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Comparative Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Curcuminoids, Turmerones, and Aqueous Extract of Curcuma longa  [PDF]
Ashish Subhash Bagad,Joshua Allan Joseph,Natarajan Bhaskaran,Amit Agarwal
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/805756
Abstract: Curcuma longa is widely known for its anti-inflammatory activity in traditional system of medicine for centuries and has been scientifically validated extensively. The present study was conducted to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of curcuminoids and oil-free aqueous extract (COFAE) of C. longa and compare it with that of curcuminoids and turmerones (volatile oil), the bioactive components of C. longa that are proven for the anti-inflammatory potential. The activity against inflammation was evaluated in xylene-induced ear edema, cotton pellet granuloma models in albino Swiss mice and albino Wistar rats, respectively. The results showed that COFAE of C. longa at three dose levels significantly inhibited inflammation in both models, as evidenced by reduction in ear weight and decrease in wet as well as dry weights of cotton pellets, when compared to the vehicle control. The COFAE of C. longa showed considerable anti-inflammatory effects against acute and chronic inflammation and the effects were comparable to those of curcuminoids and turmerones. 1. Introduction Inflammation is a transitory biological response of the tissues to harmful stimuli such as injury, exogenous and endogenous antigens, intended to clear or eliminate the stimulus and repair the injured tissue ultimately resulting in regeneration and returning to homeostasis [1]. Though inflammation is a positive defense mechanism of the body, dysregulated and prolonged inflammatory reaction has been well recognized as underlying cause for several disorders, namely, diabetes, allergies, atherosclerosis, obesity, cancer, and pain. Moreover, inflammation dysfunction leading to chronic diseases is contributing to increased health care cost to the society [2, 3]. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), steroids, and immunosuppressant drugs that have been used conventionally against all forms of inflammatory conditions [4] are associated with adverse effects like ulceration, perforation, gastric irritation, haematochezia [5], angioedema, hepatic failure, headache, hemolytic anemia, hyperglycemia, osteoporosis, immunodeficiency-related problems, and others [6]. Considering these potential adverse effects of these drugs and their limited ability to provide long-term remission, complementary and alternative medicinal products that are generally considered safe are continuously being explored for their anti-inflammatory potential [7]. Curcuma longa Linn. (Turmeric) belonging to Zingiberaceae family has been widely used as medicine, condiment, and cosmetic worldwide [8, 9] and valued as a
Curcuma longa Extract Exerts a Myorelaxant Effect on the Ileum and Colon in a Mouse Experimental Colitis Model, Independent of the Anti-Inflammatory Effect  [PDF]
Rita Aldini, Roberta Budriesi, Giulia Roda, Matteo Micucci, Pierfranco Ioan, Antonia D’Errico-Grigioni, Alessandro Sartini, Elena Guidetti, Margherita Marocchi, Monica Cevenini, Francesca Rosini, Marco Montagnani, Alberto Chiarini, Giuseppe Mazzella
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0044650
Abstract: Background Curcuma has long been used as an anti-inflammatory agent in inflammatory bowel disease. Since gastrointestinal motility is impaired in inflammatory states, the aim of this work was to evaluate if Curcuma Longa had any effect on intestinal motility. Methods The biological activity of Curcuma extract was evaluated against Carbachol induced contraction in isolated mice intestine. Acute and chronic colitis were induced in Balb/c mice by Dextran Sulphate Sodium administration (5% and 2.5% respectively) and either Curcuma extract (200 mg/kg/day) or placebo was thereafter administered for 7 and 21 days respectively. Spontaneous contractions and the response to Carbachol and Atropine of ileum and colon were studied after colitis induction and Curcuma administration. Results Curcuma extract reduced the spontaneous contractions in the ileum and colon; the maximal response to Carbachol was inhibited in a non-competitive and reversible manner. Similar results were obtained in ileum and colon from Curcuma fed mice. DSS administration decreased the motility, mainly in the colon and Curcuma almost restored both the spontaneous contractions and the response to Carbachol after 14 days assumption, compared to standard diet, but a prolonged assumption of Curcuma decreased the spontaneous and Carbachol-induced contractions. Conclusions Curcuma extract has a direct and indirect myorelaxant effect on mouse ileum and colon, independent of the anti-inflammatory effect. The indirect effect is reversible and non-competitive with the cholinergic agent. These results suggest the use of curcuma extract as a spasmolytic agent.
In vitro Antimicrobial Evaluation of Zingiber officinale, Curcuma longa and Alpinia galanga Extracts as Natural Food Preservatives
J. Anbu Jeba Sunilson,R. Suraj,G. Rejitha,K. Anandarajagopal
American Journal of Food Technology , 2009,
Abstract: In the present study, antimicrobial activity of various extracts of Zingiber officinale, Curcuma longa and Alpinia galanga were screened against the common food borne bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteriditis, Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, Campylobacter jejuni, Bacillus cereus and fungi such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Hansenula anomala, Mucor mucedo, Candida albicans using disc diffusion method. All the extracts showed significant antibacterial and antifungal properties. The methanol extracts (100 μg mL-1) revealed maximum zone of inhibition (p<0.001). Zingiber officinale and Curcuma longa possessed considerably greater activity than Alpinia galanga. These findings established the potential of the selected rhizomes of Zingiberaceae family as effective natural food preservatives.
Evaluation of the antimicrobial properties of unripe banana (Musa sapientum L.), lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus S.) and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) on pathogens
Fagbemi JF, E Ugoji, T Adenipekun, O Adelowotan
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2009,
Abstract: The investigation on the potency of unripe banana (Musa sapientum L.), lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus S.) and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) was carried out against pathogens. The formulations were in the powder form as used locally. The antimicrobial activity of these plants was examined using different solvents and efficacy was compared. The solvents were ethanol (70%, v/v) and water. Antimicrobial activity was carried out by the agar well diffusion method. The clinical isolates include aerobic, facultative bacteria namely: Stapyhlococcus aureus ATCC 25921, S. aureus, Salmonella paratyphi, Shigella flexnerii, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, E. coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Crude extracts of the solvents varied in zones of inhibition. All the Gram-positive bacteria (S. aureus, S. aureus ATCC 25921 and B. subtilis) and all Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli ATCC 25922, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. paratyphi, S. flexneri and K. pneumonia) were susceptible to ethanolic extracts of unripe banana, lemon grass and turmeric while some namely E. coli ATCC 25922, E. coli, P. aeruginosa and S. flexneri were not susceptible to aqueous extracts of the three medicinal plants. The minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) ranged from 4 – 512 mg/ml while the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) ranged from 32 – 512 mg/ml depending on isolates and extracting solvent. Ethanolic extracts showed greater antimicrobial activity than aqueous extracts. The killing rate of the extracts varied. Unripe banana had less than 2 h killing time for S. aureus ATCC 25921, turmeric less than 3 h for E. coli while lemon grass had more than 3 h killing time for S. paratyphi.
Comparison of Anti-inflammatory Activities of Six Curcuma Rhizomes: A Possible Curcuminoid-independent Pathway Mediated by Curcuma phaeocaulis Extract  [PDF]
Chihiro Tohda,Natsuki Nakayama,Fumiyuki Hatanaka,Katsuko Komatsu
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2006, DOI: 10.1093/ecam/nel008
Abstract: We aimed to compare the anti-inflammatory activities of six species of Curcuma drugs using adjuvant arthritis model mice. When orally administered 1 day before the injection of adjuvant, the methanol extract of Curcuma phaeocaulis significantly inhibited paw swelling and the serum haptoglobin concentration in adjuvant arthritis mice. Also when orally administered 1 day after the injection of adjuvant, the methanol extract of Curcuma phaeocaulis significantly inhibited paw swelling. Other Curcuma species (Curcuma longa, Curcuma wenyujin, Curcuma kwangsiensis, Curcuma zedoaria and Curcuma aromatica) had no significant inhibitory effects on adjuvant-induced paw swelling. Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 activity was significantly inhibited by the methanol extract of C. phaeocaulis. Curcuminoids' (curcumin, bis-demethoxycurcumin and demethoxycurcumin) were rich in C. longa, but less in C. phaeocaulis and C. aromatica, not in C. wenyujin, C. kwangsiensis and C. zedoaria, suggesting that curcuminoids' contents do not relate to inhibition of arthritis swelling. Therefore, C. phaeocaulis may be a useful drug among Curcuma species for acute inflammation, and the active constituents of C. phaeocaulis are not curcuminoids.
Effect of curcuma longa L. on fatty liver induced by oxytetracycline in albino rats.  [PDF]
Eman G.E. Helal , Samia M. Abd El-Wahab and Ghada A. Zedan
Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine , 2011,
Abstract: Background: Curcuma longa has been shown to be a potent anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anticarcinogenic agent. The present investigation aimed at examining the possible potential protective effect of curcuma against oxytetracyclin-induced fatty liver in an attempt to understand its mechanism of action, which may pave the way for possible therapeutic applications. Material and Methods: Albino rats were divided into two major groups, 15 rats for each. The first group was divided into three sub-groups: a) control, b) fatty liver group; that was injected intraperitonealy with oxytetracycline ( 120mg/kg ) for three consecutive days resulting in steatosis and c) curcuma treated group; which was treated with curcuma ( 0.4 % of diet ) for 30 days after fatty liver induction . All animals were scarified after 33 days of the beginning of the experiment. The second group was divided into three subgroups: a) control, b) fatty liver group and c) drug protection group; which received curcuma for 15 days before induction of fatty liver, then sacrificed after induction of fatty liver (3 days). Blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis. Liver specimens were obtained and fixed in 10 % formalin for histological study. Results: Fatty liver groups showed high significant increase in serum glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, ALT, AST, GGT, LDH, total protein, albumin, globulin, urea and creatinine while HDL cholesterol and A/G ratio were significantly decreased compared to control group. Histopathological changes were detected in liver tissue of fatty liver rats. The treatment with curcuma ameliorated the biochemical parameters and histological changes. The pre-treatment with curcuma before the induction of fatty liver also ameliorated the results but they did not turn back to the normal values. Conclusion: It is recommend to using curcuma as diet additive for fatty liver patients or those people who have hyperlipidemic family history.
Biological activities of Curcuma longa L.
Araújo, CAC;Leon, LL;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02762001000500026
Abstract: there are several data in the literature indicating a great variety of pharmacological activities of curcuma longa l. (zingiberaceae), which exhibit anti-inflammatory, anti-human immunodeficiency virus, anti-bacteria, antioxidant effects and nematocidal activities. curcumin is a major component in curcuma longa l., being responsible for its biological actions. other extracts of this plant has been showing potency too. in vitro, curcumin exhibits anti-parasitic, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory and gastrointestinal effects; and also inhibits carcinogenesis and cancer growth. in vivo, there are experiments showing the anti-parasitic, anti-inflammatory potency of curcumin and extracts of c. longa l. by parenteral and oral application in animal models. in this present work we make an overview of the pharmacological activities of c. longa l., showing its importance.
Biological activities of Curcuma longa L.  [cached]
Araújo CAC,Leon LL
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2001,
Abstract: There are several data in the literature indicating a great variety of pharmacological activities of Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae), which exhibit anti-inflammatory, anti-human immunodeficiency virus, anti-bacteria, antioxidant effects and nematocidal activities. Curcumin is a major component in Curcuma longa L., being responsible for its biological actions. Other extracts of this plant has been showing potency too. In vitro, curcumin exhibits anti-parasitic, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory and gastrointestinal effects; and also inhibits carcinogenesis and cancer growth. In vivo, there are experiments showing the anti-parasitic, anti-inflammatory potency of curcumin and extracts of C. longa L. by parenteral and oral application in animal models. In this present work we make an overview of the pharmacological activities of C. longa L., showing its importance.
Zingiber Officinale and Curcuma Longa as Potential Functional Foods/Ingredients
Food and Public Health , 2012, DOI: 10.5923/j.fph.20120202.01
Abstract: Background: Zingiberofficinale and Curcuma longa are rhizomes used as traditional medicine for gastrointestinal illnesses, motion sickness and inflammatory diseases. However, there is scarcity of data regarding its nutritional composition and functions. Objective:To characterize Zingiberofficinale and Curcuma longa as potential functional food/ ingredients Materials and Methods: Zingiberofficinale and Curcuma longa were analyzed for proximate composition, minerals, dietary fiber and phytonutrients. Mineral availability and fermentability in vitro, and antioxidant activity was also determined. Results: Curcuma longa has greater ash, fat, protein, carbohydrates and dietary fiber while Zingiberofficinale has greater moisture and -carotene. Both samples were good sources of dietary fiber and when fermented in vitro, the only short chain fatty acid produced was propionate. Zingiberofficinale has significantly greater iron and calcium content.The availability of zinc (11.9±0.4%) and calcium (56.9±4.7%) for absorption was significantly higher in Curcuma longa but not iron (1.7±0.1%; P<0.05). Iron availability was significantly greater in Zingiber officinal (21.5±3.3%). Curcuma longa has significantly greater total polyphenols, flavonoids, anthocyanidins and anti-oxidant activity. Conclusion: Zingiberoficinale and Curcoma longa are potential functional food/ingredients Food supplementation with Zingiberofficinale and Curcumin longa may be considered as a novel nutritional approach to reduce chronic diseases and mineral deficiency.
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF CURCUMA LONGA: A REVIEW  [PDF]
Nitesh Kumar* and Sunil Kumar Sakhya
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research , 2013,
Abstract: Curcuma longa (Turmeric) is a member of the ginger family (Zingiberaceae) and is thought to be indigenous to the Indian subcontinent. It is grown and harvested commercially in India, China, and many regions of tropical Southeast Asia. Turmeric is an approved food additive and is commercially available at low cost. Indigenous systems of medicine, including the Ayurvedic systems, have widely used turmeric for centuries in the treatment of many inflammatory conditions and diseases such as biliary disorders, anorexia, cough, diabetic wounds, hepatic disorders, rheumatism and sinusitis. Turmeric’s active constituents are yellowish orange volatile oils called curcuminoids known as curcumin, which has demonstrated antioxidant, antineoplastic, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, antidiabetic, anticoagulant, antifertility, cardiovascular protective, hepatoprotective, and immunostimulant activity in animals. Curcuminoids inhibit leukotriene biosynthesis via the lipoxygenase pathway and decrease prostaglandin formation. Some workers observed that Curcumin has caused apoptosis in various cancer cell lines and animal tumor cells and may inhibit angiogenesis. Today, turmeric has found application all over the world in various purposes such as medicinal purpose, cosmetic purpose, dyeing, skin care and coloring purpose. Present review indicating that Curcuma longa (Turmeric or Haldi) is a versatile indigenous plant to the Indian subcontinent having economic importance and can be promoted for diversified applications like medicinal and other potential uses.
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