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Influence of the heat treatment on the color of ground pepper (Capsicum annuum)
Vra?ar Ljubo O.,Tepi? Aleksandra N.,Vuji?i? Biserka L.,?olaja Sr?an
Acta Periodica Technologica , 2007, DOI: 10.2298/apt0738053v
Abstract: Red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is one of the most important vegetables in the world. The main ground pepper quality attributes are extractable color, surface color, qualitative and quantitative carotenoid content. In this work, the influence of heat treatment on ground pepper quality was investigated. Microbiological status was examined in non-sterilized and sterilized ground pepper. Color changes were assessed by measuring the extractable color (ASTA) and surface color, using a photocolorimeter. The obtained results showed that at the end of experiment, non-sterilized samples had higher color values in comparison to the sterilized ones. Also, color deterioration was heightened at room temperature.
Genetic variability of mineral elements concentration in pepper varieties (Capsicum annuum L.)  [PDF]
Krsti? Borivoj ?.,Gvozdenovi? ?uro J.,Nikoli? Nata?a P.
Zbornik Matice Srpske za Prirodne Nauke , 2010, DOI: 10.2298/zmspn1018079k
Abstract: Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is one of the major members of the vegetable kingdom. The differences between the individual varieties in mineral nutrition and the uptake of mineral elements have provoked our interest for the investigations of their genotype specificity. The chemical composition of pepper leaves at flowering and at the end of the growing season was analyzed. On the average, the content of total ash was app. 22%, namely 19-20% (soluble) and 2-3% (insoluble) at both stages. The highest accumulation values were obtained with nitrogen, then potassium, calcium and phosphorus, whereas the lowest with sodium. The most remarkable genotypic differences were recorded at the end of the growing season. The results obtained clearly demonstrate the chemical heterogeneity of pepper varieties. This crop may be grown successfully only if specificity of its mineral nutrition is known.
Pepper EST database: comprehensive in silico tool for analyzing the chili pepper (Capsicum annuum) transcriptome
Hyun-Jin Kim, Kwang-Hyun Baek, Seung-Won Lee, JungEun Kim, Bong-Woo Lee, Hye-Sun Cho, Woo Taek Kim, Doil Choi, Cheol-Goo Hur
BMC Plant Biology , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2229-8-101
Abstract: We built the Pepper EST database to mine the complexity of chili pepper ESTs. The database was built on 122,582 sequenced ESTs and 116,412 refined ESTs from 21 pepper EST libraries. The ESTs were clustered and assembled into virtual consensus cDNAs and the cDNAs were assigned to metabolic pathway, Gene Ontology (GO), and MIPS Functional Catalogue (FunCat). The Pepper EST database is designed to provide a workbench for (i) identifying unigenes in pepper plants, (ii) analyzing expression patterns in different developmental tissues and under conditions of stress, and (iii) comparing the ESTs with those of other members of the Solanaceae family. The Pepper EST database is freely available at http://genepool.kribb.re.kr/pepper/ webcite.The Pepper EST database is expected to provide a high-quality resource, which will contribute to gaining a systemic understanding of plant diseases and facilitate genetics-based population studies. The database is also expected to contribute to analysis of gene synteny as part of the chili pepper sequencing project by mapping ESTs to the genome.Pepper is a member of the family Solanaceae, which is one of the largest families in the plant kingdom and includes more than 3,000 species [1]. The Solanaceae family includes important crops, such as pepper, tomato, tobacco, potato, and eggplant and has been highly cultivated over the years for human nutrition and health. Capsicum species are consumed worldwide and are valued because of their unique color, pungency, and aroma. Capsicum peppers include C. annuum, C. chinense, C. baccatum, C. frutescens, and C. pubescens and are cultivated in different parts of the world. Of these, the varieties of the chili pepper plant species C. annuum, having a modest-sized diploid genome (2n = 24), are the most heavily consumed due to their nutritional value and spicy taste [2]. The chemical that is primarily responsible for the pungency of C. annuum has been identified as capsaicin [3], which elicits numerous b
Mathematical Modeling in the Estimation of Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Fruit Volume
Kadri Bozokalfa,M; Kilic,Murat;
Chilean journal of agricultural research , 2010, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-58392010000400013
Abstract: peppers (capsicum annuum l.) are an important horticultural crop and are used fresh and processed. fruit size estimation is used to describe the fruit?s growth curve, monitor individual plant growth, predict yield, and conduct physiological studies. water displacement techniques are used to determine fruit volume, but these are time-consuming and impractical under field conditions. the aim of this study was to devise a mathematical model to analytically determine the non-destructive pepper fruit volume. fruit volume was described as a dependent variable, while length, weight, and diameter were independent variables in the model which was formulated as yi = 19.226859 + 0.139562 xi - 0.256142 zi + 1.429122 ti, where yi = fruit volume (cm3), and xi, zi, and ti are fruit diameter (mm), length (mm), and weight (g) , respectively. this equation can be easily used to predict the accuracy of pepper fruit volume. a significant relationship (p ≤ 0.01) was found between dependent and independent variables. the correlation coefficient describing the relationship between the actual fruit volumes and the model solution was 0.9516. consequently, it was determined that pepper fruit volume can be described as depending on fruit length, weight, and diameter.
A Further Analysis of the Relationship between Yellow Ripe-Fruit Color and the Capsanthin-Capsorubin Synthase Gene in Pepper (Capsicum sp.) Indicated a New Mutant Variant in C. annuum and a Tandem Repeat Structure in Promoter Region  [PDF]
Zheng Li, Shu Wang, Xiao-Ling Gui, Xiao-Bei Chang, Zhen-Hui Gong
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0061996
Abstract: Mature pepper (Capsicum sp.) fruits come in a variety of colors, including red, orange, yellow, brown, and white. To better understand the genetic and regulatory relationships between the yellow fruit phenotype and the capsanthin-capsorubin synthase gene (Ccs), we examined 156 Capsicum varieties, most of which were collected from Northwest Chinese landraces. A new ccs variant was identified in the yellow fruit cultivar CK7. Cluster analysis revealed that CK7, which belongs to the C. annuum species, has low genetic similarity to other yellow C. annuum varieties. In the coding sequence of this ccs allele, we detected a premature stop codon derived from a C to G change, as well as a downstream frame-shift caused by a 1-bp nucleotide deletion. In addition, the expression of the gene was detected in mature CK7 fruit. Furthermore, the promoter sequences of Ccs from some pepper varieties were examined, and we detected a 176-bp tandem repeat sequence in the promoter region. In all C. annuum varieties examined in this study, the repeat number was three, compared with four in two C. chinense accessions. The sequence similarity ranged from 84.8% to 97.7% among the four types of repeats, and some putative cis-elements were also found in every repeat. This suggests that the transcriptional regulation of Ccs expression is complex. Based on the analysis of the novel C. annuum mutation reported here, along with the studies of three mutation types in yellow C. annuum and C. chinense accessions, we suggest that the mechanism leading to the production of yellow color fruit may be not as complex as that leading to orange fruit production.
Rapd Analysis of the Seven Cultivated Varieties of Capsicum annuum L.  [PDF]
Cheema SK,Pant MR
Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry , 2013,
Abstract: Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) is a novel procedure for the identification of polymorphism in plants based on PCR. It does not require prior knowledge of a DNA sequence. RAPD markers are based on the amplification of unknown DNA sequences using single, short, random oligonucleotide primers. Many of the technical limitations of RFLPs have been overcome by RAPD. In the present study seven varieties of C. annuum L. were analysed for RAPD polymorphism using 5 random primers. The study shows that the varieties show remarkable genetic variation. RAPD primers showed different DNA fingerprints for different varieties of Capsicum L. studied. Variation was observed at varietal level in C. annuum L. with respect to the morphological traits, phytoconstituents estimated ( capsaicin, sugar and vitamin C) and karyotype analysis also. Thus all the seven can be distinguished at varietal level. Therefore they can be used as a suitable source material for future breeding, genetic and other experiments. The use of other molecular markers like SSRs, AFLP, etc. would provide more precise estimates of genetic variability in the varieties.
In vitro answer of Bulgarian pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)
Rodeva Velichka,Grozeva Stanislava,Todorova Velichka
Genetika , 2006, DOI: 10.2298/gensr0602129r
Abstract: Callusogenesis and regeneration ability of cotyledon and hypocotyl explants from three Bulgarian pepper varieties in MS basal medium supplemented with l-3mg/l BAP. l.0mg/1 IAA and 0.5mg/l GA3 was studied. In the different variants of culture medium was registered high level of callusogenesis and organogenesis in both type of explants from the all varieties. The highest percentage of plant-regenerants is established in cotyledon explants (from 3.3 to 18.3) in variant 3 of the culture medium containing 3mg/l BA. In the process of micropropagation by stem explants of the same studied pepper varieties the addition of the vitamins C. B12. Casein hydrolysate and Ferulic acid had a stimulation effect on the plant growth in height and rooting. In result of anther cultivation from three pepper varieties and four breeding lines the highest percentage of embryo structure formation was registered in varieties Albena and Strjama (12.0 and 13.8 respectively). The Bulgarian peppers are recalcitrant and their in vitro answer is different depending from the explants type, genotype and the culture media composition.
Colour change in pepper (Capsicum annuum) during storage
Tepi? Aleksandra N.,Vuji?i? Biserka L.
Acta Periodica Technologica , 2004, DOI: 10.2298/apt0435059t
Abstract: Powders of pepper were stored at ambient temperature, exposed to daylight The final quality was evaluated by measuring the extractable colour by the American Spice Trade Association (ASTA). Also, the possibility of using surface colour measurement, as a supplement to extractable colour measurement was investigated. The use of the chromatic attributes L, a and b, suggested by the Commision Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE), i.e., of the CIELAB space, made it possible to find the correlation between ASTA and apparent colour of paprika.
PEPPER (CAPSICUM ANNUUM L.) CYTOPLASMIC MALE STERILTY  [PDF]
K PáKOZDI,J TALLER,Z ALF?LDI,Y HIRATA
Journal of Central European Agriculture , 2002,
Abstract: In the present study the molecular basis and mechanism of pepper cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) and its restoration system (Rf) has been characterized in detail. Pollen fertility of five CMSs (No. 201 to 205), four restorer lines (No. 206, 207, 209 and 210) and their F1, F2 generations were investigated during different growing seasons to study the response of male sterility to various environmental conditions. Restorer gene specific primers were applied to reveal the molecular genetic differences between the CMS and restorer lines. Bulk segregant” and individual analysis screened DNA markers linked to the fertility restorer (Rf) gene for cytoplasmic male sterility. By the application for conventional breeding and molecular genetic methods co-segregation of the restorer specific markers and pollen viability data were observed on hundred individuals of the F2 generation in order to construct a physical linkage map.
Anatomical traits of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) fruit
El?bieta Weryszko-Chmielewska,Zenia Micha?oj?
Acta Agrobotanica , 2011, DOI: 10.5586/aa.2011.059
Abstract: The micromorphology of the epidermis as well as the anatomy of the pericarp and fruit pedicle in Capsicum annuum L., cv. 'Red Knight F1', were studied using light and scanning electron microscopy. The pericarp was found to consist of an epidermis with strongly thickened outer walls, several layers of tangential and angular collenchyma as well as multi-layered parenchyma composed of cells of varying size in which very large lobed nuclei were observed. Chromoplasts were found in the cells of the above-mentioned tissues. The inner epidermis of the pericarp was characterized by thick cell walls and numerous straight pits. Among the tissues of the fruit pedicle, we observed epidermis with numerous stomata, collenchyma, chlorenchyma with very large intercellular spaces, small clusters of sclerenchyma, secondary phloem and xylem as well live and dead cells of the pith which were characterized by the presence of thin walls with numerous pits. The structural traits of the pericarp of the red pepper cultivar under study show adaptations to significantly reduced transpiration, which is an important feature during storage. At the same time, the strongly thickened and cutinized walls of the fruit contribute to a reduction in its digestibility and impede nutrient penetration in non-root feeding.
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