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Land Productivity Changes in a Trade Liberalization Environment: Mexico under NAFTA  [PDF]
Diego de la Fuente Stevens
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2014.43030

The focus of this research is the understanding of a fundamental aspect of the Mexican agricultural sector: the evolution of land productivity and the sources behind its changes. The study takes place in a period that runs from 1990 to 2011, a period of large structural transformations in the Mexican economy. The research offers answers regarding how the sector has adapted in terms of crop selection. Results show that a large share of total agricultural land productivity changes happened due to intrinsic changes in crop productivity; while these changes have different sources, most of them were the result of changes in production patters across states. Furthermore, around one quarter of total productivity, changes resulted from a better selection of crops in terms of productivity levels.

Inter-Industry Productivity Spillovers from Japanese and US FDI in Mexico’s Manufacturing Sector  [PDF]
Leo Guzmán Anaya
Technology and Investment (TI) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ti.2013.44028

Foreign Direct Investment can have positive effects on host countries by generating spillovers to domestic firms and contributing to increases in their productivity. These productivity spillovers1 can take place within an industry (intraindustry spillovers) and across industries (inter-industry spillovers) as in the case of technology or knowledge transfer to domestic suppliers (backward productivity spillovers) or customers (forward productivity spillovers). Using unpublished economic census data from Mexico’s manufacturing sector this study differs from others by comparing interindustry productivity spillovers from Japanese and US FDI. Results show that Japanese FDI increases the productivity of upstream sectors; however these gains seem to be shared only among foreign suppliers, while US FDI does not seem to generate backward productivity spillovers. Results show no presence of forward productivity spillovers.

Cuadernos de Economía , 2003,
Poverty and Inequality in Mexico after NAFTA: Challenges, Setbacks and Implications
Alvarado, Emmanuel;
Estudios fronterizos , 2008,
Abstract: this article analyzes the progress obtained in diminishing poverty and inequality in mexico during the post-nafta years ranging from 1994 to 2007, and how it pertains to the broad critical debate surrounding poverty-gap reduction in the context of regional and international economic integration and trade liberalization. specifically, the article discusses the evolution of mexican rural and urban poverty, income and regional disparities, as well as the role of government spending after the enactment of nafta and within the framework of economic liberalization marked by expanded international trade and investment, particularly with the united states.
The Integration of Mexico into NAFTA: Neoliberal Restructuring and the Crisis of the Party/State System  [PDF]
Marcel Cuijpers,Alex Fernández Jilberto
Revista CIDOB d'Afers Internacionals , 1995,
Abstract: The incorporation of Mexico into NAFTA is considered a determining reference between two ways of understanding the economic structures and political models of the State. The identification between State and single party, and a certain idea of protectionism, sustained by the premise “industrialization sustituting imports” (ISI) went into crisis beginning with the neoliberal reforms introduced by President Miguel de la Madrid and was continued throughout the mandate of Carlos Salinas de Gortari, a consequence of the 1982 crisis which brought about the unilateral suspension of debt services, inflation,a strong devaluation of the peso and the nationalization of the bank.The globalization of the world economy, along with Mexico’s adoption of the neoliberal economic model, makes the maintenance of a state system based on economic keynesianism of a populist and authoritarian type, impossible. The authors of this article ask why Mexico, in spite of its long tradition of authoritarianism, corruption and repression has been able to integrate itself into the North American Free Trade Agreement and analyse the future perspectives that this incorporation holds not only for Mexico but also for the United States and for other Latin American countries who see in this initiative a shift from the traditional areas of Latinamerican economic integration and place them on the waiting list for possible adhesion.
Mexico Twelve Years After the Implementation of the NAFTA  [cached]
Alfredo Sánchez Daza,Gloria de la Luz Juárez
Análisis Económico , 2007,
Abstract: Today, twelve years after the North American Free Trade Agreement came into effect; we evaluate Mexico s major objectives with the ones accomplished within its relationship with the United States and Canada in the context of the Agreement. We carry out a reflexion on the central problems of said relationship: competitivity, growth, employment, prices, and wages; the expected (but not achieved) direct economic effects; what Mexican industry and agriculture took advantage of, or did not, from the Agreement, emphasizing the role of Mexican Government policies. We also consider some issues that need to be incorporated into the Agreement (migration), and renegotiated (environmental matters, and the arbitration of controversies) in order to obtain larger and better benefits from it. Finally, Mexico s perspectives, in relation to the commercial agreement are expressed in a possible future agenda, and tasks still to be done.
Where Does Mexico Stand? Interpreting NAFTA's. Regional Scope and the FTAA Hemispheric Project
Cuadra Montiel, Héctor;
Norteamérica , 2008,
Abstract: using a hermeneutic strategic relational approach, this article examines the elements of the material and ideational international context directly relevant to development in mexico. it opens with a section on relations between the united states and mexico. the myriad of complex and multifaceted interactions, history and potentialities has been -and will remain- of utmost importance for both countries. the next part focuses on the north american free trade agreement (nafta) which, evaluated under its own terms, has unquestionably been successful. trade and investment have increased, and the ad hoc dispute settlement mechanism operated regularly in cases presented by each member. yet, there are immense numbers of things that nafta cannot accommodate, as it has been narrowly conceived only as a trade agreement, albeit an expanded one. these omissions are of key relevance and must be spotlighted along with the agreement's relative successes for a serious, informed discussion to take place about the prospects of deepening nafta. likewise, the negotiations for the free trade area of the americas (ftaa) would mean broadening its scope and membership. these are some of the key issues in the strategically selective context for the social processes of change in mexico in the last few decades. crucial challenges also lie ahead. if room for manoeuvre has existed in the past, there is a good chance that it will be greater in the future.
Richard A. MCGOWAN,John F. MAHON
Management & Marketing , 2007,
Abstract: After World War II and up until the 1980’s, the liberalization of trade was realized on a multilateral basis. World trade grew at twice the pace of GDP growth (Krueger, 1999). However, starting in the mid 1980’s, preferential trading arrangements (PTAs) increased in numbers. Perhaps the most influential PTA ever to be signed could be the North America Free Trade Agreement, or simply NAFTA, which came into effect January 1, 1994. The agreement established a free-trade area between its member countries- US, Canada and Mexico- in which all tariffs would be phased out between them, but each country would maintain its separate national barriers against the rest of the world. A lot of attention has been paid to the impact of NAFTA on the welfare of its member countries and on the rest of the world. This paper will focus on the impact of the agreement on the US’s beer trade flows by analyzing annual import and export data using several methods. To our knowledge there is no precedent for such research. Section II provides a brief review of the conclusions and methodology of existing works on NAFTA trade issues, as well as some important aspects of the agreement. Section III provides an overview of the world beer industry, and the NAFTA member countries beer markets. Section IV provides in great detail the methodology that we will employ. The focus of Section V is to explain the results obtained. Section VI provides conclusions and implications for further research on this subject. References and other sources can be found in Section VII.
Productivity Growth in Europe and the US: a Sectoral Study  [cached]
Mary O'Mahony,Ana Rincón-Aznar,Catherine Robinson
Review of Economics and Institutions , 2010, DOI: 10.5202/rei.v1i1.5
Abstract: This paper describes recent trends in productivity growth in the EU and the US. By adopting a sectoral perspective, we achieve a deeper understanding of the compositional patterns of aggregate growth and shed light on the reasons why the EU productivity has lagged behind the US during the period 1995-2007. This may be of use for policy makers in order to design policies to close the gap. Whilst our findings indicate that performance in manufacturing sectors of many EU countries has been strong, we observe notable disadvantages in relation to productivity performance of key market service sectors. Restrictions in product and labour markets prevailing in many EU countries have been put forward as potential factors causing poor productivity; research shows that these can have particular harmful effects in services sectors given their large size and inter-linkages to other sector of the economy.
Primary productivity in the eastern tropical Pacific off Cabo Corrientes, Mexico
López-Sandoval, DC;Lara-Lara, JR;Lavín, MF;álvarez-Borrego, S;Gaxiola-Castro, G;
Ciencias marinas , 2009,
Abstract: the in situ primary productivity (pp) and phytoplankton biomass (chlorophyll a concentration, chla) of the cabo corrientes region, in the eastern tropical pacific off mexico, were studied using data from three oceanographic cruises (may and november 2002, and june 2003). the coastal region (<60 km) was found to be affected by coastal upwelling, causing phytoplankton biomass and production rates in this region to be up to two times higher than at the offshore stations. the highest surface chla values were registered in may 2002 (>2 mg m-3), when the mean pp was 361 mgc m-2 d-1. the highest pp values were recorded in june 2003, with a mean value of 447 mgc m-2 d-1, and the lowest in november 2002, with a mean value of 200 mgc m-2 d-1. satellite ocean color images, supported by our field data, suggest that the area off cabo corrientes can be characterized by three periods: (1) a relatively intense upwelling period, with high chla and pp (spring); (2) an upwelling relaxation period, when the highest pp values of the year were recorded (late spring-early summer); and (3) a summer-fall period, with strong stratification and lowest chla and pp values. the high pp registered for the region off cabo corrientes during the spring season leads us to conclude that this is an area of high fertility, similar to other rich regions in the pacific ocean off mexico.
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