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Distribution of 22 Cytokine Gene Polymorphisms in Roma from the Republic of Macedonia
Dejan Trajkov,Aleksandar Petlichkovski,Olivija Efinska-Mladenovska,Slavica Hristomanova
Iranian Journal Of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology , 2012,
Abstract: The aim of this study was to analyze 22 cytokine polymorphisms in the Roma population from the Republic of Macedonia. The Roma popula-tion consists of 77 healthy unrelated individuals, residents of different geographical regions of the Republic of Macedonia (Skopje, Gostivar, and Kochani).Blood samples were collected after obtaining written consent. DNA was isolated from peripheral blood and 22 polymorphisms were typed: IL1A -889, IL1B -511, IL1B +3962, IL1R pst1 1970, IL1RN mspa11100, IL4RA +1902, IL12 -1188, IFNG utr5644, TGF-β1 cdn10, TGF-β1 cdn25, TNF-α -308, TNF-α -238, IL-2 -330, IL-2 +166, IL-4 -1098, IL-4 -590, IL-4 -33, IL-6 -174, IL-6 565, IL-10 -1082, IL-10 -819, and IL-10 -592. Cytokine genotyping was performed by PCR-SSP. The population genetics analysis package, PyPop, was used for analysis of the cytokine data.Fnd was negative and significantly different from 0 for IL-4 -590 (p of F=0.006), IL-10 -1082 (p of F=0.010), IFNg utr5644 (p of F=0.024), IL-4 -1098 (p of F=0.026) and TGF-b1 cdn25 (p of F=0.001) alleles, as well as for IL-2 haplotypes (p=0.025). Several SNPs (IL-12B -1188, IL-2 -330, IL-4 -1098, IL-4 -590, and IL-10 -1082) were not in HWP (p<0.05). A few SNPs (IL-12B -1188, IL-2 -330, IL-4 -1098, IL-4 -590, and IL-10 -1082) and several observed frequencies of cytokine diplotypes (IL-2/GG:TG, IL-2/TG:TG, IL-4/GCC:GCC, IL-4/TTC:TTC, IL-4/TTT:TTC, IL-10/GCC:GCC, IL-10/ATA:GCC, IL-10/ACC:GCC, and IL-10/ACC:ATA) were not in HWP and were significantly different from the expectations. Hardy Weinberg proportion could not be calculated for TNFa genotypes and diplotypes because nearly all genotypes and diplotypes belong to GG genotype or GG:GG diplotype.The results of cytokine polymorphisms in Roma population can be used for characterization of the current genetic profile of the Gypsies, anthropological comparisons, as well as for the association studies with different diseases.
Contribution to the knowledge of longicorn beetles (Cerambycidae, Coleoptera) from Serbia, Montenegro, the Republic of Macedonia and Greece  [PDF]
?ur?i? Sre?ko B.,Brajkovi? Miloje M.,Tomi? Vladimir T.,Mihajlova Branislava
Archives of Biological Sciences , 2003, DOI: 10.2298/abs0302033c
Abstract: Altogether 63 species and 6 subspecies (classified into 43 genera) of longicorn beetles have been collected: 35 genera, 49 species and 5 subspecies have been recorded from Serbia, 11 genera and 13 species - from Montenegro, 5 genera, 5 species and 2 subspecies - from the Republic of Macedonia, and 3 genera and 3 species - from Greece. Of these taxa, there are no endemics to the area investigated. Additionally, one species of cerambycid beetles - Leiopus femoratus Fairmaire is registered for the first time for the territory of the former Yugoslavia. Further, four species of the longicorn beetles are new to the coleopteran fauna of Montenegro, two species - for Serbia and one species - for the Republic of Macedonia.
Urban settlements in the Republic of Serbia in population censuses from 1948 to 2002  [PDF]
Stevanovi? Radoslav ?.
Stanovni?tvo , 2004, DOI: 10.2298/stnv0404109s
Abstract: In population censuses from 1948 to 2002, two criteria for differentiation of settlements, namely division of settlements into urban and those that are not (mixed and villages, namely other) were used by statistical office. One being the administrative criteria, by which the settlements are declared urban by legal regulations (census 1948 and censuses from 1981), and the other a combined (demographically-statistically) criteria based on the combination of the two characteristics: population size of the settlement and percentage portion of non-agricultural population, used in population censuses from 1953 to 1971. Proceeding from the adopted criteria, a total number of 243 independent settlements had the status of urban settlements in Serbia, which is a considerably greater number of total numbers of urban settlements in any population census. This practically means that certain settlements, from censuses to censuses, gained and lost such a status. The loss of the status is exclusively a characteristic of the period when the demographic-statistical criteria were applied for separating urban settlements in the population censuses from 1953 to 1971, namely the transfer from these criteria to the administrative-legal criteria in the population census of 1981. The number of urban settlements as well as the changes in the number and systematic list of urban settlements, not only within the Republic, but in certain macro entities (for Kosovo and Metohia up to 1991) are shown in table and schematic forms according to successive population censuses, starting from the 1948 census.
Restorative justice and the law on juvenile off enders and criminal protection of juveniles of the Republic of Serbia from the perspective of judicial practice  [PDF]
Savi? Sne?ana
Temida , 2007, DOI: 10.2298/tem0701047s
Abstract: Law on juvenile off enders and criminal protection of juveniles of the Republic of Serbia introduces elements of restorative justice into juvenile justice system in Serbia. In this paper the author is pointing out measures, which present alternative to the juvenile sanctions or complete alternative to (diversion from) the existing criminal procedure. From the perspective of the judicial practice, the author is analyzing provisions that relate to the principle of opportunity; with a particular emphasize on the new institute - diversion orders. Besides, although judicial practice in this field is still at the beginning, the author is pointing out some practical problems and dilemmas, such as the legal nature of the diversion orders and their distinguishing from the special responsibilities as a separate form of educative measures for juvenile off enders. .
The Roma on the ethnodemographic map of Serbia  [PDF]
Radu?ki Nada
Zbornik Matice Srpske za Drustvene Nauke , 2009, DOI: 10.2298/zmsdn0926041r
Abstract: This article presents the ethnodemographic changes of Roma population and the most important socio-economic structures according to the 2002 census results. The number and the share of the Roma in the total population of Serbia are resulted by the natural increase, the migration and particularly changed declaration on national affiliation. Demographic development of the Roma population is characterized by negative tendencies in natural movement, as well as, in the most important demographic structures (age structure of population, educational and economic structures of population, etc.). Their social, economic, political and cultural position is very difficult, as a result of their marginalization, segregation and discrimination. The basic condition and the way for social promotion and integration of the Roma population in the society are schooling and education of that nationality.
Serbia as immigration country: Foreseeable future?  [PDF]
Nikitovi? Vladimir
Stanovni?tvo , 2009, DOI: 10.2298/stnv0902031n
Abstract: The question whether migration will be central demographic issue in the future of Serbia is assessed through probabilistic population projection. Therefore, the problem on formulating international migration hypothesis, specifically estimation of uncertainty attached to future migration flow, is highlighted. For that purpose, experiences from probabilistic projections of the countries that undergone substantial changes of international migration after joined EU were used. Forecast results up to 2050 shows that Serbia will face significant population ageing with no chances to revert the process during the projection horizon. With respect to decreasing trend of population size, fertility increase is one of two indispensable conditions if Serbia wants to restore its current size. The other is huge immigration that could be accomplished if the country experience fundamental political and economic changes in the forthcoming period. Even then, there is only 15 percent probability that Serbia's population size in 2050 will be higher than it is today. However, if actual emigration pattern of international migration turns into immigration one during the next decades, the uncertainty attached to forecasted indicators of population ageing would be considerably decreased.
Tularemia in the Republic of Serbia during the period from 2000-2011  [PDF]
Mari? Jovan,Obrenovi? Jelena,Milkovi? Miodrag,Samokovlija Ana
Veterinarski Glasnik , 2012, DOI: 10.2298/vetgl1206463m
Abstract: Tularemia is an infective disease of zoonotic character, bacterial etiology, which occurs predominantly among rodents, but also in other species of domestic and wild mammals, birds, reptiles, fish, and humans. The cause of the disease is Francisella tularensis. Due to its epidemiological-epizootiological characteristics, the cause belongs to the group of biological agents and it has been used as a biological weapon. The disease is characterized by primary local ulcerous changes on the skin and mucosa, regional lymphadenitis, expressed general septicemia, and other changes. This disease is suspected on the grounds of epizootiological data on the incidence of the disease or the deaths of rabbits, sheep, or dogs, but also humans. During the observed period of twelve years, 317 cases of infected humans were recorded in the territory of the Republic of Serbia, without any mortal outcomes. The disease was confirmed in animals in only one case (2006.). In order to ensure full success in preventing the spreading and in the curbing of tularemia it is necessary to secure cooperation among a large number of professionals, in particular those engaged in the fields of human and veterinary medicine.
Housing facilities management in the Republic of Serbia from the aspect of energy efficiency improvement  [PDF]
Turni? Dragana,Dimitrijevi? ?arko,Stankovi? Danica
Facta Universitatis Series : Architecture and Civil Engineering , 2012, DOI: 10.2298/fuace1203353t
Abstract: Housing facilities management is a term which has been evolving in its contemporary sense in the territory of Serbia since the mid 90’s of the previous century. Apart from such a long tradition, it encounters a problem of its insufficiently precise definition in the standing legal regulations, inexistence of an efficient system of implementation by the legally obliged persons, and the unsystematic character of regulations pertaining to this matter. Key deficiency of the existing norms is obvious in four main segments: routine maintenance, management in unforeseeable emergency situations, facility capital maintenance management and energy efficiency management. Until new acts have been adopted, many obligations of the facilities owners, which should be legal obligations that need to be implemented, represent only a moral obligation. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 36016]
Roma in the Czech Republic: An Excluded Minority
Laura Cashman
E-Sharp , 2004,
Abstract: In May 2004 the Czech Republic became a member of the European Union (EU) and another boundary, which had separated the country from Western Europe since the middle of the twentieth century, was finally removed. Czechs never stopped considering themselves European, despite the invisible lines drawn on political maps. They regard the cold war as a blip in the nation's long history at the heart of Europe. However, Czech society is not homogenous and with EU accession another group of people, with an equally long history in Europe, have also been accepted as members of the EU family. These people are the Roma.
Risk factors for childhood malnutrition in Roma settlements in Serbia
Teresa Janevic, Oliver Petrovic, Ivana Bjelic, Amber Kubera
BMC Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-509
Abstract: Anthropometric and sociodemographic measures were obtained for 1192 Roma children under five living in Roma settlements from the 2005 Serbia Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey. Multiple logistic regression was used to relate family and child characteristics to the odds of stunting, wasting, and underweight.The prevalence of stunting, wasting, and underweight was 20.1%, 4.3%, and 8.0%, respectively. Nearly all of the children studied fell into the lowest quintile of wealth for the overall population of Serbia. Children in the lowest quintile of wealth were four times more likely to be stunted compared to those in the highest quintile, followed by those in the second lowest quintile (AOR = 2.1) and lastly by those in the middle quintile (AOR = 1.6). Children who were ever left in the care of an older child were almost twice as likely to stunted as those were not. Children living in urban settlements showed a clear disadvantage with close to three times the likelihood of being wasted compared to those living in rural areas. There was a suggestion that maternal, but not paternal, education was associated with stunting, and maternal literacy was significantly associated with wasting. Whether children were ever breastfed, immunized or had diarrhoeal episodes in the past two weeks did not show strong correlations to children malnutrition status in this Roma population.There exists a gradient relationship between household wealth and stunting even within impoverished settlements, indicating that among poor and marginalized populations socioeconomic inequities in child health should be addressed. Other areas on which to focus future research and public health intervention include maternal literacy, child endangerment practices, and urban settlements.Malnutrition is an important indicator of child health. A significant contributing factor to infant and child mortality, poor nutritional status during childhood also has implications for adult economic achievement and health. [1]
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