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Diversity and Effectiveness of Insect Pollinators of Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae)  [cached]
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences , 2010,
Abstract: Seed of Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae) is currently established as the source for biofuel Therefore, it is important to understand the diversity insects that pollinated J. curcas inflorescence yellow flowers. We also aimed to study the pollination effects on fruit set on J. curcas. Scan sampling method were carried out to explore the insect pollinators diversity from 07.00 up to 17.00 h in every 15 minutes. Visiting frequency of pollinators insects were observed by using focal sampling. Those information together with flowering periods, flower nectar volumes, and environmental factors were used as the basic data to determine the effectiveness of insect pollination both in covered and uncovered of seed set plants. Results showed that nine species of insect pollinators were from three order (Hymenoptera, Lepidotera, and Diptera) pollinated J. curcas. Four species of Hymenoptera i.e. Prenolepis, Apis dorsata, Xylocopa confusa, and Apis cerana showed the highest abundances. The highest abundance and species richness of pollinators occurred at 08.00-10.15 and 15.00-17.15 h. Bees of X. confusa, A. cerana, and A. dorsata of Apidae are effective as insect pollinators in J. curcas plantations, due to high visited frequencies. The insect pollinators also increased fruits and seeds set of J. curcas in the uncovered experiment plants. Thereby, enhancement the three pollinator insects as part of crop management have to be considered by farmers.
Comparative study on the niches of Apis mellifera ligustica and Apis cerana cerana
意大利蜜蜂(Apis mellifera ligustica)与中华蜜蜂(Apis cerana ceraca)的生态位比较

YU Lin-Sheng,ZOU Yun-Ding,CAO Yi-Feng,BI Shou-Dong,WU Hou-Zhang,DING Jian,XIE Wen-Fei,

生态学报 , 2008,
Abstract: To elucidate ecological adaptability of Apis cerana cerana and Apis mellifera ligustica in Wannan mountain areas of Anhui province, food niche, temporal niche and spatial niche of the two types of bees were systematically compared. Our results indicated that food niche breadths of Apis cerana cerana and Apis mellifera ligustica were 0.923 and 0.765, respectively. For Apis cerana cerana, there was very little difference in their preference for different plants, whilst Apis mellifera ligustica showed a much higher variance. The niche overlap index and niche similarity between the two bee species were 0.160 and 0.755, respectively. During the florescence of brassica campestie, temporal niche breadths of Apis cerana cerana and Apis mellifera ligustica were 0.879 and 0.801, respectively, whilst during florescence of Eriobotra japomica, temporal niche breadths of the two species were 0.760 and 0.677, and their spatial niche breadths were 0.797 and 0.670, respectively. Our results also suggested that all niche breadths of Apis cerana cerana were broader than those of Apis mellifera ligustic, and that three-dimensional niche values of Apis cerana cerana were 1.57 and 1.61 times higher than those of Apis mellifera ligustica. Above results clearly indicated that Apis cerana cerana has a better ecological adaptability than Apis mellifera ligustica in Wannan mountain areas.
Transcriptome Analysis of the Asian Honey Bee Apis cerana cerana  [PDF]
Zi Long Wang, Ting Ting Liu, Zachary Y. Huang, Xiao Bo Wu, Wei Yu Yan, Zhi Jiang Zeng
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0047954
Abstract: Background The Eastern hive honey bee, Apis cerana cerana is a native and widely bred honey bee species in China. Molecular biology research about this honey bee species is scarce, and genomic information for A. c. cerana is not currently available. Transcriptome and expression profiling data for this species are therefore important resources needed to better understand the biological mechanisms of A. c. cerana. In this study, we obtained the transcriptome information of A. c. cerana by RNA-sequencing and compared gene expression differences between queens and workers of A. c. cerana by digital gene expression (DGE) analysis. Results Using high-throughput Illumina RNA sequencing we obtained 51,581,510 clean reads corresponding to 4.64 Gb total nucleotides from a single run. These reads were assembled into 46,999 unigenes with a mean length of 676 bp. Based on a sequence similarity search against the five public databases (NR, Swissport, GO, COG, KEGG) with a cut-off E-value of 10?5 using BLASTX, a total of 24,630 unigenes were annotated with gene descriptions, gene ontology terms, or metabolic pathways. Using these transcriptome data as references we analyzed the gene expression differences between the queens and workers of A. c. cerana using a tag-based digital gene expression method. We obtained 5.96 and 5.66 million clean tags from the queen and worker samples, respectively. A total of 414 genes were differentially expressed between them, with 189 up-regulated and 225 down-regulated in queens. Conclusions Our transcriptome data provide a comprehensive sequence resource for future A. c. cerana study, establishing an important public information platform for functional genomic studies in A. c. cerana. Furthermore, the DGE data provide comprehensive gene expression information for the queens and workers, which will facilitate our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of the different physiological aspects of the two castes.
Study on Genetic Diversity of Apis cerana cerana and Apis mellifera ligustica in China with Microsatellite Markers
Ji Ting,Yin Ling,Liu Min,Bao Wen-bin,Chen Guo-hong
Research Journal of Animal Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Analysing genetic diversity of Apis cerana cerana and Apis mellifera ligustica in China could provide a theoretical foundation for the research on the conservation and reasonable utilization of honey bee populations, but there have not public reports on this topic by using microsatellite markers until now. Genetic diversity of Changbaishan bee (Apis cerana cerana) and Pinghu royal jelly bee (Apis mellifera ligustica) in China were evaluated with 21 microstaellite loci, the genetic variability within breeds and genetic differentiation between breeds were estimated, the results showed that in 21 microstaellite loci, 171 alleles were found, the number of alleles per locus ranged from 3-13, the average expected heterozygosity and PIC of all loci were 0.7175 and 0.6755, respectively. Mean numbers of alleles of Changbaishan bee and Pinghu royal jelly bee were 1.86 and 6.27, the average of genetic differentiation measured as FST value, was 51.9% (p<0.001) and all loci contributed significantly (p<0.001) to this differentiation. It can also, be seen that the deficit of heterozygotes was very high (0.574) (p<0.001). Reynolds distance values between 2 populations were 0.734.
Ecology, Behaviour and Control of Apis cerana with a Focus on Relevance to the Australian Incursion  [PDF]
Anna H. Koetz
Insects , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/insects4040558
Abstract: Apis cerana Fabricius is endemic to most of Asia, where it has been used for honey production and pollination services for thousands of years. Since the 1980s, A. cerana has been introduced to areas outside its natural range (namely New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, and Australia), which sparked fears that it may become a pest species that could compete with, and negatively affect, native Australian fauna and flora, as well as commercially kept A. mellifera and commercial crops. This literature review is a response to these concerns and reviews what is known about the ecology and behaviour of A. cerana. Differences between temperate and tropical strains of A. cerana are reviewed, as are A. cerana pollination, competition between A. cerana and A. mellifera, and the impact and control strategies of introduced A. cerana, with a particular focus on gaps of current knowledge.
Studies on the genetic diversity detected by RAPD in the offspring of the nutritional crossbreed between Apis cerana cerana and Apis mellifera ligustica

XIE Xian-bing,SU Song-kun,YAN Wei-yu,GUO Dong-sheng,ZENG Zhi-jiang,

浙江大学学报(农业与生命科学版) , 2005,
Abstract: The experiments were conducted with Apis cerana cerana and Apis mellifera ligustica.In this study,nutritional hybridizations were carried out between Apis cerana cerana and Apis mellifera ligustica.Random amplified polymorphic DNA(RAPD) analysis was used to detect genetic diversity of the workers,which were the offspring of parent colonies and hybridization colonies.The results showed that the genetic similarity coefficient between the parent and the nutritional crossbreeding offspring tended to diminish.And some special bands were transferred mutually between Apis cerana cerana and Apis mellifera ligustica.All of these indicate the occurrence of probable gene transfer in honeybees after nutritional hybridization.
Genetic Diversity and Relationship Between Genetic Distance and Geographical Distance of 6 Apis Cerana Cerana Populations in China
Yin Ling,Ji Ting,Liu Min,Bao Wen-Bin,Chen Guo-Hong
Research Journal of Animal Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Genetic diversity and the relationship between genetic distance and geographical distance of 6 Apis cerana cerana populations in China were evaluated with 11 microstaellite loci, the results showed that the number of alleles per locus ranged from 7-21, the average expected heterozygosity and PIC of all loci were 0.7339 and 0.7082, respectively. Average number of alleles/locus was ranged from 2.3636 in Guangxi bee and Jiling bee to 6.4545 in Zhejiang bee. The overall expected heterozygosity of 6 Apis cerana cerana populations was 0.7339 0.0344, all populations showed relative large heterozygosity. In the whole population, the average of genetic differentiation among population was 32.4% (p<0.001). The geographical elements may own to the close relationship for particular population pairs, however, the equation FST/(1-FST) = -1.5904 + 1.0604 ln (d) and the result from Mantel s test (p = 0.130) did not provide enough support for a significant correlation between the genetic and geographical pair wise distances.
Phylogeny of different geographic populations Apis cerana in China based on mtDNA cyt b sequences
GAO Peng-Fei,ZHAO Hui-Ting,ZHANG Chun-Xiang,JIANG Yu-Suo
Acta Zoologica Sinica , 2008,
Abstract: In order to provide the basic datum to protect and rationally develop the Apis cerana resources in china, phylogeny of different geographic populations Apis cerana in China was studied based on mtDNA Cytochrome b gene sequences. In this study, the partial sequences of mtDNA Cytochrome b gene of 21 colonies of Apis cerana collected from 10 provinces and the homologous sequences of Apis nigrocincta and Apis mellifera downloaded from GenBank were analyzed. Molecular phylogenetic trees were reconstructed by minimum-spanning network methods. The multiple sequence alignment was performed using special software. The results indicated that the length of PCR products was 429 bp. Among the 21 analyzed sequences there were 13 variable sites, of which 9 sites were transitions, 4 were transversions and there were no deletions or insertions in the sequences. Phylogenetic analysis based on the mtDNA Cyt b gene of 21 colonies of Apis cerana and the homologous sequences of outgroups indicated that the groups of Apis nigrocincta, Apis mellifera and Apis cerana were clustered respectively. Jilin, Hainan and Yunnan groups of Apis cerana separated from the others in China [Acta Zoologica Sinica 54(6): 1005–1013, 2008].
Comparative Sucrose Responsiveness in Apis mellifera and A. cerana Foragers  [PDF]
Wenchao Yang, Haiou Kuang, Shanshan Wang, Jie Wang, Wei Liu, Zhenhong Wu, Yuanyuan Tian, Zachary Y. Huang, Xiaoqing Miao
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0079026
Abstract: In the European honey bee, Apis mellifera, pollen foragers have a higher sucrose responsiveness than nectar foragers when tested using a proboscis extension response (PER) assay. In addition, Africanized honey bees have a higher sucrose responsiveness than European honey bees. Based on the biology of the Eastern honey bee, A. cerana, we hypothesized that A. cerana should also have a higher responsiveness to sucrose than A. mellifera. To test this hypothesis, we compared the sucrose thresholds of pollen foragers and nectar foragers in both A. cerana and A. mellifera in Fujian Province, China. Pollen foragers were more responsive to sucrose than nectar foragers in both species, consistent with previous studies. However, contrary to our hypothesis, A. mellifera was more responsive than A. cerana. We also demonstrated that this higher sucrose responsiveness in A. mellifera was not due to differences in the colony environment by co-fostering two species of bees in the same mixed-species colonies. Because A. mellifera foragers were more responsive to sucrose, we predicted that their nectar foragers should bring in less concentrated nectar compared to that of A. cerana. However, we found no differences between the two species. We conclude that A. cerana shows a different pattern in sucrose responsiveness from that of Africanized bees. There may be other mechanisms that enable A. cerana to perform well in areas with sparse nectar resources.
Toxicity of Alternatives of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) on Apis cerana cerana

Wang Huili,Wang Yinghuan,Zhang Yanfeng,Zhang Xu,Li Jianzhong,

生态毒理学报 , 2012,
Abstract: Apis cerana cerana were exposed to four alternative chemicals of PFOS to test the acute toxicity of these chemicals. Toxicity-evaluation methods of Apis cerana cerana to chemicals were built. Two methods of "small breaker" and "feeding tube" were used to measure the oral toxicity. The relative merits and the effects of two methods were compared. The results suggested that 24 h-LC50 and 48 h-LC50values of C4 fabric three finishing agent to Apis cerana cerana of "small breaker" were 1435 and 284.67 mg·L-1, respectively. No deaths of bee happened in the limited test of other three chemicals. The contact toxicity and the oral toxicity throughout two methods showed that four chemicals were all low toxic. While the oral toxicity throughout "small breaker" was higher than that of "feeding tube".
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