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Factors affecting treatment of palm oil mill effluent using enzyme from Aspergillus niger ATCC 6275  [PDF]
Prasertsan, P.,H-Kittikun, A.,Chantaphaso, S.
Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology , 2001,
Abstract: Powdered enzyme was produced by freeze-drying the enzyme solution extracted from 3 days culture of Aspergillus niger ATCC 6275 on palm cake with the addition of 0.2% glucose and 2% urea. The product yield was 38% by weight. The half-life of the enzyme was 9 months keeping at 4oC. The enzyme was tested with decanter effluent with different characteristics from two palm oil mills. The decanter effluent possessing high suspended solid (SS) and low oil (9.5 g/l) content was selected for studying the factors affecting the separation of SS and oil as bulking solid. Results indicated that the effluent must contain oil not less than 15 g/l so that the bulking solid would occur from the reaction of the enzyme (with xylanase activity of 200 U/ ml) after incubation at 40oC for 6 h. Minimum concentrations of the enzyme from A. niger ATCC 6275 and commercial xylanase (Meicellase) were 200 and 600 U/ml, respectively. The optimum pH was 4.5. Treatment of palm oil mill effluent by the enzyme from A. niger ATCC 6275 for 3 h under the optimum conditions resulted in 78% separation of suspended solids with oil & grease removal of 95% and COD reduction of 35%.
Electrocoagulation of Palm Oil Mill Effluent  [PDF]
Melissa B. Agustin,Waya P. Sengpracha,Weerachai Phutdhawong
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2008, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph5030177
Abstract: Electrocoagulation (EC) is an electrochemical technique which has been employed in the treatment of various kinds of wastewater. In this work the potential use of EC for the treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) was investigated. In a laboratory scale, POME from a factory site in Chumporn Province (Thailand) was subjected to EC using aluminum as electrodes and sodium chloride as supporting electrolyte. Results show that EC can reduce the turbidity, acidity, COD, and BOD of the POME as well as some of its heavy metal contents. Phenolic compounds are also removed from the effluent. Recovery techniques were employed in the coagulated fraction and the recovered compounds was analysed for antioxidant activity by DPPH method. The isolate was found to have a moderate antioxidant activity. From this investigation, it can be concluded that EC is an efficient method for the treatment of POME.
Electrocoagulation of Palm Oil Mill Effluent
Melissa B. Agustin,Waya P. Sengpracha,Weerachai Phutdhawong
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2008,
Abstract: Electrocoagulation (EC) is an electrochemical technique which has been employed in the treatment of various kinds of wastewater. In this work the potential use of EC for the treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) was investigated. In a laboratory scale, POME from a factory site in Chumporn Province (Thailand) was subjected to EC using aluminum as electrodes and sodium chloride as supporting electrolyte. Results show that EC can reduce the turbidity, acidity, COD, and BOD of the POME as well as some of its heavy metal contents. Phenolic compounds are also removed from the effluent. Recovery techniques were employed in the coagulated fraction and the recovered compounds was analysed for antioxidant activity by DPPH method. The isolate was found to have a moderate antioxidant activity. From this investigation, it can be concluded that EC is an efficient method for the treatment of POME.
Isolation of lipase producing fungi from palm oil Mill effluent (POME) dump sites at Nsukka
Nwuche, Charles Ogugua;Ogbonna, James Chukwuma;
Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-89132011000100015
Abstract: in this study, twelve fungal lipase producing strains belonging to aspergillus, penicillium, trichoderma and mucor genera were isolated from palm oil mill effluent composts. the aspergillus spp. were more frequent (42%) and was present in all the samples assayed. mucor sp. was the least encountered (8.3%).the lipase producing profile showed that trichoderma (8.07-8.24 u/ml) and aspergillus (6.25 -7.54 u/ml) spp. were the highest lipase producers while mucor (5.72 u/ml) was the least.
Comparison on decolorization of palm oil mill effluent by biological, chemical and physical methods  [PDF]
Prasertsan, P.,H-Kittikun, A,Chantaphaso, S.
Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology , 2001,
Abstract: Decolorization of palm oil mill effluent pretreated by enzyme from Aspergillus niger ATCC 6275 was investigated. The culture filtrate after separation of suspended solids was used for decolorization by biological, chemical and physical methods. Results indicated that the chemical method (using coagulant) was more effective than the biological method (using commercial peroxidase, two strains of white-rot fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Coriolus versicolor) and physical method (using activated carbon, pararubber seed and sand filter). Studies on the effect of coagulant concentrations on decolorization revealed that using the combination of 10 ml/l polyferric sulphate and 10 g/l calcium oxide gave the highest color removal of 84.5% and organic matter (in term of chemical oxygen demand, COD) removal of 86.5%.
The possibility of palm oil mill effluent for biogas production  [PDF]
EDWI MAHAJOENO,BIBIANA WIDIYATI LAY,SURJONO HADI SUTJAHJO,SISWANTO
Biodiversitas , 2008,
Abstract: The world currently obtains its energy from the fossil fuels such as oil, natural gas and coal. However, the international crisis in the Middle East, rapid depletion of fossil fuel reserves as well as climate change have driven the world towards renewable energy sources which are abundant, untapped and environmentally friendly. Indonesia has abundant biomass resources generated from the agricultural industry particularly the large commodity, palm oil (Elaeis guiinensis Jacq.). The aims of the research were to (i) characterize palm oil mill effluent which will be used as source of biogas production, (ii) know the biotic and abiotic factors which effect POME substrate for biogas production by anaerobic digestion in bulk system. The results show that POME sludge generated from PT Pinago Utama mill is viscous, brown or grey and has an average total solid (TS) content of, 26.5-45.4, BOD is 23.5-29.3, COD is 49.0-63.6 and SS is 17.1-35.9 g/L, respectively. This substrate is a potential source of environmental pollutants. The biotic factors were kind and concentration of the inoculums, i.e. seed sludge of anaerobic lagoon II and 20% (w/v) respectively. Both physical and chemical factors such as pre-treated POME pH, pH neutralizer matter Ca (OH)2, temperature ≥40oC, agitation effect to increase biogas production, but in both coagulant concentration, FeCl2 were not.
Adsorption Chromatography of Carotenes from Extracted Oil of Palm Oil Mill Effluent  [PDF]
A.L. Ahmad,C.Y. Chan,S.R. Abd Shukor,M.D. Mashitah
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: Carotenes is one of the most important vitamin A precursor in human nutrition which has numerous advantages. Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) is wastewater which consists of carotenes in the oil and grease content. Therefore, adsorption chromatography is used to separate the carotenes from the oil and grease in POME. Several types of adsorbents, temperatures and mass loading were studied in the experiments. The 40°C and oil:adsorbent ratio of 1:5 was recommended to be the most suitable temperature and mass loading for separation of carotenes by adsorption chromatography. Silica gel also shows better quality of adsorbent in separation of carotenes in hexane fractions.
Screening and application of thermotolerant microorganisms and their flocculant for treatment of palm oil mill effluent
Saithong Kaewchai,Poonsuk Prasertsan
Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology , 2002,
Abstract: Among fifteen thermotolerant polymer-producing isolates, three strains SM 29, WD 90, and SM 38 produced polymer posessing very high flocculating activities (24.81, 14.63 and 10.84, respectively) and flocculation rates (94.29, 90.69 and 87.84, respectively). These three strains were identified to be Bacillus subtilis WD90, Bacillus subtilis SM 29, and Enterobacter agglomerans SM 38. Treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) by these three selected strains under aerobic condition at 45oC for 48 h revealed that neither oil separation nor flocculation of solids was observed. However, all three strains were able to decolorize the POME from dark brown to very light yellow. Flocculant produced from the three selected isolates could not separate the suspended solids and oil from the POME.
Cellulases Production in Palm Oil Mill Effluent: Effect of Aeration and Agitation  [PDF]
K. Fadzilah,M.D. Mashitah
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: Effect of aeration (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 vvm) and agitation rate (100, 300 and 500 rpm) on cellulase production in submerged culture of Pycnoporus sanguineus was studied in a 2.5 L stirred-tank bioreactor using Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) as a substrate. Maximum cell biomass (3.16 g L-1) and cellulase activity (0.1748 FPU mL-1) was obtained at aeration rate of 1.0 vvm and agitation speed of 300 rpm. Volumetric mass transfer coefficient (kLa) was found to be dependent on aeration and agitation rate, with maximum kLa (124.2 h-1) attained at 300 rpm and 1.5 vvm.
Biopretreatment of palm oil mill effluent by thermotolerant polymer-producing fungi
Monticha Pechsuth,Poonsuk Prasertsan,Masao Ukita
Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology , 2001,
Abstract: Palm oil industry is one of the three major agro-industries in Southern Thailand and generates large quantities of effluent with high organic matter (BOD and COD values of 58,000 and 110,000 mg/l, respectively), total solids and suspended solids (70,000 and 40,000 mg/l, respectively), oil & grease (25,600 mg/l), and has a low pH (4.5). Conventional anaerobic ponding system is normally employed in palm oil mills to treat the effluent. To increase its efficiency, biopretreatment to remove the organic matter and oil & grease by thermotolerant polymer-producing fungi was investigated. The palm oil mill effluent (POME) was treated by the two thermotolerant polymer-producing fungi, Rhizopus sp. ST4 and Rhizopus sp. ST29, at 45oC under aseptic and septic conditions. Rhizopus sp. ST4 gave the same oil & grease removal (84.2%) under both conditions but COD removal under septic condition (62.2%) was 8.8% higher than that under aseptic condition (53.4%). On the contrary, Rhizopus sp. ST 29 under aseptic condition showed 11% and 25.4% higher oil & grease removal (91.4%) and COD removal (66.0%) than those under septic condition. Comparison between the two isolates under aseptic condition revealed that Rhizopus sp. ST29 exhibited higher oil & grease removal (91.4%) as well as COD removal (66.0%) than those of Rhizopus sp. ST4 (84.2% and 53.4%, respectively). Under septic condition, Rhizopus sp. ST4 gave higher oil & grease removal (84.2%) and COD removal (62.2%) than did Rhizopus sp. ST 29 (80.5 and 40.6%, respectively).
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