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Mayaro virus proteins
Mezencio, J. M. S.;Rebello, M. A.;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 1993, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02761993000200020
Abstract: mayaro virus was grown in bhk-21 cells and purified by centrifugation in a potassium-tartrate gradient (5-50%). the electron microscopy analyses of the purified virus showed an homogeneous population of enveloped particles with 69 ? 2.3 nm in diameter. three structural virus proteins were identified and designated pl, p2 and p3. their average molecular weight were p1, 54 kda; p2, 50 kda and p3, 34 kda. in mayaro virus infected. aedes albopictus cells and in bhk-21 infected cells we detected six viral proteins, in wich three of them are the structural virus proteins and the other three were products from processing of precursors of viral proteins, whose molecular weights are 62 kda, 64 kda and 110 kda. the 34 kda protein was the first viral protein sinthesized at 5 hours post-infection in both cell lines studied.
Trepanaciones históricas y prehistóricas en Venezuela
Gómez-González,Jaime; Brice?o-Iragorry,Leopoldo;
Gaceta Médica de Caracas , 2007,
Abstract: authors present the preliminary report on the first trepanned skull in the pre-columbian period in venezuela. references are made on the first skull interventions published in venezuela during the xviii and xix centuries by distinguished precursors surgeons of the neurologic surgery. other interventions performed during the xvi and xvii centuries in latinoamerica are also quoted.
Mayaro virus: imported cases of human infection in S?o Paulo State, Brazil
Coimbra, Terezinha Lisieux M.;Santos, Cecília L. S.;Suzuki, Akemi;Petrella, Selma M. C.;Bisordi, Ivani;Nagamori, Adélia H.;Marti, Antonia T.;Santos, Raimundo N.;Fialho, Danya M.;Lavigne, Shirlene;Buzzar, Marcia R.;Rocco, Iray M.;
Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de S?o Paulo , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-46652007000400005
Abstract: mayaro virus (mayv) is an arbovirus (togaviridae: alphavirus) enzootic in tropical south america and maintained in a sylvan cycle involving wild vertebrates and haemagogus mosquitoes. mayv cases occur sporadically in persons with a history of recent activities inside or around forests. this paper reports three cases of mayv fever detected in men infected in camapu?, ms, brazil. serum samples collected at four days and two months after the onset of the symptoms and examined by hemagglutination inhibition test, revealed monotypic seroconversion to mayv. isolation of the virus was obtained from one of the samples by inoculation of the first blood samples into newborn mice. a suspension of the infected mouse brain was inoculated into c6/36 cells culture and the virus was identified by indirect immunofluorescent assay with alphavirus polyclonal antibodies. rt-pcr, performed with rna extracted from the supernatant of c6/36 infected cells in the presence of alphavirus generic primers as well as specific mayv primers, confirmed these results. the reported cases illustrate the importance of laboratory confirmation in establishing a correct diagnosis. clinical symptoms are not always indicative of a disease caused by an arbovirus. also mayv causes febrile illness, which may be mistaken for dengue.
Ferreira, Davis F.;Rebello, Maria Christina Soares;
Revista de Microbiologia , 1998, DOI: 10.1590/S0001-37141998000300014
Abstract: we have previously observed that interferon (recifna2b) blocks the process of morphogenesis of mayaro virus in tc7 cells (monkey kidney). in this work we show that ifna inhibits preferentially virus glycoproteins and their precursors, and this effect is probably correlated to the alterations in the morphogenesis process previously observed.
Ferreira Davis F.,Rebello Maria Christina Soares
Revista de Microbiologia , 1998,
Abstract: We have previously observed that interferon (recIFNa2b) blocks the process of morphogenesis of Mayaro virus in TC7 cells (monkey kidney). In this work we show that IFNa inhibits preferentially virus glycoproteins and their precursors, and this effect is probably correlated to the alterations in the morphogenesis process previously observed.
Study of two different enzyme immunoassays for the detection of Mayaro virus antibodies
Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes;Nogueira, Rita Maria Ribeiro;Cavalcanti, Silvia Maria Baêta;Schatzmayr, Hermann;Rosa, Amélia Travassos da;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 1989, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02761989000300003
Abstract: this paper presents the evaluation of an enzyme immunoassay in which mayaro virus-infected cultured cells ara used as antigen (eia-icc) and an igm antibody capture elisa (mac-elisa) for mayaro serologic diagnosis using 114 human sera obtained during a mayaro outbreak occurred in bolivia, in 1987. results were compared with those obtained by haemagglutination-inhibition test (hai). mac-elisa was the most sensitive technique for anti-mayaro igm detection. mac-elisa was twice sensitive as igm eia-icc. the data shows that mac-elisa is a practical and valid technique for diagnosis of recent mayaro infection. igg-icc showed hight sensitivity and high specificity compared to hai. the combination of anti-mayaro igg and igm eia-icc results presented the highest sensitivity of the study. anti-mayaro igg and igm simultaneous detection by elisa-icc can be used for recent infection diagnosis (in spite of a less sensitive igm detection than by mac-elisa), for surveillance and sero-epidemiologic studies, and for studies of igg and igm responses to mayaro infection.
Environment, arbovirus transmission and control of epidemics
Cordellier, Roger;Degallier, Nicolas;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 1992, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X1992000300004
Abstract: in order to illustrate the relationships between the biotopes (or phytogeographical zones), arbovirus vectors and vertebrate hosts (including man), and epidemiology, current knowledge on the transmission of yellow fever virus in west africa is reported. a dynamic scheme has been devised to integrate the observed geographical distribution of cases and the timing of their occurrence. two principal areas, endemicity and epidetnicity, were defined according to the presence or absence of sylvatic monkey-mosquito transmission. the intensity and potential of contacts between humans and vectors depends on the degree of man-made changes in the environment, often increasing the extension of ecotone areas where the mosquitoes are easily biting at the ground level. prevention and/or control of arbovirus diseases require detailed eco-epidemiological studies to determine: (1) the effective role of each potential vector in each phytogeographical region; (2) the risk factors for the people living in or near areas with a sylvatic transmission cycle; (3) the priorities - vaccination and/or control - for preventing the expansion of natural foci.
El replanteamiento de las políticas educativas en Venezuela The Re-statement of Educational Policies in Venezuela
Ingrid Karina Nú?ez Mu?oz,Eduviges Morales,Irene Díaz
Gaceta Laboral , 2007,
Abstract: La finalidad de este trabajo es describir y analizar cómo y cuáles han sido las políticas educativas en Venezuela entre 1961 y 2005, cuales han sido sus principales propósitos, y hacia donde se perfilan; utilizando un razonamiento crítico de dichas políticas públicas implementadas en el país durante el período se alado; todo ello fundamentado en una revisión documental para considerar las características mas reveladoras del sistema educativo venezolano. Por tanto, la investigación arrojó como resultado que la educación en Venezuela se perfila hacia la universalidad del conocimiento, la identidad cultural, la búsqueda de una mayor equidad social y acceso al sistema educativo, así como interés por el fortalecimiento en los planes de estudio mediante el establecimiento de educación para la convivencia, la paz y la ciudadanía; por lo que resalta la transformación hacia un régimen democrático-participativo, no sólo mediante la ampliación de cobertura, sino, además, disminuyendo la tasas de deserción, aumentando los índices de retención, renovando los contenidos de los currículos para hacerlos más pertinentes, e incluyendo cambios importantes en la cultura escolar. The purpose of this work is to describe and analyze educational policies in Venezuela between 1961 and 2005, their main intentions, and the tendencies they indicate, using critical reasoning about public policies implemented in the country during the aforementioned period. The study is based on a documentary review in order to consider the most revealing characteristics of the Venezuelan educational system. Results indicated that education in Venezuela is focused toward the universality of knowledge, cultural identity, the search for greater social equity and access to the educational system, as well as interest in fortifying the curriculum by establishing education for coexistence, peace and citizenship; therefore, it emphasizes transformation toward a participative-democratic regime, not only by widening its coverage, but also by decreasing desertion rates, increasing retention indexes, renewing curricular contents to make them more pertinent and including important changes in school culture.
Insights into Arbovirus Evolution and Adaptation from Experimental Studies  [PDF]
Alexander T. Ciota,Laura D. Kramer
Viruses , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/v2122594
Abstract: Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are maintained in nature by cycling between vertebrate hosts and haematophagous invertebrate vectors. These viruses are responsible for causing a significant public health burden throughout the world, with over 100 species having the capacity to cause human disease. Arbovirus outbreaks in previously na?ve environments demonstrate the potential of these pathogens for expansion and emergence, possibly exacerbated more recently by changing climates. These recent outbreaks, together with the continued devastation caused by endemic viruses, such as Dengue virus which persists in many areas, demonstrate the need to better understand the selective pressures that shape arbovirus evolution. Specifically, a comprehensive understanding of host-virus interactions and how they shape both host-specific and virus?specific evolutionary pressures is needed to fully evaluate the factors that govern the potential for host shifts and geographic expansions. One approach to advance our understanding of the factors influencing arbovirus evolution in nature is the use of experimental studies in the laboratory. Here, we review the contributions that laboratory passage and experimental infection studies have made to the field of arbovirus adaptation and evolution, and how these studies contribute to the overall field of arbovirus evolution. In particular, this review focuses on the areas of evolutionary constraints and mutant swarm dynamics; how experimental results compare to theoretical predictions; the importance of arbovirus ecology in shaping viral swarms; and how current knowledge should guide future questions relevant to understanding arbovirus evolution.
Trepanaciones históricas y prehistóricas en Venezuela
Jaime Gómez-González,Leopoldo Brice?o-Iragorry
Gaceta Médica de Caracas , 2007,
Abstract: Los autores hacen el informe preliminar del primer cráneo trepanado en la época precolombina en Venezuela. Hacen referencia a las primeras operaciones craneanas publicadas en Venezuela en los siglos XVIII y XIX por insignes cirujanos precursores de la cirugía neurológica. También se citan otras intervenciones practicadas en Hispanoamérica en los siglos XVI y XVII. Authors present the preliminary report on the first trepanned skull in the pre-Columbian period in Venezuela. References are made on the first skull interventions published in Venezuela during the XVIII and XIX centuries by distinguished precursors surgeons of the neurologic surgery. Other interventions performed during the XVI and XVII centuries in Latinoamerica are also quoted.
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