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Physicians’ Belief about Organ Donation
A. Al-Marzoaki,E. Tashkindi,M. U. Farooq
International Journal of Organ Transplantation Medicine , 2011,
Abstract: Background: Several studies have suggested that knowledge, attitudes and determinants concerning or gan donation are influenced by many factors including gender, educational level, occupation, sociodemo graphic status, income level, culture and religion. Objective: To highlight the awareness of cardiopulmonary and brain death (CD and BD) among the physi cians and their belief about the organ donation. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 15% of 1700 physicians working under the auspices of Ministry of Health in Makkah region, were selected randomly from two hospitals of Makkah city, i.e., Alnoor Specialist Hospital and King Abdalaziz Hospital. A self-administered questionnaire with dichotomous answers was distributed to them. Results: Out of 185 respondents, 174 (94.1%) identified the right definition of BD and CD and 155 (83.3%) agreed organ donation. The difference among physicians to differentiate CD from BD was not significant (p=0.2). Conclusion: Physicians had enough knowledge to differentiate CD from BD; most of them are highly positive regarding the concept of organ donation.
The importance of education in the promotion of organ donation
Taise Ribeiro Morais,Maricelma Ribeiro Morais
Revista Brasileira em Promo??o da Saúde , 2012,
Abstract: Transplantation and human organ donation are controversial issues that have generated much interest and discussion. The lack of clarification and the sensationalist news about organ trafficking contribute to raise questions and render the myths and prejudices permanent.The donation of organs and tissues is seen by society in general, as an act of solidarity and love from the family. However, it requires decision-making at a time of extreme pain and distress, caused by the impact of breaking news of death, the feeling of loss and the unexpected interruption of a life course(1).As the criteria of death are modified, the concept of brain death arises, along with the possibility of using donor organs and tissues. When there is not a good understanding of the organ donation process, the relatives of potential donors feel apprehensive, doubtful and undecided at the time of occurrence, because it is a subject about which there hasn’t been much clarification(1).Brazil has the largest public transplants program in the world, since the government finances 92% of procedures done in the country. However, when we consider the rate of post mortem transplant into the population, Brazil’s results are little expressive(2).Family refusal is a major obstacle to the realization of transplants, and is also identified as major cause for the shortage of organs and tissues for transplantation. Families who understand well the diagnosis of brain death are more favorable to organ donation, compared to families who believe that death only occurs after the heart stops. Therefore, the poor level of information, either by the quality of information concerning brain death, either by not having exceeded the barrier of stigmatized fear of organ trading, propagated by the media, drastically reduces the number of patients who are benefited from receiving an organ(3).Although all people are responsible for disseminating information, we must also educate health professionals, since they interfere directly in the likely donor’s family decision. Perhaps, they lack the study of Thanatology. These professionals deal directly with death but do not investigate death, mourning. The family situation at the time of mourning, hardened by the difficult decision of donating the organs of their beloved one, should form a strong synergistic relationship, as it comes into question the shock of death and the decision to save other people’s lives. It has also been disclosed that religion is considered one of the reasons to refuse the donation of organs and tissues for transplantation. It is, thus, necessary
Organ procurement organizations Internet enrollment for organ donation: Abandoning informed consent
Sandra Woien, Mohamed Y Rady, Joseph L Verheijde, Joan McGregor
BMC Medical Ethics , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6939-7-14
Abstract: An analysis of OPO Web sites available to the public for enrollment and consent for organ donation. The Web sites and consent forms were examined for the minimal information recommended by the United States Department of Health and Human Services for informed consent. Content scores were calculated as percentages of data elements in four information categories: donor knowledge, donor consent reinforcement, donation promotion, and informed consent.There were 60 Web sites for organ donation enrollment serving the 52 states. The median percent (10 percentile-90 percentile) content scores of the Web sites for donor knowledge, donor consent reinforcement, and donation promotion were 33% (20–47), 79% (57–86), and 75% (50–100), respectively. The informed consent score was 0% (0–33). The content scores for donor knowledge and informed consent were significantly lower than donor consent reinforcement and donation promotion for all Web sites (P < .05). The content scores for the four categories were similar among the 11 regions of the United Network for Organ Sharing.The Web sites and consent forms for public enrollment in organ donation do not fulfill the necessary requirements for informed consent. The Web sites predominantly provide positive reinforcement and promotional information rather than the transparent disclosure of organ donation process. Independent regulatory oversight is essential to ensure that Internet enrollment for organ donation complies with legal and ethical standards for informed consent.Recent advances in transplantation have expanded the criteria of age and end organ diseases for organ recipients thus exponentially increasing the waiting list for new organs[1,2]. The expanded pool of recipients has increased the demand for the donation and use of deceased organs [3]. The Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) of the United States Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) has introduced the Organ Donation Breakthrough Collaborative to
Difficulties with the Organ Donation Process in Small Hospitals in Germany
M. Formanek,O. Sch?ffski
Transplantationsmedizin , 2010,
Abstract: Background: The discrepancy between the need for organs and the number of organs donated in Germany leads to a search for the causes of this deficit.Methods: 78 small hospitals in Germany were interviewed about the difficulties with the organ donation process. Data were acquired by means of a structured telephone interview. Results: 44% of the participating hospitals reported no organ donor between 2004 and 2008, the remaining 56% at least one. The main results show that one third of these small hospitals already had difficulties in communicating with bereaved relatives about donation. In addition to this, 31% of the respondents reported problems during the organ removal process, 41% in identifying potential organ donors.Conclusions: By implementing adequate measures, these difficulties with the organ donation process can be tackled.
Factors Influencing Organ Donation and Transplantation in State of Qatar
H. El-Shoubaki,A. Bener,Y. Al-Mosalamani
Transplantationsmedizin , 2006,
Abstract: Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge, attitudes, awareness, and determinants of organ donation and transplantation in Qatari population. Design: This is a cross-sectional study to determine the knowledge, attitude towards organ donation in Peninsula Arabian Gulf country. Setting: Primary Health Care (PHC) Centers and community-based study in Qatar. Subjects: A multistage sampling design was used and a representative sample of 1600 Qataris and non-Qataris, males and females aged 17 years and above were included from October 2003 to May 2004. 1305 (81.5%) subjects participated and gave consent for the study Measurements: Participants completed a questionnaire assessing their knowledge, attitudes and awareness for organ donation. Results: A total of 1305 of 1600 enrolled subjects participated in this study, giving a response rate of 81.5%. 67.8% of male and 70.4% of female subjects were found to be aware and having an idea on organ donation and transplantation. 61.4% of males and 70.4% of females disagreed the idea of importing organs from outside. Male respondents (31.7%) were generally less accepting the idea of organ donation than females (39.5%). More males (79.9%) than female respondents (87.6%) did not agree organ donation for money. Conclusion: Intense efforts to improve public awareness and knowledge about organ donation and transplantation are necessary to maximize donation and the overall success of transplantation.
Investigating and Promoting the Decision towards Signing an Organ Donation Card  [PDF]
Gundula Hübner, Sonia Lippke
Open Journal of Medical Psychology (OJMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojmp.2014.33021
Abstract: Using the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) as a theoretical backdrop, the aim of this research, which consists of two studies, was to understand the process of goal setting and deciding to sign an organ donor card. In Study 1 (N = 550), we tested the HAPA’s stages in terms of discontinuity patterns in the variables predicting goal setting for organ donation. As expected, multigroup structural equation modeling revealed discontinuity patterns in terms of different prediction patterns. In Study 2 (N = 389), the efficacy of a planning intervention that aimed to foster the translation of goals into behavior was tested: participants who received the intervention were more likely to order a donor card than those who did not. Contrary to the HAPA’s predictions, within the intenders group the planning intervention did not stimulate behavior more frequently than in the control condition. In general, the stage-specific planning intervention is of practical importance, as it shows that brief and relatively inexpensive communication can enhance organ donation behavior.
Organ donation and the ethics of muddling through
Klaus Hoeyer, Anja MB Jensen
Critical Care , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/cc9379
Abstract: A young girl is rushed into the emergency room following a brutal traffic accident. Serious lesions in the back of the head and lack of pupil reaction and muscular response make it seem pointless for the receiving doctor to commence treatment. The girl is almost certainly dying. Nevertheless, she is intubated and her fluctuant blood pressure is treated. The point is not to restore her to a normal life but to keep her body alive long enough to figure out whether she qualifies as an organ donor. Early identification of potential donors provides better transplant results, the doctor knows, and yet some element of doubt makes intubations of the dying girl difficult. The problem relates to a crucial transition characteristic of modern transplantation medicine as a person shifts positions from a patient-in-need-of-treatment to a donor-in-need-of-conservation.Transplantation medicine continually instigates conferences on ethics. The story above was narrated on 9 November 2010, when the Danish Center for Organ Donation (DCO) brought together nurses, scientists, surgeons, and anesthesiologists to discuss the ethical quandaries in transplantation medicine. In particular, intubations and resuscitation of brain dead or near-brain dead patients gave rise to concern, and throughout the day, various cases were discussed in the search for moral guidance. The conference participants took this opportunity for reflection to try to identify key moments of moral decision making and possible principles on which to base such decisions. In fact, the conference participants seemed to proceed as if they were making an evidence-based medical decision: they searched for a decision tree with clear priorities, best evidence (moral principles and specification of the information needed), and steps to follow. But what, really, is the type of decision making at stake in these instances of moral quandary?According to classic decision-making theory, a decision is rational when based on full appreciat
Doctors and Organ Transplantation. Organ Donation for Transplant. Opinions and Medical Representations
Cristina GAVRILUTA,Mihaela FRUNZA
Postmodern Openings , 2012,
Abstract: Present article aims to identify a part of the patterns of representation and explanation of the low rate of organ donation among ICU physicians, neurologists and hospital neurosurgeons from Moldova’s region hospitals. The methodology used was a qualitative one. The results obtained from the interviews show that essentially there are three dominant explanatory models: the systemic model, the informative model, and the educational model. These three models show somehow the pessimistic attitude of medical professionals towards the issue of organ donation and organ transplant.On the other hand, these three new models we had identified can also be three major solutions that could improve the current situation.
Holy month of Ramadan and increase in organ donation willingness  [cached]
Najafizadeh Katayoun,Ghorbani Fariba,Hamidinia Sajjad,Emamhadi Mohammad
Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation , 2010,
Abstract: Organ shortage is the most significant factor in restricting the activities of trans-plantation systems. We herein report the positive impact of Muslims′ holy month of Ramadan on willingness to donate organs in Iran. Data were derived from the database of Donation Willing-ness Registries, affiliated to the organ procurement unit of Masih Daneshvari Hospital during March 2007 till March 2008. The number of applications for organ donation was compared bet-ween Ramadan and its previous month, and the socio-economic characteristics of the applicants were compared between those who applied in Ramadan and those who did so in the previous month. In addition, the mean number of daily applications was compared between Ramadan and the other months of the same year. A total of 11528 applications for organ donation cards were registered for the Ramadan of 2007 as opposed to 4538 applications in the previous month, sho-wing an increasing rate of 154%. The mean number of daily applications was significantly higher in Ramadan than that of the other months of the same year (P< 0.001). There was also a significant difference in terms of the socio-economic characteristics between the applicants in Ramadan and those in the previous month. The increase in organ donation willingness in Ramadan may be the result of the propagation of altruism by the mass media and religious organizations. Ramadan seems to provide a great opportunity to promote organ donation across the Muslim world.
Research on MI in Equipoise: The Case of Living Organ Donation  [cached]
Allan Zuckoff,Mary Amanda Dew
Motivational Interviewing : Training, Research, Implementation, Practice , 2012, DOI: 10.5195/mitrip.2012.12
Abstract: Residual ambivalence prior to live organ donation has been shown to predict worse physical and psychological outcomes for the donor following surgery. We are studying whether MI can help individuals who have agreed to become living organ donors to resolve residual ambivalence about their decision. In this situation, ethical practice demands that the counselor take up a stance of equipoise, equally welcoming of strengthened resolve to donate or a decision not to do so. This paper describes our adaptations of MI for this unique applicatio
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