++ up to 30 μg ml ̄1 and K+ up to 400 μg ml ̄1. However, the germination rate and biomass of non-polluted seeds in absence of fungus, decrease with increasing the concentration levels of Na+, K+ and Ca++. In contrast, no single non-polluted seed germinated in the presence of fungus. The present study shows that if seeds from A. nilotica and P. harmala plants are sown and grown in saline soils of Punjab and Indus plains, these will reduce the salinity of soil without fungal infection in such plants.
IN VITRO PROPAGATION OF DIPTERIS WALLICHII (R.BR.) T. MOORE: A HOPE FOR CONSERVATION OF AN ENDANGERED PTERIDOPHYTE
Singha, Kh. Bharati,Dutta Choudhury,Manabendra,Mazumder
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2013, DOI: 10.7897/2230-8407.04346
Abstract: The pteridophytes include the fern and fern allies which jointly create the necessary environment for human life on earth with other green plants. Dipteris wallichii (R.Br.) T. Moore is a rare and endemic pteridophyte of North East India. It is also facing severe threats due to its habitat destruction. Tribals destroy the plant in large numbers for preparing their wine drinking pipes. An in vitro protocol for micropropagation of D.wallichii Moore was carried out using standard Murashige and Skoog medium for spore germination and further cell proliferation. It was observed that supplementation of phytohormones mainly auxins (Indole-3-Acetic Acid) were favourable for sporophyte development from prothallus. Further growth and differentiation of the prothallus and sporophyte were recorded for various hormone concentrations and combinations and was observed to be best in 0.15 mg/L IAA + 0.20 mg/L KIN.
Diet and Cardiovascular Risk in University Marching Band, Dance Team and Cheer Squad Members: a cross-sectional study
Shreela V Sharma, Jill A Bush, Andrew J Lorino, Mark Knoblauch, Diana Abuamer, Gabe Blog, Dave Bertman
Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1550-2783-5-9
Abstract: In 2004, 232 marching band, dance team and cheer squad members completed a self-administered survey evaluating dietary intake. Body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), blood pressure, fasting serum glucose and cholesterol were measured. Unpaired t-test and Pearson's chi square test were used to determine baseline differences by gender. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine the cross-sectional association between dietary intake of various food groups such as grains, meats, fruits & vegetables, dairy, water, alcohol and risk factors for CVD namely BMI, WHR, blood glucose, total cholesterol, and blood pressure (BP).45% of the participants were overweight; 30% of females and 4.3% of males had WHR ≥ 0.80 and 0.95 respectively. Almost 8% were hyperglycemic, 10% hypercholesterolemic, 15% had high systolic and 9% had high diastolic BP. Less than 50% consumed the recommended servings of grains, fruits and vegetables, dairy and water and 58% consumed alcohol. Higher grains intake was positively associated with higher BMI (Adjusted β = 1.97, p = 0.030, 95% CI: 0.19, 3.74) and; higher alcohol intake was also positively associated with higher BMI (Adjusted β = 0.15, p = 0.002, 95% CI: 0.06, 0.24).These results warrant the evaluation of existing college-based health programs and development of new interventions to improve dietary habits and promote a healthy lifestyle in these athletes.Dietary habits are typically developing in childhood and established by young adulthood [1]. Development of healthy eating habits in young individuals could be vital for prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) since CVD is the leading cause of death in the United States [2]. Risk factors for CVD include obesity, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, insulin resistance, physical inactivity, and smoking [3] and recent data have shown a significant rise in the prevalence of obesity in children, adolescents and adults [4]. Diets high in fat, especially saturated fat, are of
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