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Fatty Acid Compositions of Five Wild Edible Mushroom Species Collected from Turkey  [PDF]
Pelin Gunc Ergonul,Bulent Ergonul,Fatih Kalyoncu,Ilgaz Akata
International Journal of Pharmacology , 2012,
Abstract: The fatty acids of five wild edible mushroom species (Agrocybe cylindracea, Coprinus comatus, Lactarius deliciosus, Suillus collinitus and Tricholoma myomyces) collected from different regions from Anatolia were determined. The fatty acids were identified and quantified by gas chromatography and studied using fruit bodies. Fatty acid composition varied among species. The dominant fatty acid in fruit bodies of all mushrooms was cis-linoleic acid (18: 2). Percentage of cis-linoleic acid in species varied from 36.29-66.72%. The other major fatty acids were, cis-oleic, palmitic and stearic acids, respectively. Fatty acids analysis of the mushrooms showed that the unsaturated fatty acids were at higher concentrations than saturated fatty acids.
Study of Edible Mushroom Grown on Eucalyptus camaldulensis Trunk and under the Soil of Albizzia procera
Fauzia Hafiz,Majeda Begum,Sahana Parveen,Zaibun Nessa
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2003,
Abstract: Two local varieties of mushroom were collected , identified, analysis proximate for their food value and tested in three way for their toxic effect. They found to be edible with high food value.
Chemical Characteristics and Antioxidant Properties of Crude Water Soluble Polysaccharides from Four Common Edible Mushrooms  [PDF]
Jin-Zhe He,Qiao-Mei Ru,Dan-Dan Dong,Pei-Long Sun
Molecules , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/molecules17044373
Abstract: Four crude water soluble polysaccharides, CABP, CAAP, CFVP and CLDP, were isolated from common edible mushrooms, including Agaricus bisporus, Auricularia auricula, Flammulina velutipes and Lentinus edodes, and their chemical characteristics and antioxidant properties were determined. Fourier Transform-infrared analysis showed that the four crude polysaccharides were all composed of β-glycoside linkages. The major monosaccharide compositions were D-galactose, D-glucose and D-mannose for CABP, CAAP and CLDP, while CFVP was found to consist of L-arabinose, D-galactose, D-glucose and D-mannose. The main molecular weight distributions of CABP and the other three polysaccharides were 66.0 × 104 Da, respectively. Antioxidant properties of the four polysaccharides were evaluated in in vitro systems and CABP showed the best antioxidant properties. The studied mushroom species could potentially be used in part of well-balanced diets and as a source of antioxidant compounds.
Photo-Irradiated Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Edible Mushroom Pleurotus florida and Their Antibacterial Activity Studies  [PDF]
Ravishankar Bhat,Raghunandan Deshpande,Sharanabasava V. Ganachari,Do Sung Huh,A. Venkataraman
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/650979
Abstract: This is a report on photo-irradiated extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the aqueous extract of edible oyster mushroom (Pleurotus florida) as a reducing agent. The appearance, size, and shape of the silver nanoparticles are understood by UV-visible spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The X-ray diffraction studies, energy dispersive X-ray analysis indicate that particles are crystalline in nature. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis revealed that the nanoparticles are covered with biomoieties on their surface. As can be seen from our studies, the biofunctionalized silver nanoparticles thus produced have shown admirable antimicrobial effects, and the synthetic procedure involved is eco-friendly and simple, and hence high range production of the same can be considered for using them in many pharmaceutical applications. 1. Introduction Nanotechnology is a rapidly growing field which has led to promising revolutionary applications in medical and engineering in terms of their efficacy, safety and economy. Nanobiotechnology is an offspring of nanotechnology that has emerged at the interface of nanotechnology and biology. Nanoparticles smeared with chemicals or biomoieties are gaining interest in the field of nanodrug delivery systems which have specific and localized applications without harming the cells of the surrounding areas of the body organs. Hence, there is a need to develop green chemistry approaches in the synthesis for the nanomaterials [1]. In this aspect, synthetic methods based on naturally occurring biomaterials offer better alternatives [2]. The bioroutes for the synthesis of the nanoparticles include employing microorganisms such as Pseudomonas stutzeri [3], Plectonema boryanum UTEX485 [4], Verticillium sp. [5], Fusarium oxysporium [6], Fusarium semitectum [7], MKY3 (yeast) [8], Thermomonospora sp. [9], and also different plants like Avena sativa [10], Aloe vera [11], Azadiracta indica (neem) [12], Psdium guajava (Guava plant) [13], and so forth. Few mushrooms (spore-bearing fruiting body of fungus) are also used for this purpose, namely, Volvariella volvacea [14], Pleurotus sajor [15]. In this work, we have used extract of edible mushroom Pleurotus florida which is also known as Oyster mushroom (Figure 1) for the synthesis of biofunctionalized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as this mushroom is known for its medicinal property [16] as an antioxidant and antitumor agent [17]. Figure 1: Image of mushroom Pleurotus florida. Since
New Bioactive Molecules with Potential Antioxidant Activity from Various Extracts of Wild Edible Gelam Mushroom (Boletus spp.)  [PDF]
M. H. M. Y. Yuswan, Jameel R. Al-Obaidi, A. Rahayu, S. Sahidan, F. Shazrul, D. Fauzi
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2015.64031
Abstract: Boletus spp. is a wild edible Gelam mushroom, which is only available at coastal area of Bachok, Kelantan. Locals have used this mushroom as a food source and as a traditional medicine. In this study, antioxidants were extracted using Mili-Q water and methanol. Extraction of 1.0 g of Boletus spp. mushroom pileus and stipe by water produced 0.22 ± 0.09 g and 0.3 ± 0.07 g of total aqueous soluble extracts, respectively. Methanol extraction of 1.0 g Boletus spp. mushroom pileus and stipe produced 0.31 ± 0.08 mg and 0.37 ± 0.05 mg of total methanol soluble extracts, respectively. DPPH assay has been used to determine the value of antioxidant efficiency of each extracts. DPPH assay revealed that the EC50 value of pileus aqueous soluble extract and both pileus and stipe methanol soluble extracts were 1.2 mg/ml. The EC50 value of stipe aqueous soluble extracts was 1.4 mg/ml. The EC50 value of ascorbic acid, an antioxidant control was 0.5 mg/ml. Liquid chromatography- DPPH (LC-DPPH) assay combined with Quadrupole Time-of-flight Mass Spectrometry (QTOF-MS) analysis of 3:2 ratio methanol and water extract has detected 43 antioxidant compounds that were involved in the reduction of DPPH. To identify these compounds, SIMCA 3.0 software that consists of PCA, OPLS-DA and s-plot analyses had been used. PCA analysis had shown the antioxidant activity from sample on DPPH as 73.6%. This antioxidant activity confirmed by OPLS-DA analysis had shown the variability between sample and control as 99.6% with 99.3% prediction. S-plot selection had shown ten antioxidant compounds significantly involved in the DPPH assay. Four of these compounds were identified by the METLIN and NIST databases. The antioxidant metabolites were 2,4,6-trimethylacetophenone imine, glutamyl tryptophan, azatadine and lithocholic acid glycine conjugate. In conclusion, this study revealed that Boletus spp. mushroom is rich with natural antioxidants, which are potentially useful for multiple nutritional and health applications.
Edible mushroom cultivation at the Institute of Ecology In Mexico  [cached]
G. Mata,D. Salmones
Micología Aplicada Internacional , 2003,
Abstract: Research work on mushroom cultivation at the Institute of Ecology (INECOL) began in 1989 cultivating Pleurotus spp. At present, these studies have been extended to other genera including Lentinula and Volvariella. Different agricultural and forest byproducts have been evaluated as substrates for commercial cultivation. More than one hundred strains of Pleurotus have been studied in order to select germplasm suited for commercial production. Hybrids obtained by crossing selected monokaryons give yields greater than the parents in reduced culture cycles. Some strains of Lentinula edodes have been cultivated on pasteurized non-conventional substrates, such as coffee pulp, sugar cane bagasse, and wheat straw, showing good adaptation to this process. The strain collection (INECOL) has over 300 strains of edible mushrooms, and nearly 100 strains of phytopathogenic fungi. More than 60% of them come from wild Mexican specimens, mainly isolated from tropical and subtropical regions. Training courses and workshops have been carried out in order to share practical experience, and to offer technical support and basic services to growers from Mexico and other countries of Latin America. Recently, some aspects of enzyme production and physiological adaptation have been investigated in Pleurotus and Lentinula. The antagonistic relations between mushrooms and other fungi (mainly Trichoderma spp.) are also important topics. Strain selection for greater yields, physiological adaptation to different substrates, disease resistance, spawn improvement, and germplasm conservation are basic lines for future research.
Paccola, Edneia A. de Souza;Maki, Cristina Sayuri;Nobrega, Gisele M.A. de;Paccola-Meirelles, Luzia Doretto;
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S1517-83822001000300003
Abstract: five species of edible mushrooms, lentinula edodes, pleurotus ostreatus, pholiota nameko, macrolepiota bonaerensis and agaricus blazei, were tested for their potential to inhibit the in vitro growth of the pathogenic yeast candida albicans. only l. edodes had a fungistatic effect on this human pathogen. the inhibitory compound was produced intra and extracellularly in submersed l. edodes culture, and was also present in fresh and dehydrated mushroom basidiocarps. the fungistatic compound was heat sensitive and lost activity after 72 hours.
Paccola Edneia A. de Souza,Maki Cristina Sayuri,Nobrega Gisele M.A. de,Paccola-Meirelles Luzia Doretto
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology , 2001,
Abstract: Five species of edible mushrooms, Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus, Pholiota nameko, Macrolepiota bonaerensis and Agaricus blazei, were tested for their potential to inhibit the in vitro growth of the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. Only L. edodes had a fungistatic effect on this human pathogen. The inhibitory compound was produced intra and extracellularly in submersed L. edodes culture, and was also present in fresh and dehydrated mushroom basidiocarps. The fungistatic compound was heat sensitive and lost activity after 72 hours.
In Vitro Free Radical Scavenging Activity of a Wild Edible Mushroom, Sparassis crispa (Wulf.) Fr., from North Western Himalayas, India  [PDF]
Madhavi Joshi,Anand Sagar
Journal of Mycology , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/748531
Abstract: Bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of methanolic extract of Sparassis crispa collected from North Western Himalayan region of India were analyzed. Phenolic content ?mg tannic acid equivalent per g of the extract and flavonoids ?mg catechin equivalent per g of the extract were recorded to be the major antioxidant components in this wild edible mushroom. Significant antioxidant efficiency on inhibition of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) was observed when compared to standard antioxidant like L-ascorbic acid. IC50 value of the extract was 2.11?mg/mL. The findings suggest S. crispa as an easily accessible source of natural antioxidants. 1. Introduction Oxidation is essential in many living organisms for the production of energy to fuel biological processes. However, uncontrolled production of oxygen derived free radicals results in the onset of many diseases, such as cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, and atherosclerosis, as well as in degenerative processes associated with ageing [1]. Almost all organisms are well protected against free radical damage by antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase or chemical compounds such as ascorbic acid, α-tocopherols, carotenoids, polyphenol compounds, and glutathione [2]. As improved antioxidant status helps to minimize the oxidative damage and thus delay or prevent pathological changes. Potential antioxidant therapy should be, therefore, included either as natural free radical scavenging antioxidant enzymes or as an agent which is capable of augmenting the activity of antioxidant enzymes [3]. Traditionally, wild edible mushrooms are used by most of the Asian and other countries worldwide as food and medicinal sources [4, 5]. They are also a good source of antioxidants. In the past few years, the suspected toxicity of some of the synthetic compounds used in food has raised interest in natural products; therefore, compounds from natural sources that possess antioxidant activity are being sought. Naturally occurring substances having antioxidant property are becoming one of the most appealing modes of modern therapy. Among them, mushrooms or their derivatives or extracts occupy an elite position to perform this function [6–11]. Mushrooms are gaining importance both as nutrient supplement and disease curing medicine. Mushrooms are unlimited source of therapeutically useful and biologically active agents. Compounds of mushrooms have been reported to have antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiviral, antitumor, hepatoprotective, antidiabetic, antithrombotic, hypotensive, and
Antioxidant Activity of Crude Polysaccharides from Edible Fresh and Dry Mushroom Fruiting Bodies of Lentinus sp. Strain RJ-2  [PDF]
C. Thetsrimuang,S. Khammuang,R. Sarnthima
International Journal of Pharmacology , 2011,
Abstract: Crude polysaccharides of mature fresh (FB) and dried fruiting bodies (DB) of the edible mushroom, Lentinus sp. strain RJ-2 were evaluated for their antioxidant properties. The crude polysaccharides yields in FB and DB were 115.84 and 93.66 mg g-1 dry weight mushroom, respectively. Trolox equivalent values in scavenging abilities of both crude polysaccharides against both 2, 2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radical and 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals as well as reducing properties were in similar ranges. The crude polysaccharides contained protein, reducing sugar and phenol compounds. The results from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) suggested that the crude polysaccharide contained a monosaccharide with six carbon atoms in a pyranose ring and mannose are proposed to be the majority. This study suggested that the crude polysaccharides from Lentinus sp. mushrooms could potentially be used as natural antioxidants.
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