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High temperature and salt stress response in French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)  [PDF]
Nagesh Babu R,Devaraj Varadahally Rangaiah
Australian Journal of Crop Science , 2008,
Abstract: Abiotic stresses, such as high temperature, and salt stress are major factors which reduce crop productivity. Effects of high temperature (46-48° C) and salt stress (0.4 M) on French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), a major vegetable crop, were evaluated in terms of antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes in S-9 cultivar. Both stresses caused similar responses in the plant. Oxidative stress indicators such as H2O2, TBARS, glutathione, ascorbic acid, and proline were significantly elevated. Similarly, antioxidant enzyme, guaiacol-specific peroxidase (POX) was significantly elevated. Other enzymes, Beta-amylase and acid phosphatase (AP) activities were marginally enhanced. However, stresses had contrasting effects on glutathione reductase (GR) and catalase (CAT), which were drastically reduced in temperature stress, and elevated in salt stress. No variations were observed in AP, POX, and CAT isozymes. Patterns of GR and Beta-amylase isozymes differed between temperature and salt stress. SDS-PAGE indicated entirely different sets of proteins in temperature and salt stressed seedlings. Growth rate and fresh mass were affected to same extent, relative to their respective controls. DNA damage was more pronounced under temperature stress than under salt stress. Response mechanism of French bean appears to involve some players which are common to both the stresses, and few specific to individual stress.
The Response of Some Haricot Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Varieties for Salt Stress during Germination and Seedling Stage  [cached]
Kinfemichael Geressu Asfaw
Current Research Journal of Biological Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: Fourteen haricot bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) varieties were tested during germination and seedling growth at 0, 2, 4, 8 and 16 dS/m salinity levels. Data analysis was carried out using jmp5 statistical software (version 5.0). Final Germination Percentage (FGP), Seedling Shoot Length (SSL), Seedling Root Length (SRL) and seedling shoot-to-root ratio (SRR) were measured. The data analysis showed insignificant variation among most parameters recorded for varieties (p>0.05). The ANOVA displayed statistical significance for treatments for all parameters at p<0.0001. However, it was insignificant for variety*treatment interaction (p>0.05). Seedling root length was more salt affected than seedling shoot length. Variety Awash Melka was found salt tolerant during germination and seedling growth. Variety Mexican 142 was salt sensitive during germination but later became salt tolerant during seedling growth. On the other hand, variety Dimtu was salt sensitive during germination and seedling growth. The rest haricot bean varieties were intermediate in their salt tolerance. The study affirmed the presence of broad intraspecific genetic variation in haricot bean varieties for salt tolerance. Irrespective of salinity being a growing problem in Ethiopia in general and the Awash Valley in particular, only little has been done on crops salt tolerance. Therefore, to alleviate the salinity problem, there should be similar and profound studies on haricot beans and other crops.
Transcriptome Analysis of Salt Tolerant Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) under Saline Conditions  [PDF]
Mahmut Can Hiz, Balkan Canher, Harun Niron, Muge Turet
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0092598
Abstract: Salinity is one of the important abiotic stress factors that limit crop production. Common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., a major protein source in developing countries, is highly affected by soil salinity and the information on genes that play a role in salt tolerance is scarce. We aimed to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and related pathways by comprehensive analysis of transcriptomes of both root and leaf tissues of the tolerant genotype grown under saline and control conditions in hydroponic system. We have generated a total of 158 million high-quality reads which were assembled into 83,774 all-unigenes with a mean length of 813 bp and N50 of 1,449 bp. Among the all-unigenes, 58,171 were assigned with Nr annotations after homology analyses. It was revealed that 6,422 and 4,555 all-unigenes were differentially expressed upon salt stress in leaf and root tissues respectively. Validation of the RNA-seq quantifications (RPKM values) was performed by qRT-PCR (Quantitative Reverse Transcription PCR) analyses. Enrichment analyses of DEGs based on GO and KEGG databases have shown that both leaf and root tissues regulate energy metabolism, transmembrane transport activity, and secondary metabolites to cope with salinity. A total of 2,678 putative common bean transcription factors were identified and classified under 59 transcription factor families; among them 441 were salt responsive. The data generated in this study will help in understanding the fundamentals of salt tolerance in common bean and will provide resources for functional genomic studies.
EFFECT OF SALT STRESS ON THE GROWTH AND PHOTOSYNTHESIS RATE OF BEAN PLANTS (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L.)  [PDF]
Nevena STOEVA,Miroslava Kaymakanova
Journal of Central European Agriculture , 2009,
Abstract: The effect of salt stress оn some physiological parameters in young bean plants (cv. Lody) was studied under controlled conditions in a climatic room. The plants were grown in pots as hydroponic cultures in half-strength Hoagland nutrient solution. The plants were treated for 7 days with 50 and 100 mM NaCl and Na2SO4 , starting at the appearance of the fi rst trifoliate leaf unfolded. The salts were added to the nutrient solution. It was established that the applied doses of both salt types caused stress on the young bean plants, which found expression in the suppression of growth, photosynthesis activity and the plastid pigment content. The amount of proline in the tissues of the salt-treated plants was increased, while the cell water potential was reduced.
Iron and zinc retention in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) after home cooking
Lucia M. J. Carvalho,Mariana M. Corrêa,Elenilda J. Pereira,Marília R. Nutti
Food & Nutrition Research , 2012, DOI: 10.3402/fnr.v56i0.15618
Abstract: Background : According to the World Health Organization (WHO), iron, iodine, and Vitamin A deficiencies are the most common forms of malnutrition, leading to severe public health consequences. The importance of iron and zinc in human nutrition and the number of children found to be deficient in these nutrients make further studies on retention in cooked grains and cooked bean broth important. Objectives : This work aimed to evaluate iron and zinc retention in six common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars under the following conditions: raw beans, regular pot cooking, pressure cooking, with and without previous water soaking, and broth. Design : Determination of iron and zinc content in the raw, cooked bean grains and broth samples was carried out by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) Optical Emission Spectrometry (Spectro Analytical Instrument – Spectroflame P). All experiments and analyses were carried out in triplicate. Results : Overall, regardless of the cooking method, with or without previous water soaking, the highest zinc concentration was found in the cooked bean grains. However, pressure cooking and previous water soaking diminished iron retention in the cooked grains, while increasing it in the bean broth. Conclusion : The common bean was confirmed to be an excellent source of iron and zinc for human consumption, and it was suggested that beans should be consumed in a combined form, i.e. grain with bean broth.
Response of Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) to Exogenous Putrescine Treatment under Salinity Stress  [PDF]
Ibrahim Mohamed Zeid
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2004,
Abstract: Exogenous Put treatment (10-2 mM) showed a valuable results on germination and growth of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Giza 6) under normal and NaCl-induced stress. Germination percentage of Put treated seeds increased to 88% under salinity stress, may be due to the activation of amylase and protease enzymes during germination. The rise of K+/Na+ ratio in shoots of Put treated seedlings under NaCl-induced stress suggest that Put treatment may partially ameliorate the adverse effects of sodium and chloride ions. Put treatment improved growth of salt-stressed seedlings, may be through the partial inhibition of amylase and protease enzymes and increasing the total content of nucleic acids and photosynthetic pigments. Changes in protein banding patterns suggest that a defense-response genes could be activated by Put treatment.
Effect of Processing on Chemical Composition of Red Kidney Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Flour  [PDF]
S.S. Audu,M.O. Aremu
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2011,
Abstract: Proximate, mineral and amino acid compositions of raw and processed red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) flour were investigated on dry weight bases with a view to finding alternative and cheaper sources of protein to solve the problem of malnutrition due to inadequate protein in nutrition which is a prevalent problem in developing world, especially in Nigeria. Processing methods (cooking, boiling, roasting, sprouting and fermenting) were adopted using the standard analytical techniques. The processing methods showed deviations in nutrient content from the raw seeds. Crude fat was reduced by some processing methods particularly cooking and boiling while crude protein was enhanced in this order: Roasting > fermenting > boiling > sprouting > cooking. Processing significantly affected the mineral content of the red kidney bean flour (p<0.05). Boiling and roasting reduced the content of magnesium by 4.7 and 10.3%, respectively. All the processing methods reduced calcium content. Processed red kidney bean seed flour was found to be a good source of essential minerals, while harmful heavy metals such as lead and cadmium were not detected. The amino acid profile revealed cooking, roasting, sprouting and fermenting to have enhanced Total Amino Acid (TAA), while Total Essential Amino Acid (TEAA) and Total Sulphur Amino Acid (TSAA) were reduced by all the processing methods. After processing of the red kidney bean seed sufficient amount of essential amino acids were retained to meet FAO dietary requirement, but supplementation may be done for raw in Ile, Met + Cys, Thr and Val; boiled (Ile, Met + Cys and Thr); cooked (Met Cys and Val); roasted (Ile, Met + Cys and Val); sprouted and fermented (Met + Cys, Thr and Val).
Salinity Stress in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Seed Germination  [cached]
Alihan COKKIZGIN
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca , 2012,
Abstract: In this study, the effect of five different levels of salt (NaCl) on the germination of Phaseolus vulgaris L. seed was investigated. Laboratory experiment with completely randomized design comprising three replicates in Petri dishes was conducted at Gaziantep University Vocational School of Higher Education in Nurdagi to determine the salt effects on common bean germination. The germination of the cultivar (Tegmen) was studied using distilled water (control) and under osmotic potential of 0.3, 0.6, 0.9, 1.2, and 1.5 MPa NaCl. The results indicated that the Mean germination time (MGT), Germination index (GI), Coefficient of velocity of germination (CVG), Germination percentage (GP), and Seed vigor index (SVI) varied between 3.13 and 3.78 days, 6.88 and 3.93, 0.156 and 0.153, 90 and 60%, and 867.0 and 290.3, respectively. Significant differences were found among NaCl treatments in terms of GI, GP, and SVI. All the examined parameters were decreased with increasing NaCl concentration, except MGT. The max and min GI, GP, CVG, and SVI were observed at the control condition (0.0 MPa) and highest osmotic potential (1.5 MPa) of NaCl, respectively. Correlation coefficient between all possible combinations was estimated and the results indicated that MGT, GI, GP, CVG, and SVI had significant positive or negative correlation with each other.
Heritability of cooking time and water absorption traits in dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) using a North Carolina design II mating scheme
FM Elia
Tanzania Journal of Science , 2003,
Abstract: Estimation of genetic variances, heritabilities and estimations of response to selection of the cooking time and water absorption traits of Andean gene pool of dry bean seed Phaseolus vulgaris L. were done. General combining ability (GCA) i.e. GCA males and GCA females, and Specific combining ability (SCA) were estimated. The parents were crossed in a North Carolina mating design II and genetic analysis was made on the F3 and F4. Both male and female effectations within sets for the cooking trait in F3 and F4 were highly significant for the traits studied. Variances due to General combining ability (GCA) and Specific combining ability (SCA) were significant for the traits. It was observed that quick cooking parental genotypes produced progenies that were rapid cooking. This suggests that it is possible to select superior cooking progenies from crosses involving quick cooking parents due to the preponderance of the additive genetic variance in both F3 and F4. The high heritability and large magnitude in the range of the means of the cooking time trait indicates that population improvement is possible through recurrent selection. Estimation of response to selection indicated that genetic gain in selection was achievable. Partitioning among the entry source of variance for the water absorption into male and female effects within sets, their interactions, and the environment main effect indicated that the values were highly significant in both F3 and F4. The GCA male and GCA female effects had a much larger component of variance than the SCA. This indicates that additive genetic variances were important. The large magnitude in the heritability and the range in the mean of water absorption, and the estimated high response to selection indicate that the population can be improved through selection as shown by the presence of genetic gain in selection for the trait. It appears from the results obtained in this study that soaking dry beans before cooking is indicative of the amount of time required to render them eating soft. Hence water absorption can be used as a secondary selection index or indirect selection criteria for cooking time in a crop improvement program. In both traits studied, narrow sense heritability estimates were high (76% to 85 %). Tanz. J. Sci. Vol.29(1) 2003: 25-34
DIVERSITY IN COMMON BEAN LANDRACES (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) FROM BULGARIA AND PORTUGAL  [PDF]
Tsvetelina STOILOVA,Graca PEREIRA,M de SOUSA,Valdemar CARNIDE
Journal of Central European Agriculture , 2006,
Abstract: The genetic diversity of landraces is thought to be the economic valuable part of global biodiversity and is considered of paramount importance for future world production. The investigation was performed on 30 common bean landraces (Ph. vulgaris L.) from different geographic origin of Portugal and Bulgaria. The morphological characterization was done according to the IPGRI descriptors (Rome, Italy). Twenty morphological traits were studied in Portuguese and Bulgarian landraces of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Accessions number 99E059(BG), 99E0123(BG), PH2(PT) and PH23(PT) are of special interest for breeding purposes.
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