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The Financial Performance of the Greek Football Clubs
Panagiotis Dimitropoulos
Choregia , 2010,
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to analyze the financial performance of the football clubs participating within the first division of the Greek football league for a period of 14 years (1993-2006) and to propose specific actions that need to be taken by both managers and regulators in order to improve the financial stability of the clubs. We perform financial analysis of key accounting ratios extracted from the football club’s annual financial statements in order to explain the particular causes of the recent financial crisis which characterizes the Greek professional football league. The analysis of the clubs’ annual financial statements revealed that the Greek football clubs are highly leveraged, have intense liquidity and profitability problems and face an increased danger of financial distress, despite the increased amounts that football clubs invested during 2005. The above mentioned crisis can be attributed to aggregate financial mismanagement and political inefficiencies during the last fifteen years. The paper proposes specific actions that need to be taken by both managers and regulators in order to improve the financial stability of the clubs and the overall competitiveness of the Greek football league.
Amaury Jose Rezende,Ricardo dos Santos Custodio
Revista de Educa??o e Pesquisa em Contabilidade , 2012,
Abstract: The purpose of this survey is to check whether the publishing of financial statements by the Brazilian football clubs adopt uniform accounting criteria for similar events that involve federative rights after publication of NBC 10.13. This survey has as contribution the development of a discussion on the comparability and the level of transparency in the dissemination of accounting information carried out by clubs, as well as how these actions can assist the decision making of possible investors and other stakeholders, such as fans, government, and other agents of society. Data analysis was undertaken by means of analysis of the accounting reporting documentation, published in the periods of 2006 and 2007, encompassing eleven clubs in the Brazilian Premier League 2007. The main results showed that there is adoption of very different accounting criteria among clubs. For example: expenditures with contracting, renewal of contracts of athletes who are recorded as fixed assets or accounted as expenditures during the period. It is highlighted that there are clubs that have not been complying to what is set forth in provisions of the NBC 10.13, therefore, they do no provide to their users with information recommended by the standard. It stands out, among implications, that there is a significant decrease in the comparability and transparency level between accounting reporting published by the Brazilian clubs.
The accounting and tax legislation of the Greek football clubs
Choregia , 2006,
Abstract: The year 1979 was a cornerstone for the football in Greece, since it practically meant the transformation of the sport’s organization from amateurism to professionalism, establishing new rules and conditions to the management of football clubs. The increased popularity of this sport and the evolutions that took place in Europe and worldwide, forced the Greek government to establish a legislative framework for the successful management of football clubs. These interventions lead to changes in many aspects of football management such as organizational and financial. The new legal environment of football management, required the organization of this sport into a more stable and professional base, following the financial standards of other corporations operating within the Greek state. By these means the government wanted to create a fair economic framework under which the football clubs would operate with common organizational, financial and tax administration rules. The aim of this paper is to present the characteristics of the new capital form establishment of the football clubs (Societe Anonyme), the main financial frame under which the new establishment has to operate and the tax obligations that originate from the aforementioned legal form.
Rahim Ramzaninezhad,Misagh Hoseini Keshtan
Brazilian Journal of Biomotricity , 2009,
Abstract: RAMZANINEZHAD, R.; KESHTAN M. H. The relationship between coach's leadership styles and teamcohesion in iran football clubs professional league. Brazilian Journal Biomotricity, v. 3, n. 2, p. 111-120,2009. The present study examined relationship between coach's leadership styles and team cohesion in Iranfootball clubs professional league (2006-2007). Athletes (n=264) from 12 football teams completed theperceived version of the leadership scale for sport (LSS) and the group environment questionnaire (GEQ).Both questionnaires were administered at the end of season. Result indicated that increases in athletes’perceptions of team cohesion was positively correlated with perceptions of their coach exhibiting higherlevels of training and instruction, social support, positive feedback, democratic behavior and lower levels ofautocratic behaviors. A Comparison of coach’s leadership styles demonstrated that football coachesexhibited higher in training and instruction and lower in democratic behavior. ANOVA with repeatedmeasures and Tukey post hoc test revealed that successful football teams tend to be more cohesive andtheir coaches exhibited higher levels of democratic and social support behavior. Overall, the findings supportthe significant relationship between team cohesion and leadership behavior, and highlight theinterdependence in team sports, which can significantly affect the need for team cohesion that contributes toteam success.
The Relationship between Human Resource Empowerment and Organizational Performance in Football Clubs  [cached]
Alkistis Papaioannou,Thanos Kriemadis,Panagiotis Alexopoulos,Ourania Vrondou
International Journal of Sport Management, Recreation & Tourism , 2009,
Abstract: This study examined the extent to which empowerment is applied to Greek professional football clubs, and the relationship between empowerment and organizational performance. Empowerment, on the one hand, has been described as a means to enable employees to make decisions and accomplish their work in meaningful ways, and on the other hand, as a personal phenomenon where individuals take responsibility for their own actions. For analytical purposes the participatory football clubs were divided into two groups based on their budget: (a) wealthy football clubs, and (b) less wealthy football clubs. The results of the study indicated that empowerment is being used similarly in wealthy football clubs as well as in less wealthy football clubs. The basic difference between them was in the managerial styles they used. In particular, in less wealthy football clubs there was a strong and positive relationship between average of revenues in five years and two key factors of empowerment such as: the “management information /communication system skills” and the “total of all managerial functions”. Limitations of the present study and suggestions for further research are presented.
The Analysis of Operation and Management Situation in Chinese Professional Football Clubs  [cached]
Yi Jia
Asian Social Science , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/ass.v8n6p229
Abstract: China football league has started the professional reforms since 1994, but so far the operation of many domestic professional football clubs has been more and more difficult. Only a few clubs can survive and the vast majority of club investors are changed frequently, including normal transferring, normal capital operation, even being dissolved because of hardships. As for the reasons, the club's management system, the low return rate on investment, and the poor operating performance can be drawn. The thesis, from the perspective of clubs’ management system, will illustrate several reasons which influence the development of Chinese professional football clubs and put forward the feasible suggestions.
Emre G?LLü
Pamukkale Journal of Sport Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: All over Europe, professional football clubs have been transformed into profit oriented incorporations and their performances have been judged on and off the field of play. Football has begun to be considered as a business in Turkey mostly as of late 90’s. In this study, we investigate the possible impact of the financial performances of incorporations on the sportive performances in the domestic league for the four major football clubs in Turkey, namelyBeoiktao, Fenerbah e, Galatasaray and Trabzonspor over the period 2002-2009. In order to carry out this study, we use variables from the financial statements of these clubs’ incorporations as a measure of their financial performances and sportive results obtained in the domestic league as an indicator of the sportive performance using a Spearman correlation model. The results of this study indicate that it appears to be no correlation between the sportive performances of the clubs and financial performances of their incorporations in the above mentioned period.
Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Contributions Made by Football Clubs in England  [PDF]
Adekunle Dosumu, Ian Colbeck, Rachel Bragg
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2014.44057
Abstract: Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission from waste is a major environmental problem. Globally, the waste management sector contributes an estimated 5% of the total anthropogenic GHG emissions. This paper estimates GHG emissions from football clubs in the England, where football is the highest profile and most popular sport, with large numbers of spectators and significant quantities of waste being produced. Football clubs should be more committed to reducing their GHG emissions by improving their waste management. The amount of GHG emitted from eight football tiers in England is assessed through methods including interviews, observations and questionnaires. The results reveal that in the 2012/13-football season, over 9 million spectators watched football in the lower leagues, with mean waste per spectator of 3.27 kg. 30,146,000 kg of waste was generated at the 8 football tiers, and the amount of waste sent to the landfill was about 74,000,000 kg, which resulted in GHG emissions of approximately 2,100,000 kg CO2e. The implications for better waste management at football leagues are outlined.
P?nar Gürel,Y. Aytül Da?l? Ekmek?i,?lhan Kü?ükkaplan
Pamukkale Journal of Sport Sciences , 2013,
Abstract: In sports industry intangible sources such as fan loyalty, the talent players, the experience of the management team become more and more important in creating team value. There is a growing awareness that intellectual capital is a key asset for clubs’ financial success. Therefore this study is a pioneering effort todetermine and compare the intellectual capital of Turkish First Division football clubs whose shares are publicly traded at the Istanbul Stock Exchange (ISE). In the analysis part of this study, determining and comparing the intellectual capital ratios of this publicly traded clubs has been aimed. To this aim the concept of intellectual capital was analyzed with the Value Added Intellectual Capital (VAIC)Method. The findings indicate that Galatasaray Sport Club uses its intellectual capital more efficiently. Higher intellectual capital value means higher market share for football clubs. Therefore from sports management perspective the major football clubs should develop their intellectual capitals.
Developing Economic Values in Football: Example of Turkish Football Federation
Serdar Terekli, Halil Orbay Cobanoglu
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104263
Economics is a science that examines how people use scarce and limited sources of production to produce various commodities and distributes them to various members of society for consumption. Increasing economic value has introduced a new task for the football federation and has become an important financial resource of sports clubs. When it is considered as football industry, football organizations, football business, football media, football products, soccer technology, soccer marketing and soccer federation are seen in the production and consumption of goods and services in the football. Indirect management of economic benefit through sports is a direct link to clubs and federations. The economic entrepreneurship that stands out in the professional football gives the football a great popularity and enables the income to be obtained more easily. Today, the football market has reached a budget expressed in billion dollars. For this reason both sports clubs and federations have to plan their budgets according to the rules of the economy. The aim of this study is to provide important economic resources in the football club and the football economy having a major impact to analyze the financial performance of the Turkey Football Federation and to examine the contribution made to improve the financial condition of the football club.
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