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Coming to Terms with the Communist Past in Romania: An Analysis of the Political and Media Discourse About the Tism neanu Report
Alina Hogea
Studies of Transition States and Societies , 2010,
Abstract: This paper looks at the public debates about the communist past, as triggered by the final report on the communist dictatorship in Romania (the Tism neanu report) and its presidential endorsement in December 2006. The paper employs narrative and discourse analysis to examine the political reactions to the official condemnation of communism, as well as its reflection in several Romanian newspapers. The Tism neanu report was meant to be a ‘redressive ritual’ that would provide closure to a traumatic past by retrospectively denouncing the meaning of communism, but instead it generated more public debates and political turmoil. This indicates that the contorted path taken by Romania to confront its communist past is not a finished process yet, but rather represents a dynamic field in which social actors are fighting over which events and actors in the past should be collectively remembered, and especially how they have to be represented in the collective memory of post-communist Romania.
THE FAILURE OF INDUSTRIALISM IN COMMUNIST ROMANIA  [PDF]
P?£rean Mihai - Olimpiu
Annals of the University of Oradea : Economic Science , 2012,
Abstract: This work aims to present the exact thinking and action of the Romanian Communist leaders that had as declared purpose the Romanian societya€ s propseprity company. This falls into the line drawn by the Communists, but in the case of Romania the ambitions were far above the country's potential. In order to understand the situation of the national economy in the past two decades we must take into account the manner in which they have carried out economic policies in the Communist leadership. This marched on exacerbated development of manufacturing industry by capital goods to the detriment of the goods consumer industry, which generated a series of social tensions. The economic objectives of Communist Romania were limited for the exacerbated development of the industrial sector. Its presence of economic policy measures implemented in our country shows that the authorities had in mind a self-sufficient industrialization by providing greater care than conventional industries, with high energy consumption. This unprecedented enhancement for national economy was made possible by the contracting of foreign credits And this began to give increasing and more frequent misfires when the world was hit by the resouces of the crisis. The falling of the national economy has been Romania unable to repay loans on time. The obsessive decision of the authorities was to fully pay off foreign debt in oder to allow new investment in construction of some megalomaniac industrial sights, that could hardly be effective. Thus, there was no link between the overall targets of national economic policies and the needs of the company. In this work are chronologically and factually shown all the decisions adopted in the industrial policy in Romania.Certainly that at the beginning of massive industrialization results seemed to be at least some optimistic, but after the population had passed through various serious situations (floods, earthquake) to what degree very hard decisions devoid of rationality regarding the impulse energofag industry. Inevitably the complaints gathered, the economic system implemented by the Romanian communist authorities collapsed. Eventually, the economic system imposed by Ceau oescu colapsed because of his desire to increase in the country's industrialization. Basically he showen the limits. This paper seeks to show how faithfully the faulty module was designed during the development of the country's Communist leadership.
ENERGY CRISIS IN COMMUNIST ROMANIA  [PDF]
P?£rean Mihai - Olimpiu
Annals of the University of Oradea : Economic Science , 2012,
Abstract: If during the interwar period Romania has managed to move from an agrarian economy to an industrial-agrarian one, after the 2nd world war in Romania, as in other communist countries, has monitored the further development of the industry. It wanted to be a true industrial revolution.Over time one can identify several types of industrial revolutions, each giving impetus to a given development cycle, which had its beneficiaries and the losers. At first it was steam power, and then use the internal combustion engine, which used oil instead of steam. While other countries developed would increase of production capacity of nuclear power, a higher stage of economic development, in Romania continued the industrial development on the same grounds as in the inter-war period. This has had very serious tracks for the Romanian economy and society, since before and during World War II, the German war machine operated within the national resources of energy. The time and manner in which each country is part of this race are defining the social welfare. Unfortunately, Romania has failed to take advantage, each time losing the start. Creation of some production capacity and the development of industries (metallurgy, chemical industry, iron and steel industry), which consumed significant energy amounts was the wrong decision for the future well-being of the country. Oil impacts which have affected the world economy, hit also Romania. The first oil shock (impact) was more easily broken because of the continued use of internal resources (oil, coal, natural gas), but the second shock was catastrophic. It was too much for Romania after being forced to use those resources in the last decades (including the interwar period). Romanian leaders probably had in mind that Western countries were developed by enhancing industry of this type, but they did it in a different historical period when also the prices of such resources were much smaller and the lack of them was not a possibility. The outphasing of economic policies have resulted in a major negative impact on the population. In order to cope with the shortage of energy has been passed to the rationalization of energy products for the population consumption (from public lighting and restaurants program to heat and hot water rationalisation). Perhaps the crisisof energy resources necessary to support an antiquated economic system was one of the major causes that resulted in social complaint from the Communist Romania.
Constructing Females Identity: Women’s Emancipation, Press and Propaganda. (Case Study: Special Issues Dedicated to Women in Romanian Cultural Press in the 1950s).  [cached]
Andrada Fatu-Tutoveanu, and Mara Marginean
Oceánide , 2011,
Abstract: The article deals with the issue of women’s emancipation as one of the most significant communist discursive elements and considered by some authors the “total myth” (Aivazova) of the communist ideology. The ideological complex associated with the Marxist and Leninist beliefs was used by political propaganda in the Soviet Union and later imposed to the rest of the Eastern European Communist countries. The study focuses on the actual praxis associated to this official discourse in Romania, resulting in the creation and imposing of specific identity patterns, reflected on the “new” women’s roles and visual representations. The analysis starts from the theoretical paradigm of women studies, discussing gender issues in the context of Eastern European totalitarian regimes and focusing on the elements of the communist identity construction policies applied in Romania in the late 1940s-1950s, when the Soviet influence was maximal. The study aims to reveal – by using Romanian cultural press (and propaganda articles and images on women’s emancipation and identity present there, particularly in festive special issues dedicated to them) – the aspects of the political intrusion in private and public life as related to important identity pattern changes. Female identity was reconfigured by this political intrusion, her roles multiplying (the “triple burden” of performing professional, political and domestic tasks) as her individuality and female features were almost annulled in favour of an imposed, stereotypical, non-sexual and uniform image. Relating the construction of identity policies to women studies, the analysis (using press representations of these Soviet – “second-hand” – patterns) concludes that different levels of female identity have been affected by the political intrusion, setting specific coordinates of the dramatically reconfigured female identity.
Identity of Romania
Ovidiu FORA
Journal of Identity and Migration Studies , 2009,
Abstract: Romania’s paradox is the fact of its unremembered identity. Recalling the national identity is the biggest bet of the new generations born after the revolution of December 1989. This paper attempts to explain this paradox and to announce, eventually, a way out of this situation, as long as it’s still possible.
Discourse and identity
Susana Ridao Rodrigo
Tejuelo : Didáctica de la Lengua y la Literatura , 2009,
Abstract: Rese a BibliográficaAnna de Fina, Deborah Schiffrin y Michael Bamberg (eds.). Discourse and Identity. Cambridge. Cambridge University Press. 2006. 462 págs. ISBN 100-521-54191-3
Legislative Candidate Selection in the Hungarian and Lithuanian Communist Successor Parties  [cached]
Tatiana Petrova Rizova
Review of European Studies , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/res.v4n2p56
Abstract: Communist successor parties have experienced rapid and sudden reversals of their post-transition electoral fortunes. The Hungarian Socialist Party showed an anemic electoral performance in 1990 only to return to power in 1994. The Lithuanian Labor Democratic Party reversed its declining electoral fortunes in 2000 after a fiasco in 1996. A standard explanation in the post-communist democratization literature is that ex-communists do not really win elections so much as center-right incumbent parties lose them. I argue that the Hungarian and Lithuanian communist successor parties did not enjoy happenstance electoral success. The two parties strengthened their electoral performance by decentralizing candidate selection procedures and recruiting mostly those candidates with links to the communist regimes who could convincingly be cast as reformers or liberators.
Serbian language acquisition in communist Romania  [PDF]
Sorescu-Marinkovi? Annemarie
Balcanica , 2010, DOI: 10.2298/balc1041007s
Abstract: The paper analyzes a unique linguistic phenomenon characterizing Romania’s western border areas for almost a decade, in the 1980s: the acquisition of the Serbian language by Romanians in Timi oara under the communist regime, primarily through exposure to Yugoslav television programmes. It gives a necessarily sketchy overview of private life under communism, notably the situation in the Banat province, whose privileged position as a result of being closest to the West both geographically and culturally was reflected in the acceptance of pluralism and a critical attitude towards authoritarianism. Taking into account the literature on foreign language acquisition through exposure to television programmes, the study is based on a research involving Romanian natives of Timi oara who, although lacking any formal instruction in Serbian, intensively and regularly watched Yugoslav television programmes in the period in question, and on evaluating their competence and proficiency in Serbian, through language tests, narrative interviews in Romanian and free conversations in Serbian. The conclusion is that most respondents, despite the varying degree of proficiency in Serbian depending on their active use of the language before and after 1989, showed a strong pragmatic competence, which appears to contradict the author’s initial hypothesis.
Mass-media ideological policy in Communist Romania  [cached]
Ilarion ?iu
Sfera Politicii , 2013,
Abstract: This article describes how Romanian Communist Party obtained the control of mass-media between 1948 and 1989. Like any totalitarian regime, the communist state put into control printing press, radio and television through centralized institutions: General Direction of Press and Printings (1949-1977) and Council of Socialist Culture and Education (1977-1989). Communist leaders make pressures against mass-media to align journalistic discourse to the official ideology. Romanian mass-media became in 70s and 80s a vector of Nicolae Ceau escu personality cult. In late communism, printing press and audio-visual haven’t any information, education or entertainment role. The main mission of mass-media was to celebrate the chief of the communist party and the state.
George Voicu, The Evil Gods. The Culture of Conspiracy in post-communist Romania  [cached]
Codruta Cuceu
Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies , 2002,
Abstract: George Voicu, The Evil Gods. The Culture of Conspiracy in post-communist Romania Polirom Publishing House, 2000, 245p
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