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Optimization of Thermal and Electrical Appliance Loads in Residential and Commercial Buildings with Demand Side Monitoring  [PDF]
Emmanuel O. B. Ogedengbe
Smart Grid and Renewable Energy (SGRE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/sgre.2013.47A003

Energy demand-supply mechanism with the load shape for both residential and commercial buildings in the Province of Ontario and Nigeria is studied with demand side monitoring of energy consumption. Thermal and electrical loads are characterized by certain predictor variables, including the consumers’ behavioural pattern, power ratings of energy appliances and weather conditions. The proposed bottom-up approach is capable of providing low-volume electricity and natural gas consumers, in a fully deregulated energy market, with competitive energy saving advantage, based on corrective monitoring of independent users’ demand loads. Special application of the bottom-up model-based facility characterization of demands for thermal comfort and indoor air qualityin a developing energy sector like Nigeria enables the development of planning tool for the proposed integration of renewable power systems. The developed DSMonitorTM app is capable of deploying an effective smart grid technology tool towards an improved building energy demand-supply balance at the individual end-user level.

Dragoslav ?umarac,Maja Todorovi?,Maja Djurovi? - Petrovi?,Nata?a Tri?ovi?
Thermal Science , 2010, DOI: tsci100430017s
Abstract: In this paper, presented is the state of the art of Energy Efficiency (EE) of residential buildings in Serbia. Special attention is paid to energy efficiency in already existing buildings. The average energy consumption in residential buildings in Serbia is over 150 kWh/m2 per year, while in developed European countries it is about 50 kWh/m2 per year. In this paper examined is the contribution of ventilation losses, through the windows of low quality, regardless whether they are poorly made, or made from bad materials, or with no adequate glass. Besides ventilation losses, which are of major importance in our buildings, special attention is paid to transmission losses, which are consequence of the quality and energy efficiency of the facade. All of the above statements are proved by measurements obtained on a representative building of the Block 34 in New Belgrade, built in the eighties of the last century. In addition to measurements performed the calculation of energy consumption for heating during winter has been made. The results of two different methods of calculation of energy consumption for heating are compared with the values obtained by measuring.
Development of Chinese Light Steel Construction Residential Buildings  [cached]
Sanyuan Shi,Juan Yu
Journal of Sustainable Development , 2009, DOI: 10.5539/jsd.v2n3p134
Abstract: Building systems with light steel members, gypsum plasterboards and mineral wool have a wide spread use in the US, Australia and Japan and are gaining market in some European countries. The systems have often load-bearing walls and the floors may be of Light weight steel profiles or concrete. Such systems are suited for industrial production and can contribute to a more efficient building process. This new building technology came to the foreground because of the rapid development in the building industry; surely it has a lot of advantages from the technological point of view, which meet all the requirements these days. But it is more important beside the points of view mentioned above that the construction of these buildings protects the natural environment, and suits the stand points of Sustainable development and guarantees a healthy environment for the users for the whole lifespan of the building. But,these systems are not universally utilized in China. As a matter of fact, they are to agree with the all current situations of China, especially the Light-gauge steel system residence. In the following paper I will justify the existence of light-gauge steel constructional building system in the residential housing with the points mentioned above.
The Thermal Performance of Traditional Residential Buildings in Kathmandu Valley  [PDF]
Sushil B. Bajracharya
Journal of the Institute of Engineering , 2014, DOI: 10.3126/jie.v10i1.10898
Abstract: This paper seeks to investigate into the aspects of thermal performance of traditional residential buildings in traditional settlements of Kathmandu valley. This study proceeds to analyze the detailed field data collected, with a view to identify the indoor thermal environment with respect to outdoor thermal environment in different seasons. This paper also compares the thermal performance of traditional buildings with modern residential buildings of traditional settlements of the valley. There is a regression analysis to obtain information about the thermal environment of different traditional and modern residential buildings with different conditions. The paper concludes that, thermal performance of traditional residential building, adapted in various ways to the changing thermal regime for thermal comfort is better than that of contemporary buildings. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jie.v10i1.10898 Journal of the Institute of Engineering , Vol. 10, No. 1, 2014, ?pp. 172–183
Efficiency Analysis of Independent and Centralized Heating Systems for Residential Buildings in Northern Italy  [PDF]
Matteo Zago,Andrea Casalegno,Renzo Marchesi,Fabio Rinaldi
Energies , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/en4112115
Abstract: The primary energy consumption in residential buildings is determined by the envelope thermal characteristics, air change, outside climatic data, users’ behaviour and the adopted heating system and its control. The new Italian regulations strongly suggest the installation of centralized boilers in renovated buildings with more than four apartments. This work aims to investigate the differences in primary energy consumption and efficiency among several independent and centralized heating systems installed in Northern Italy. The analysis is carried out through the following approach: firstly building heating loads are evaluated using the software TRNSYS ? and, then, heating system performances are estimated through a simplified model based on the European Standard EN 15316. Several heating systems have been analyzed, evaluating: independent and centralized configurations, condensing and traditional boilers, radiator and radiant floor emitters and solar plant integration. The heating systems are applied to four buildings dating back to 2010, 2006, 1960s and 1930s. All the combinations of heating systems and buildings are analyzed in detail, evaluating efficiency and primary energy consumption. In most of the cases the choice between centralized and independent heating systems has minor effects on primary energy consumption, less than 3%: the introduction of condensing technology and the integration with solar heating plant can reduce energy consumption by 11% and 29%, respectively.
Overall Thermal Transfer Value of Residential Buildings in Malaysia  [PDF]
R. Saidur,M. Hasanuzzaman,M.M. Hasan,H.H. Masjuki
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: This study presents the Overall Thermal Transfer Value (OTTV) and the energy consumption of room air conditioners of the residential buildings in Malaysia. A survey has been conducted to investigate the OTTV and the energy consumption of room air conditioners of the residential buildings in Malaysia. OTTV calculation, energy consumption and effect of the building parameters on energy consumption have been investigated. It is found that OTTV of the residential buildings in Malaysia varied from 35 to 65 W m-2 with a mean value of 41.7 W m-2. The sensitivities of several parameters such as window to wall ratio (WWR), Shading Coefficient (SC), U-value for wall (Uw) and solar absorption (α) are provided to design and optimize the thermal performance of residential buildings. It is found that U and α influence more on OTTV compared to other parameters. The analysis shows that about 14, 10 and 5% of residential building air conditioners have annual electricity consumption in the ranges 500 to 1000 kWh, 1000 to 2000 kWh and 7500 to 10000 kWh, respectively. The maximum, minimum and average annual electricity consumption of the air conditioner of residential buildings is 22055.5, 136.1 and 3708.8 kWh, respectively.
Usage of "smart" glass panels in commercial and residential buildings  [PDF]
Gavrilovi? Dragan J.,Stoji? Jasmina
Facta Universitatis Series : Architecture and Civil Engineering , 2011, DOI: 10.2298/fuace1102261g
Abstract: This paper examines specific conceptual approach to the implementation of new "smart" materials having phase-changing own characteristics and maximum potential for their installation and exploitation of their performance in the commercial and residential buildings architecture. Such approach somewhat changes the usual traditional practice of installing "classical" materials, i.e. installable components into the architectural structure. The immeasurably superior performance of new elements installed in the architectural system is thus utilized, to the total energy benefit of the structural system. Using new "smart" components would result in energy cost-effective impact, reflected in the reduced the overall energy consumption of a given structure as well as in better effect sustainability of buildings in bioclimatic terms at the micro and macro levels in comparisonto the usual performance of traditionally constructed buildings.
Life Cycle Energy of Low Rise Residential Buildings in Indian Context  [PDF]
Talakonukula Ramesh, Ravi Prakash, Karunesh Kumar Shukla
Open Journal of Energy Efficiency (OJEE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojee.2014.34012
Abstract: Life cycle energy of the building accounts for all energy inputs to the buildings during their intended service life. Buildings need to be constructed in such a way that energy consumption in their life cycle is minimal. Life Cycle Energy (LCE) consumption data of buildings is not available in public domain which is essentially required for building designers and policy makers to formulate strategies for reduction in LCE of buildings. The paper presents LCE of twenty (20) low rise residential buildings in Indian context. LCE of the studied buildings is varying from 160 - 380 kWh/m2 year (Primary). Based on the LCE data of studied buildings, an equation is proposed to readily reckon LCE of a new building.
Seismic capacity evaluation of unreinforced masonry residential buildings in Albania  [PDF]
H. Bilgin,O. Korini
Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences (NHESS) & Discussions (NHESSD) , 2012, DOI: 10.5194/nhess-12-3753-2012
Abstract: This study evaluates seismic capacity of the unreinforced masonry buildings with the selected template designs constructed per pre-modern code in Albania considering nonlinear behaviour of masonry. Three residential buildings with template designs were selected to represent an important percentage of residential buildings in medium-size cities located in seismic regions of Albania. Selection of template designed buildings and material properties were based on archive and site survey in several cities of Albania. Capacity curves of investigated buildings were determined by pushover analyses conducted in two principal directions. The seismic performances of these buildings have been determined for various earthquake levels. Seismic capacity evaluation was carried out in accordance with FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency) 440 guidelines. Reasons for building damages in past earthquakes are examined using the results of capacity assessment of investigated buildings. It is concluded that of the residential buildings with the template design, with the exception of one, are far from satisfying required performance criteria. Furthermore, deficiencies and possible solutions to improve the capacity of investigated buildings are discussed.
Influencing of orientation of glazed facades on general energy consumption of residential buildings  [PDF]
O.D. Samarin,N.N. Zaytsev
Magazine of Civil Engineering , 2010,
Abstract: In the paper the nature of relation of energy consumption of residential buildings of mass development from orientation of their glazed facades on the parties of horizon is parsed. The basic contents of a technique of an estimation of building energy efficiency, used in calculations, is adduced pursuant to the public Standard of Russian Science and Technical Society of the Builders of Russian Federation. The structure of a complex of energy saving measures, used in investigated buildings, is reviewed. The computed results of power inputs for the heating season on the indicated technique for two reference buildings at their different orientation with allowance for and disregarding of energy saving measures are shown. An estimation of influencing of orientation of glazed facades for the term of payback of a complex of energy saving measures, used in buildings, is given. The guidelines on expedient dimensional orientation of the extended residential buildings from the point of view of heat saving in the cold season of year are offered. The presentation is illustrated by a significant amount of a graphic stuff.
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