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A Comparative Analysis of Institutional Capacities for Implementing Disability Policies in East African Countries: Functions of National Councils for Disability  [cached]
Akiko Yokoyama
Disability, CBR & Inclusive Development , 2012, DOI: 10.5463/dcid.v23i2.106
Abstract: During the “African Decade of Persons with Disabilities (2000-2009)”, East African countries witnessed significant achievements, especially in the development of law, collection of statistics and in funding. However, many persons with disability are still marginalised from opportunities in education, healthcare and employment. Purpose: With the pre-supposition that the lack of institutional capacities for implementing disability policies is the one major stumbling-block which hinders widespread delivery of social services to persons with disabilities in low-income countries, this study makes a comparative analysis of institutional capacities in the disability sectors of Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania. Method: The research methods adopted were a literature survey and a field survey. The framework for analysis consists of: 1) capacities and functions of disability units in central governments, 2) relationships between central and local governments in the disability sector, and 3) relationships between governments and organisations of persons with disability (DPOs). Special attention is paid to the status, roles and functions of national councils for disability (NCDs), the independent statutory bodies recently established in each of the three countries, with clear authority and duties for the implementation of disability policies. The NCDs enable multi-sectoral stakeholders to be involved in the implementation of disability policies; therefore, positive relationships between the governments and DPOs are essential for the smooth functioning of the NCDs. Results: While the result of the field survey in Tanzania reveals several effective approaches for the smooth operation of the NCD, further study is needed to verify whether these approaches would be applicable to other East African countries such as Kenya and Uganda.doi 10.5463/DCID.v23i2.106
The role country of birth plays in receiving disability pensions in relation to patterns of health care utilisation and socioeconomic differences: a multilevel analysis of Malmo, Sweden
Anders Beckman, Anders Hakansson, Lennart Rastam, Thor Lithman, Juan Merlo
BMC Public Health , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-6-71
Abstract: We used multilevel logistic regression analysis with individuals (first level) nested within countries of birth (second level). We analysed the entire population between the ages of 40 and 64 years (n = 80 212) in the city of Malmo, Sweden, in 2003, and identified 73% of that population who had visited a physician at least once during that year. We studied the associations between individuals and country of birth socioeconomic characteristics, as well as individual utilisation of different kinds of physicians in relation to having been granted a disability pension.Living alone (ORwomen = 1.72, 95% CI: 1.62–1.82; ORmen = 2.64, 95% CI: 2.46–2.83) and having limited educational achievement (ORwomen = 2.14, 95% CI: 2.00–2.29; ORmen = 2.12, 95% CI: 1.98–2.28) were positively associated with having a disability pension. Utilisation of public specialists was associated with a higher probability (ORwomen = 2.11, 95% CI: 1.98–2.25; ORmen = 2.16, 95% CI: 2.01–2.32) and utilisation of private GPs with a lower probability (ORmen = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.69–0.83) of having a disability pension. However, these associations differed by countries of birth. Over and above individual socioeconomic status, men from middle income countries had a higher probability of having a disability pension (ORmen = 1.61, 95% CI: 1.06–2.44).The country of one's birth appears to play a significant role in understanding how individual socioeconomic differences bear on the likelihood of receiving a disability pension and on associated patterns of health care utilisation.Sweden has a general welfare policy that guarantees financial security and social rights to all citizens [1]. Included in this system is the provision of a disability pension for those between the ages of 30 and 64 who, for medical reasons, are incapable of working or supporting themselves financially [2].A number of studies have investigated the association between different measures of health status [3,4], medical conditions [5], and receiv
Vietnamese Immigrants in Brisbane, Australia: Perception of Parenting Roles, Child Development, Child Health, Illness, and Disability, and Health Service Utilisation  [PDF]
Uyen N. T. L. Tran
International Journal of Population Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/932364
Abstract: The limited research into Vietnamese immigrants suggests that this group may have different perceptions relating to parenting roles, child development, child health, illness, and disability, and differing patterns of health service utilisation. The author conducted a pilot study exploring how Vietnamese immigrants differ from Anglo-Australian in relation to these issues. The pilot, utilising a mixed quantitative and qualitative method, was conducted in Brisbane, Australia, with subjects being existing clients of a health centre. Two focus group discussions were conducted and a structured questionnaire developed from the discussions. Vietnamese immigrants in contrast to Australian-born Caucasians regard the general practitioner as the main health care provider and were less satisfied with English-speaking health services. This study highlights potentially important health-related issues for children of Vietnamese immigrants living in Brisbane, the importance of further research in this area, and the methodological challenges faced when conducting research into Vietnamese immigrants. 1. Introduction The literature indicates reduced access to health services and disparate health outcomes in people from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds (CLDBs) living in Western countries [1, 2]. Low socioeconomic status, which is more prevalent in people from CLDB, accounts for some but not all of the disparate outcomes [3–5]. With Australia’s increasingly cultural and linguistically diverse society, in particular a growing Asian population, health outcomes and health service utilisation of this population is an issue of great relevance to Australian practitioners and policy-makers. Even though commonalities may exist between CLDB populations, further exploration regarding poor health outcomes and access to health services demonstrate the importance of specific factors that are unique to individual communities. During this study, staff at Inala Community Health’s Department of Child, Youth and Family Health indicated possible deficits in the delivery of health services to families from CLDB, especially those from a Vietnamese background. Staff believed that these deficits may be related to different cultural perceptions held by parents about children’s health, development, and the role of parenting. A greater understanding of cultural values and beliefs of people from CLDB, which underlie health behaviour, is essential if appropriate health services are to be provided. A significant amount of the immigrant health research emanates from the United States of
To Explore the Protection and Inheritance of Qiang Culture from the Perspective of Institutional Change Theory—Take Mao County as an Example  [PDF]
Wenqiong Ma, Bing Zhao
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2019.74011
Abstract: In the reports of the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, general secretary Xi Jinping pointed out that as the soul of the country and nation, the prosperity of culture means the prosperity of the country and the mightiness of culture also reflects that of the nation. The great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation shall not be achieved without high cultural confidence and cultural prosperity. We should adhere to the cultural development path of socialism with Chinese characteristics, stimulate the creativity of cultural innovation of the whole nation, so as to build a culturally strong socialist country. At the same time, it is also necessary to promote the creative transformation and innovative development of the outstanding traditional culture of China, protect and promote national culture, so as to support the cultural development of ethnic minorities. From the perspective of institutional change, in this paper, strengthening the protection and inheritance of Qiang culture is simply analyzed, in order to complete the modern cultural industry system and market system, push forward the construction of the international communication ability and show a real, tridimensional and comprehensive China by well narrating Chinese stories, finally realizing the enhancement of cultural soft power of China.
Against The Declining Significance of Race
Andrew Diamond
Transatlantica : Revue d'études Américaines , 2009,
Abstract: The Rising Significance of ClassRe-examining William Julius Wilson’s landmark study, The Declining Significance of Race today, in a moment quite distant from the book’s release context some thirty years ago, it is difficult to understand how this rather brief treatise on “race and class in the American experience” could have played a key role in transforming the research agenda of a generation of scholars working on the history of African Americans in the United States. The book relies almost...
Reasons for the deficient social security in patients withmental disability and institutional construction

- , 2016,
Abstract: 我国精神残疾患者人数众多,其家庭普遍贫困,社会保障严重缺失。其主要原因是传统家庭责任观念的影响及社会保障制度存在缺陷。基于我国总体缴费能力低但社会保障需求巨大的基本现状,精神残疾患者社会保障制度构建应谨遵“底线公平”原则,既要保证其基础性需求得到满足,也要防止保障水平刚性上升而超出国家财政承担能力。
At present, far too many patients with mental disability fail to get a better living condition, and theyseriously lack social security. The main reasons are the influence of the traditional concept of family responsibilities and thedeficiency in the construction of social security. Based on the general condition of low payment ability and large demandin social security in China, the social security construction for mental disabilities should follow the principle of baselineequality, not only to guarantee their basic needs are met, but to prevent security level rise rigidly beyond our country’sfiscal ability
Marxism and Disability  [cached]
Nicholas Brown
Mediations , 2008,
Abstract: Nicholas Brown reviews Ato Quayson’s Aesthetic Nervousness: Disability and the Crisis of Representation. Quayson’s most recent book is both brilliant in its literary analyses and ethically acute in its discussion of disability. But how do these two moments, the textual and the ethical, relate to each other?
Measuring and Monitoring Grid Resource Utilisation  [PDF]
Aleksandar Lazarevic,Lionel Sacks
Computer Science , 2007,
Abstract: Effective resource utilisation monitoring and highly granular yet adaptive measurements are prerequisites for a more efficient Grid scheduler. We present a suite of measurement applications able to monitor per-process resource utilisation, and a customisable tool for emulating observed utilisation models.
The Finnish database on drug utilisation  [cached]
Timo Klaukka
Norsk Epidemiologi , 2009,
Abstract: ABSTRACT This article describes main sources of data used to study drug utilisation in Finland. National health interview studies have been used for this since 1964. Sales statistics are based on information from wholesalers, and the Nordic ATC/DDD methodology is availed in order to make the numbers comparable with the other countries. The most important database is a national prescription register, which exists since 1994 and includes all reimbursed medication purchases. The data were originally collected for administrative purposes, but they provide useful material also for pharmaco-epidemiological and -economic research. Key words : Drug utilisation, prescription register, health interview surveys, sales statistics
Declining needs for total joint replacements for rheumatoid arthritis
Nasim A Khan, Tuulikki Sokka
Arthritis Research & Therapy , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/ar3478
Abstract: Total joint replacement (TJR) surgery was a milestone in rheumatology. Patients whose inflammatory joint disease once confined them to a wheelchair or bed received a new joint and were able to walk. But 50 years later, approaches have changed. A current trend, as reported by Hekmat and colleagues [1] in a recent issue of Arthritis Research & Therapy, is to gather evidence that TJR is not needed for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) as inflammation and consequent damage can be kept under control with improved medications.A need for a TJR of the hip or knee has been a severe long-term consequence for patients with RA. Wolfe and Zwillich [2] estimated that 25% of all RA patients who were under observation between the 1970s and 1990s needed TJR surgery over two decades.Concomitantly with an increasing use of early and active treatment strategies, the clinical status of patients with RA has improved in comparison with previous decades. Even before the era of biologic treatments, improvements were seen in patients' clinical status as measured by disease activity, functional capacity, radiographic scores, and other clinical parameters [3]. Furthermore, lower mortality rates were reported in patients who responded to methotrexate and lower work disability rates were noted in patients who responded to anti-rheumatic drugs [4].Although improvements were seen in clinical outcomes, it was a long time before studies showed changes in the rates of TJR. Only in the last 10 years have studies from Western countries and Japan suggested that rates of TJR and other RA-related surgeries have been stable or decreased in patients with RA [5-13], as now reported also by Hekmat and colleagues [1]. Declining trends of TJR surgeries in patients with RA contrasts with a remarkable phenomenon of the increase in overall rates of TJR surgery of the knee or hip documented in the general population of many countries having doubled since 1990, and increased threefold since the early 1980s [5,
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