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Anisotropy abrasive wear behavior of bagasse fiber reinforced polymer composite
P Mishra, SK Acharya
International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology , 2010,
Abstract: In this paper, an experimental study has been conducted to determine the abrasive wear behavior of bagasse fiber reinforced epoxy composite in different directions, namely parallel orientation (PO), anti-parallel orientation (APO) and normal orientation (NO) by using a two body abrasion wear tester. Three different types of abrasives wear behaviour have been observed in the composite in three orientations and follow the following trends: WNO < WAPO < WPO, where WNO, WAPO and WPO are the wear in normal, anti-parallel and parallel directions of fibres orientation, respectively. The fiber bundles present in the composite provide unique directional abrasive wear properties. Wear anisotropy magnitude of the composite is found to be a function of load and abrasive grit size. The worn surfaces were observed by using a SEM after the wear test. It has been found that in PO type samples the abrasion takes place due microploughing, where as in APO and NO type samples micro cutting found to be responsible for the wear process.
Syed Altaf Hussain,Dr.V. Pandurangadu,Dr. K. Palanikuamr
International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology , 2011,
Abstract: During the last few years, natural fibers have received much more attention than ever before from the research community all over the world. These natural fibers offer a number of advantages over traditional synthetic fibers. The present study aims to determine the mechanical properties namely, Tensile strength (TS),Flexural strength (FS), and Impact strength (IS) of green coconut fiber reinforced HDPE polymer composite material. Experiments are planned to produce the test specimens according Taguchi’s L9 orthogonal arry concept. The control parameters considered were fiber volume fraction (Vf) and fiber length (fl). An attempt has been made to model the mechanical properties through response surface methodology (RSM). Analysis ofvariance (ANOVA) is used to check the validity of the model. The results indicated that the developed models are suitable for prediction of mechanical properties of green coconut fiber reinforced HDPE composite.
Processing and Properties of Natural Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composite  [PDF]
Jyoti Prakash Dhal,S. C. Mishra
Journal of Materials , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/297213
Abstract: A novel low cost polymer composite using brown grass flower broom reinforcement is prepared. The prepared polymer composite has the lowest porosity, homogeneous surface structure, and the greatest interface bonding. From the physico-mechanical characterization such as: hardness measurement, density measurement, void fraction or porosity measurement, and flexural strength measurement, it is found that the prepared composite is of light weight and high strength. Again, from dielectric behaviour of this polymer composite, it is found that this material has an efficiency that is considered as a high valued marketable product. As the composite is made using bio-materials from local resources, its cost is less compared to other polymer composites available today. 1. Introduction Natural fiber-reinforced polymer composites have raised great attention and interest among materials scientists and engineers in recent years due to that the composites give a combination of superior mechanical property, dielectric property, and environmental advantages such as renewability and biodegradability. Due to various disadvantages such as: high progressing technologies, rising prices of finite resources, and ecounfriendly, the conventional petroleum-based plastic, glass or carbon fiber materials are compensated by natural/bi-based fibers. These fiber composites are well suited as wood substitutes in the housing and construction sector. Using such natural/biofibers with polymers based on renewable resources will allow many environmental issues to be solved. The various natural fibers such as jute, coir, sisal, pineapple, ramie, bamboo, and banana are used as reinforcement of polymer composite, nowadays [1–12]. In recent years, a number of investigations have been made which prove that the worth of natural fibers against their synthetic counterparts such as glass and/or carbon fiber-reinforced polymer composites [13–16]. The potential of fiber-reinforced polymer composites was recognized more than 50 years ago, now they can find their applications in almost every industry including construction, aerospace, automotive, and electronics. Composite materials are increasingly used for dielectric applications, that is, applications that make use of electrically insulating or nearly insulating behaviour. This is because of the need of the electronic industry for dielectric materials in electrical insulation, encapsulation, multilayer ceramic chip, and capacitors and for piezoelectric, ferroelectric, and pyroelectric devices that provide sensing, actuation, and so forth. Development
Mechanical Behavior of Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer Pultruded Composite Gratings  [PDF]
Rahul Mangire, Malur N. Srinivasan
Modern Mechanical Engineering (MME) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/mme.2013.34020

Well-designed and manufactured glass fiber reinforced polymer composite structures have several advantages over steel and conventional concrete structures such as high strength-to-weight ratio, good stiffness, good corrosion resistance and good damping capacity. In view of their higher cost however, their use is restricted to structures with smaller dimensions such as pedestrian walkways particularly where aggressive environmental conditions are encountered such as in chemical and water-treatment plants. The keys to success of these structures lie in the proper choice of the constituent materials, manufacturing method and knowledge of the behavior of the structure under the conditions encountered. Knowledge of the mechanical behavior is particularly important in this context. An investigation was therefore conducted by the authors, in partial fulfillment for the award of master of engineering science degree of Lamar University to the first author under the supervision of the second author [1], to study the response to loading of a glass fiber reinforced polyester composite structure made by the pultrusion process by a reputed manufacturer. The structure chosen for this study was a grating, the details of which are shown in the paper. This type of structure is particularly useful for walkways. The experimental part of the investigation consisted of subjecting the grating to three-point bend test under different loading conditions. The load-deflection curve for each case was obtained and interpreted. One grating was loaded up to failure and the fractured zone was examined using a scanning electron microscope to interpret the microscopic failure features. Simulation of the experimental work was carried out using an industry-standard FEM software to compare the deflection values. The results are presented and discussed in this paper.

Knowledge Discovery System For Fiber Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composite Laminate  [PDF]
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: In this paper Knowledge Discovery System (KDS) is proposed and implemented for the extraction of knowledge-mean stiffness of a polymer composite material in which when fibers are placed at different orientations. Cosine amplitude method is implemented for retrieving compatible polymer matrix and reinforcement fiber which is coming under predicted fiber class, from the polymer and reinforcement database respectively, based on the design requirements. Fuzzy classification rules to classify fibers into short, medium and long fiber classes are derived based on the fiber length and the computed or derive critical length of fiber. Longitudinal and Transverse module of Polymer Matrix Composite consisting of seven layers with different fiber volume fractions and different fibers orientations at 0,15,30,45,60,75 and 90 degrees are analyzed through Rule-of Mixture material design model. The analysis results are represented in different graphical steps and have been measured with statistical parameters. This data mining application implemented here has focused the mechanical problems of material design and analysis. Therefore, this system is an expert decision support system for optimizing the materials performance for designing light-weight and strong, and cost effective polymer composite materials.
Bisphenyl-Polymer/Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Composite Compared to Titanium Alloy Bone Implant  [PDF]
Richard C. Petersen
International Journal of Polymer Science , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/168924
Abstract: Aerospace/aeronautical thermoset bisphenyl-polymer/carbon-fiber-reinforced composites are considered as new advanced materials to replace metal bone implants. In addition to well-recognized nonpolar chemistry with related bisphenol-polymer estrogenic factors, carbon-fiber-reinforced composites can offer densities and electrical conductivity/resistivity properties close to bone with strengths much higher than metals on a per-weight basis. In vivo bone-marrow tests with Sprague-Dawley rats revealed far-reaching significant osseoconductivity increases from bisphenyl-polymer/carbon-fiber composites when compared to state-of-the-art titanium-6-4 alloy controls. Midtibial percent bone area measured from the implant surface increased when comparing the titanium alloy to the polymer composite from 10.5% to 41.6% at 0.8?mm, , and 19.3% to 77.7% at 0.1?mm, . Carbon-fiber fragments planned to occur in the test designs, instead of producing an inflammation, stimulated bone formation and increased bone integration to the implant. In addition, low-thermal polymer processing allows incorporation of minerals and pharmaceuticals for future major tissue-engineering potential. 1. Introduction Foremost advancements are expected in stem-cell/osteoprogenitor/osteoblast tissue-engineering for the next generation of bone implants as a result of new materials available from the stealth-electronic technology aeronautical/aerospace era. Through a better understanding of the microstructure and electron-transfer properties for matter, polymer-based fiber-reinforced materials can be bioengineered to provide important new materials for broad significant bone implant applications. In the world of materials, fibers are the strongest and possibly stiffest known forms of a substance matter [1]. When combined into an appropriate matrix like a polymer, much of the fiber mechanical-strength properties can be transferred through the bulk material [1, 2]. Such multiconstituent materials, referred to as composites, have led the way in the aeronautical/aerospace age, primarily as a means to provide stronger lighter structural parts. The basic polymer used for advanced design capability has been a class of thermosetting organic resins that cure by electron free-radical crosslinking [1, 2]. The thermoset resins generally contain similar interconnecting bisphenyl double-aromatic ring molecules that can be reinforced by chemical coupling with fibers for highly developed mechanical properties [1, 2]. The bisphenol-derived polymer function was further identified in 1936 through a pharmaceutical study
Laurent Bizet,Jo?l Bréard,Guy Bouquet,Jean-Paul Jernot
Image Analysis and Stereology , 2004, DOI: 10.5566/ias.v23.p167-176
Abstract: The microstructure of a unidirectional glass-fiber composite material is described seeking especially for the influence of the stitching perpendicular to the reinforcement. Serial cuts are performed through the composite and the microstructure is quantified using global parameters and linear morphological analysis. A key result is that the stitching induces variations in fibers spacing within the yarns and in the matrix volume between the yarns. This can affect noticeably the flow of the resin during the manufacturing process and also the mechanical properties of the composite.
Fracture Toughness of Glass-Carbon (0/90)s Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite – An Experimental and Numerical Study  [PDF]
P.S. Shivakumar Gouda, S.K. Kudari, S. Prabhuswamy, Dayananda Jawali
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2011.108052
Abstract: Mode-I fracture behavior of glass-carbon fiber reinforced hybrid polymer composite was investigated based on experimental and finite element analysis. The compact tension (CT) specimen was employed to conduct mode-I fracture test using special loading fixtures as per ASTM standards. Fracture toughness was determined experimentally for along and across the fiber orientation of the specimen. Results indicated that the cracked specimens are tougher along the fiber orientations as compared with across the fiber orientations. A similar fracture test was simulated using finite element analysis software ANSYS. Critical stress intensity factor (K) was calculated at fracture/failure using displacement extrapolation method, for both along and across the fiber orientations. The fractured surfaces of the glasscarbon epoxy composite under mode-I loading condition was examined by electron microscope.
International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology , 2010,
Abstract: This paper discusses about the Natural Fiber Reinforced Composite Materials contribution as bone implants. Biomaterial science is an interdisciplinary field that represents one of the most sophisticated trends in worldwide medical practice. In the last decades, researchers have developed new materials to improve the quality of human life. Owing to the frequent occurrence of bone fractures, it is important to develop a plate material for fixation on the fractured bone. These plate materials have to be lightweight, allow stiffness, and be biocompatible with humans. Drilling is the most frequently employed operation of secondary machining for fiber-reinforced materials, owing to the need for joining fractured bone by means of plate material in the field of orthopedics. An effort to utilize theadvantages offered by renewable resources for the development of biocomposite materials based on biopolymers and natural fibers has been made through fabrication of Natural fiber powdered material (Sisal (Agave sisalana), Banana (Musa sepientum), and Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa)) reinforced polymer composite plate material by using bio epoxy resin Grade 3554A and Hardner 3554B. Instead of orthopedics alloys such as Titanium, Cobalt chrome, Stainless steel, and Zirconium, this plate material can be used for internal fixationand aso external fixation on human body for fractured bone. The present work focuses on the prediction of thrust force and torque of the natural fiber reinforced polymer composite materials, and the values, compared with the Regression model and the Scheme of Delamination factor / zone using machine vision system, also discussed with the help of Scanning Electron Microscope [SEM].
Physico-Mechanical Properties of Luffa aegyptiaca Fiber Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composite  [PDF]
S. I. Ichetaonye, I. C. Madufor, M. E. Yibowei, D. N. Ichetaonye
Open Journal of Composite Materials (OJCM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojcm.2015.54014
Abstract: This paper presents the study of moisture content, hardness, bulk density, apparent porosity, tensile and flexural characteristics of composite properties of Luffa aegyptiaca fiber. Luffa aegyptiaca reinforced epoxy composites have been developed by hand lay-up method with Luffa fiber untreated and treated conditions for 12 Hrs and 24 Hrs in different filler loading as in 2:1 ratio (5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25%). The effects of filler loading on the moisture content, hardness, bulk density, apparent porosity, tensile and flexural properties were studied. In general, the treated Luffa fibre composite for 24 Hrs showed better improvement properties via addition of modified Luffa fibre as reinforcement. However, tensile and flexural properties improved continuously with increasing filler loading up to 20% but decreasing at 25% due to weak interfacial bonding for both untreated and treated composite. The favourable results were obtained at 20% for treated composite at 24 Hrs especially at tensile and flexural characteristics and are suitable for mechanical applications.
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