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Impact of High Power Interference Sources in Planning and Deployment of Wireless Sensor Networks and Devices in the 2.4 GHz Frequency Band in Heterogeneous Environments  [PDF]
Peio López Iturri,Juan Antonio Nazábal,Leire Azpilicueta,Pablo Rodriguez,Miguel Beruete,Carlos Fernández-Valdivielso,Francisco Falcone
Sensors , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/s121115689
Abstract: In this work, the impact of radiofrequency radiation leakage from microwave ovens and its effect on 802.15.4 ZigBee-compliant wireless sensor networks operating in the 2.4 GHz Industrial Scientific Medical (ISM) band is analyzed. By means of a novel radioplanning approach, based on electromagnetic field simulation of a microwave oven and determination of equivalent radiation sources applied to an in-house developed 3D ray launching algorithm, estimation of the microwave oven’s power leakage is obtained for the complete volume of an indoor scenario. The magnitude and the variable nature of the interference is analyzed and the impact in the radio link quality in operating wireless sensors is estimated and compared with radio channel measurements as well as packet measurements. The measurement results reveal the importance of selecting an adequate 802.15.4 channel, as well as the Wireless Sensor Network deployment strategy within this type of environment, in order to optimize energy consumption and increase the overall network performance. The proposed method enables one to estimate potential interference effects in devices operating within the 2.4 GHz band in the complete scenario, prior to wireless sensor network deployment, which can aid in achieving the most optimal network topology.
Propagation Analysis and Deployment of a Wireless Sensor Network in a Forest
Jose Antonio Gay-Fernandez;Manuel Garcia Sánchez;Inigo Cuinas;Ana Vazquez Alejos;Javier Garcia Sanchez;Jose Luis Miranda-Sierra
PIER , 2010, DOI: 10.2528/PIER10040806
Abstract: A complete study for the deployment of a wireless sensor network in a forest based on ZigBee is presented in this paper. First, due to the lack of propagation models for peer to peer networks in forests, propagation experiments were carried out to determine the propagation model. This model was then used for planning and deploying an actual wireless sensor network. The performance of the network was compared with the expected theoretical behavior to extract some conclusions that are presented in the paper. Finally, some general conclusions, as an estimation of the minimum number of routers necessary to cover a given area, are extracted from the experiments and presented in the paper.
A Review on Node Deployment of Wireless Sensor Network  [PDF]
Haitao Zhang,Cuiping Liu
International Journal of Computer Science Issues , 2012,
Abstract: Wireless sensor network (WSN) is nowadays being applied in many different civilian applications like vehicle tracking, habitat monitoring, forest surveillance, earthquake observation, biomedical or health care applications and building surveillance. To a large extent the effectiveness of the wireless sensor networks depends on the coverage provided by the sensor deployment scheme. There are different deployment demands and optimization goals in different environment. In this paper, firstly the existing deployment method of sensor network nodes is summarized and discussed. Then three performance evaluation indexes are analyzed in detail. At last, the main deployment model of sensor network nodes is presented.
Deployment Techniques in Wireless Sensor Networks  [PDF]
Pallavi Sahu,Sunil R.Gupta
International Journal of Soft Computing & Engineering , 2012,
Abstract: In this paper, we study coverage with connectivity properties in large wireless sensor networks (WSN). Coverage is one of the main research interest in wireless sensor network, it is use to determine the quality of service of the networks. Therefore this paper aims to review the common strategies use in solving coverage problem in WSN. The strategies reviewed are categorised in to three groups based on the approaches used; force based, grid based or computational geometry based approach.
SmartConnect: A System for the Design and Deployment of Wireless Sensor Networks  [PDF]
Abhijit Bhattacharya,Sanjay Motilal Ladwa,Rachit Srivastava,Aniruddha Mallya,Akhila Rao,Easwar Vivek. M,Deeksha G. Rao Sahib,S. V. R. Anand,Anurag Kumar
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: We have developed SmartConnect, a tool that addresses the growing need for the design and deployment of multihop wireless relay networks for connecting sensors to a control center. Given the locations of the sensors, the traffic that each sensor generates, the quality of service (QoS) requirements, and the potential locations at which relays can be placed, SmartConnect helps design and deploy a low- cost wireless multihop relay network. SmartConnect adopts a field interactive, iterative approach, with model based network design, field evaluation and relay augmentation per- formed iteratively until the desired QoS is met. The design process is based on approximate combinatorial optimization algorithms. In the paper, we provide the design choices made in SmartConnect and describe the experimental work that led to these choices. We provide results from some experimental deployments. Finally, we conduct an experimental study of the robustness of the network design over long time periods (as channel conditions slowly change), in terms of the relay augmentation and route adaptation required.
Probabilistic Dynamic Deployment of Wireless Sensor Networks by Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm  [PDF]
Celal Ozturk,Dervis Karaboga,Beyza Gorkemli
Sensors , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/s110606056
Abstract: As the usage and development of wireless sensor networks are increasing, the problems related to these networks are being realized. Dynamic deployment is one of the main topics that directly affect the performance of the wireless sensor networks. In this paper, the artificial bee colony algorithm is applied to the dynamic deployment of stationary and mobile sensor networks to achieve better performance by trying to increase the coverage area of the network. A probabilistic detection model is considered to obtain more realistic results while computing the effectively covered area. Performance of the algorithm is compared with that of the particle swarm optimization algorithm, which is also a swarm based optimization technique and formerly used in wireless sensor network deployment. Results show artificial bee colony algorithm can be preferable in the dynamic deployment of wireless sensor networks.
Coverage-Guaranteed Sensor Node Deployment Strategies for Wireless Sensor Networks  [PDF]
Gaojuan Fan,Ruchuan Wang,Haiping Huang,Lijuan Sun,Chao Sha
Sensors , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/s100302064
Abstract: Deployment quality and cost are two conflicting aspects in wireless sensor networks. Random deployment, where the monitored field is covered by randomly and uniformly deployed sensor nodes, is an appropriate approach for large-scale network applications. However, their successful applications depend considerably on the deployment quality that uses the minimum number of sensors to achieve a desired coverage. Currently, the number of sensors required to meet the desired coverage is based on asymptotic analysis, which cannot meet deployment quality due to coverage overestimation in real applications. In this paper, we first investigate the coverage overestimation and address the challenge of designing coverage-guaranteed deployment strategies. To overcome this problem, we propose two deployment strategies, namely, the Expected-area Coverage Deployment (ECD) and BOundary Assistant Deployment (BOAD). The deployment quality of the two strategies is analyzed mathematically. Under the analysis, a lower bound on the number of deployed sensor nodes is given to satisfy the desired deployment quality. We justify the correctness of our analysis through rigorous proof, and validate the effectiveness of the two strategies through extensive simulation experiments. The simulation results show that both strategies alleviate the coverage overestimation significantly. In addition, we also evaluate two proposed strategies in the context of target detection application. The comparison results demonstrate that if the target appears at the boundary of monitored region in a given random deployment, the average intrusion distance of BOAD is considerably shorter than that of ECD with the same desired deployment quality. In contrast, ECD has better performance in terms of the average intrusion distance when the invasion of intruder is from the inside of monitored region.
Node Deployment and the Impact of Relay Nodes in Wireless Sensor Network  [PDF]
Rudranath Mitra,Diya Nandy
International Journal of Computer Science and Communication Networks , 2012,
Abstract: Node deployment is a fundamental issue to be solved in wireless sensor network. A proper node deployment can reduce the complexity of problems in WSN as for eg, routing, data fusion, communication etc. Different node deployment models have been proposed to reduce the complexity. In this paper we will discuss about the three models- Tri-hexagon-tiling (THT), Uniform Random and Square Grid. The nature of deployment of sensor nodes depend on the type of sensors, application and the environment where the networks will operate. Deployment of sensor nodes can be random or pre-determined. In random deployment nodes are deployed in a random manner. In pre-determined deployment, location of the nodes are specified. Most commonly used cell structure is Regular Hexagonal Cell Architecture. Here we will discuss the concept of relay nodes and its impact in sensor nodes
Development of a Simulator for Stochastic Deployment of Wireless Sensor Networks  [cached]
Carlos E. Otero,Ivica Kostanic,Luis D. Otero
Journal of Networks , 2009, DOI: 10.4304/jnw.4.8.754-762
Abstract: This paper presents an open framework and detailed procedures for creating simulators that address application-specific deployment of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN). The presented framework and developed models are combined in a deployment simulator. The simulator assists decision-makers in selecting among different WSN deployment alternatives. The outlined software framework serves as a blueprint for creating deployment simulators that take into account application specific factors and may be used for optimization of WSN stochastic deployments.
Dynamic Deployment of Wireless Sensor Networks by Biogeography Based Optimization Algorithm  [PDF]
Gaige Wang,Lihong Guo,Hong Duan,Luo Liu,Heqi Wang
Journal of Sensor and Actuator Networks , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/jsan1020086
Abstract: As the usage and development of wireless sensor networks increases, problems related to these networks are becoming apparent. Dynamic deployment is one of the main topics that directly affects the performance of the wireless sensor networks. In this paper, biogeography-based optimization is applied to the dynamic deployment of static and mobile sensor networks to achieve better performance by trying to increase the coverage area of the network. A binary detection model is considered to obtain realistic results while computing the effectively covered area. Performance of the algorithm is compared with that of the artificial bee colony algorithm, Homo-H-VFCPSO and stud genetic algorithm that are also population-based optimization algorithms. Results show biogeography-based optimization can be preferable in the dynamic deployment of wireless sensor networks.
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