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Influence of psychosocial risk factors on the trajectory of mental health problems from childhood to adolescence: a longitudinal study
Daniel Fatori, Isabel A Bordin, Bartira M Curto, Cristiane S de Paula
BMC Psychiatry , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1471-244x-13-31
Abstract: A population-based sample of 6- to 13-year-olds with CAMHP was followed-up from 2002–2003 (Time 1/T1) to 2007–2008 (Time 2/T2), with 86 out of 124 eligible children/adolescents at T1 being reassessed at T2 (sample loss: 30.6%). Outcome: CAMHP at T2 according to the Child Behavior Checklist/CBCL’s total problem scale. Psychosocial factors: T1 variables (child/adolescent’s age, family socioeconomic status); trajectory of variables from T1 to T2 (child/adolescent exposure to severe physical punishment, mother exposure to severe physical marital violence, maternal anxiety/depression); and T2 variables (maternal education, child/adolescent’s social support and pro-social activities).Multivariate analysis identified two risk factors for child/adolescent MHP at T2: aggravation of child/adolescent physical punishment and aggravation of maternal anxiety/depression.The current study shows the importance of considering child/adolescent physical punishment and maternal anxiety/depression in intervention models and mental health care policies.Child and adolescent mental health problems (CAMHP) are prevalent worldwide: approximately 12% of youth have a mental disorder [1]. Even though reports of CAMHP prevalence rates greatly vary among developing and developed countries across the globe, recent systematic reviews clarify that differences occur mainly as a result of methodological characteristics of epidemiological studies [2,3]. Furthermore, mental health problems are a leading cause of disability in children and adolescents worldwide [4], causing enormous economic costs to society as a whole [5,6].Currently, in order to understand the onset, course and factors associated with CAMHP there is a need to adopt a developmental perspective based on longitudinal studies [7,8]. Developmental data regarding risk and protective factors associated with CAMHP is essential to the planning of intervention models and policies; as these factors can provide a basis for treatment strategies and
A 16-year longitudinal study of hearing in very old Australians  [cached]
L. Sanchez,J. Scott,N. Esterman,M. Luszcz
Audiology Research , 2011, DOI: 10.4081/audiores.2011.e2
Abstract: Hearing impairment is recognised for its prominence among the chronic conditions of ageing, being more prevalent in Australia than all other national health priorities except musculo-skeletal conditions (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2004). However despite its prevalence, there have been fewer epidemiological studies of hearing impairment than for other chronic diseases and disorders. Epidemiological data based on audiological evaluations are scant and a rigorously defined burden of illness for hearing impairment at a population or community level using both audiological and self-report types of estimate is still only available from a few studies world-wide (Gates et al., 1990; Davis, 1995; Wilson et al., 1998; Cruikshanks et al., 1998). Longitudinal studies are particularly valuable in providing information about patterns of ageing, about cohort differences in age-related physical, sensory and psychological functioning and for the services which an ageing population might require...
Health related quality of life and psychosocial function among patients with carcinoid tumours. A longitudinal, prospective, and comparative study
Camilla Fr?jd, Gunnel Larsson, Claudia Lampic, Louise von Essen
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7525-5-18
Abstract: At four assessments during the first year after diagnosis, HRQoL was measured by the EORTC QLQ-C30 3.0, anxiety and depression by the HADS, and prevalence, and worst aspects of distress by an interview guide. ANOVA was performed in order to study changes over time with regard to HRQoL, anxiety and depression. Comparisons regarding HRQoL between patients and the Swedish population were made by the use of one-sample t-tests and changes over time regarding the prevalence of distress was investigated by means of Cochran's Q.High levels of physical-, emotional-, cognitive-, and social function and somewhat lower levels of role function and global quality of life were reported at all assessments. Role- and emotional function increased over time. Patients reported lower role function and global quality of life and more problems with fatigue and diarrhoea than the Swedish general population, at all assessments. Fatigue, limitations to work and pursue daily activities, and worry that the illness will get worse were among the most prevalent aspects at all assessments. At all assessments the majority reported worrying about the family's situation, the ability to care for the family, and worrying before the check-up.It is concluded that HRQoL and psychosocial function among patients with carcinoid tumours remains stable during the first year, that the patients report a lower HRQoL than the Swedish general population, and that a majority of the patients report a number of aspects of emotional distress. In the clinical care, it should be considered that the majority of patients report not only fatigue and diarrhoea but also worries about their prognosis, their families, tests, and examinations. Efforts to reduce these worries should be made.Carcinoid tumours are slow-growing malignancies belonging to the family of neuroendocrine tumours, the incidence is 2.5 in 100 000 [1]. The most common type is midgut carcinoid tumours with a 5-year survival rate of 61% [1]. Neuroendocrine tum
Psychosocial assessments for young people: a systematic review examining acceptability, disclosure and engagement, and predictive utility
Bradford S,Rickwood D
Adolescent Health, Medicine and Therapeutics , 2012,
Abstract: Sally Bradford,1 Debra Rickwood1,21Faculty of Health, University of Canberra, Canberra, 2Headspace National Youth Mental Health Foundation, North Melbourne, AustraliaAbstract: Adolescence and young adulthood are often turbulent periods in a person’s life. There are high rates of accidental deaths, suicide, mental health concerns, substance use, and sexual experimentation. Health care professionals need to conduct holistic assessments of clients in these developmental life stages to identify psychosocial risks and provide targeted early intervention and implement prevention strategies. The most useful psychosocial assessments for most health care professionals are those that can provide a complete picture of the young person’s life and circumstances. This article identifies psychosocial assessment instruments that can be used as an initial assessment and engagement tool with the general population of young people presenting for health care. We review the psychometric properties of each of the instruments, determining what type of instrument is most acceptable to young people, whether any can increase disclosure and improve engagement between young people and health professionals, and whether they have predictive utility. The search strategy complied with the relevant sections of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. A total of 89 published articles were identified, covering 31 different assessment instruments. Results indicated that those that were self-administered were most acceptable to young people, although it is unclear whether pen-and-paper or computer formats were preferred. Most psychosocial assessments can improve rates of disclosure and enhance engagement between young people and health professionals; however, worryingly, we found evidence that clinicians did not always respond to some of the most serious identified risks. Only for one instrument was there any mention of predictive utility. Future research should employ longitudinal approaches to determine the predictive utility of psychosocial assessments and focus on whether the use of new technologies can improve rates of disclosure.Keywords: adolescence, emerging adults, mental health, intervention, prevention, risk
Newborn hearing screening in the private health care sector – a national survey
ME Meyer, DW Swanepoel
South African Medical Journal , 2011,
Abstract: Objectives. To determine: (i) the national status of newborn hearing screening services in the private health care sector of South Africa; (ii) screening approaches implemented; and (iii) challenges to screening implementation. Design. A descriptive quantitative national survey was conducted in the private sector of South Africa. Method. All private health sector institutions with obstetric units (N=166) were surveyed telephonically and self-administered questionnaires were subsequently sent to all audiologists in private practice (N=87) who provide newborn hearing screening services at the units with hearing screening. Results. Nationally 53% of private sector obstetric units offer some form of newborn hearing screening. Universal hearing screening was only offered by 14% of units, while the most common approaches were universal screening on some days of the week (18%) and screening on request (18%). The most prominent challenge to successful screening implementation was the omission of newborn hearing screening from maternity birthing packages at the health care institutions. Conclusion. The vast majority of newborns nationally are not screened for hearing loss, and existing programmes are not sufficiently systematic and integrated to ensure adequate coverage. Hospital management and paediatric health services must prioritise hearing screening as part of standard of care in birthing services.
Managing Some Psychosocial Problems Affecting the Learning of Nigerian Schoolchildren with Hearing Impairment
J. Abiola Ademokoya
Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Children with hearing impairment are always a heterogeneous group. Each child is very unique on account of onset, nature and severity of his hearing disability. He is also very peculiar as a result of his developmental experiences. Therefore, as a schoolchild he would present some psychosocial disorders which would to some extent count against his school learning. This study therefore, highlighted some psychosocial problems which the Nigerian child with hearing impaired contends with in his school learning. The problems are classified as common and specific. Common since such problems equally apply to all children, disability notwithstanding. Specific because such problems are often consequent on the prevailing hearing disability of the same child. This study therefore presented some identification and remediation procedures premised on Edward Ezewu s Clinical Sociological Model of Social Therapy which could be applied to managing common psychosocial problems and Abiola Ademokoya s Hearingloss-Induced Behaviour Disorder Therapy for managing specific psychosocial problems. How school teachers, therapists, counselors and other service providers working with schoolchildren having hearing disability can administer these management interventions were also discussed.
Psychosocial risk factors in home and community settings and their associations with population health and health inequalities: A systematic meta-review
Matt Egan, Carol Tannahill, Mark Petticrew, Sian Thomas
BMC Public Health , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-8-239
Abstract: Systematic review (QUORUM) of literature reviews (published in any language or country) on the health associations of psychosocial risk factors in community settings. The literature search included electronic and manual searches. Two reviewers appraised included reviews using criteria for assessing systematic reviews. Data from the more robust reviews were extracted, tabulated and synthesised.Thirty-one reviews met our inclusion criteria. These explored a variety of psychosocial factors including social support and networks, social capital, social cohesion, collective efficacy, participation in local organisations – and less favourable psychosocial risk factors such as demands, exposure to community violence or anti-social behaviour, exposure to discrimination, and stress related to acculturation to western society. Most of the reviews focused on associations between social networks/support and physical or mental health. We identified some evidence of favourable psychosocial environments associated with better health. Reviews also found evidence of unfavourable psychosocial risk factors linked to poorer health, particularly among socially disadvantaged groups. However, the more robust reviews each identified studies with inconclusive findings, as well as studies finding evidence of associations. We also identified some evidence of apparently favourable psychosocial risk factors associated with poorer health.From the review literature we have synthesised, where associations have been identified, they generally support the view that favourable psychosocial environments go hand in hand with better health. Poor psychosocial environments may be health damaging and contribute to health inequalities. The evidence that underpins our understanding of these associations is of variable quality and consistency. Future research should seek to improve this evidence base, with more longitudinal analysis (and intervention evaluations) of the effects of apparently under-researched p
Psychosocial assessments for young people: a systematic review examining acceptability, disclosure and engagement, and predictive utility
Bradford S, Rickwood D
Adolescent Health, Medicine and Therapeutics , 2012, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/AHMT.S38442
Abstract: ychosocial assessments for young people: a systematic review examining acceptability, disclosure and engagement, and predictive utility Review (1936) Total Article Views Authors: Bradford S, Rickwood D Published Date December 2012 Volume 2012:3 Pages 111 - 125 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/AHMT.S38442 Received: 23 September 2012 Accepted: 24 October 2012 Published: 21 December 2012 Sally Bradford,1 Debra Rickwood1,2 1Faculty of Health, University of Canberra, Canberra, 2Headspace National Youth Mental Health Foundation, North Melbourne, Australia Abstract: Adolescence and young adulthood are often turbulent periods in a person’s life. There are high rates of accidental deaths, suicide, mental health concerns, substance use, and sexual experimentation. Health care professionals need to conduct holistic assessments of clients in these developmental life stages to identify psychosocial risks and provide targeted early intervention and implement prevention strategies. The most useful psychosocial assessments for most health care professionals are those that can provide a complete picture of the young person’s life and circumstances. This article identifies psychosocial assessment instruments that can be used as an initial assessment and engagement tool with the general population of young people presenting for health care. We review the psychometric properties of each of the instruments, determining what type of instrument is most acceptable to young people, whether any can increase disclosure and improve engagement between young people and health professionals, and whether they have predictive utility. The search strategy complied with the relevant sections of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. A total of 89 published articles were identified, covering 31 different assessment instruments. Results indicated that those that were self-administered were most acceptable to young people, although it is unclear whether pen-and-paper or computer formats were preferred. Most psychosocial assessments can improve rates of disclosure and enhance engagement between young people and health professionals; however, worryingly, we found evidence that clinicians did not always respond to some of the most serious identified risks. Only for one instrument was there any mention of predictive utility. Future research should employ longitudinal approaches to determine the predictive utility of psychosocial assessments and focus on whether the use of new technologies can improve rates of disclosure.
Strategies for optimizing psychosocial health at work  [PDF]
Cifre-Gallego, Eva,Rodriguez-Sanchez, Alma M.
Romanian Journal of Applied Psychology , 2012,
Abstract: This contribution points out the individual and organizational strategies that can be carried out in order to not to prevent or intervene in the disease but to promote the psychosocial health of employees. Based on the Positive Experiences Model, authors describe two main types of optimizing strategies both at individual and organizational level: 1) preventive optimization strategies, as interventions or actions addressed to the entire population of the organization although nobody has expressed psychosocial distress, and 2) improvement optimization strategies, as interventions addressed to those employees who do not show any psychosocial risk or distress problems, but with some subjective well-being indicators identified as susceptible to be improved. A total of 12 optimization strategies are briefly described. Finally, authors stress the importance of combining both individual and organizational optimization strategies.
Household item ownership and self-rated health: material and psychosocial explanations
Hynek Pikhart, Martin Bobak, Richard Rose, Michael Marmot
BMC Public Health , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-3-38
Abstract: Random national samples of men and women in Hungary (n = 973) and Poland (n = 1141) were interviewed (response rates 58% and 59%, respectively). The subjects reported their self-rated health, socioeconomic circumstances, including ownership of different household items, and perceived control over life. Household items were categorised as "basic needs", "socially oriented", and "luxury". We examined the association between the ownership of different groups of items and self-rated health. Since the lists of household items were different in Hungary and Poland, we conducted parallel identical analyses of the Hungarian and Polish data.The overall prevalence of poor or very poor health was 13% in Poland and 25% in Hungary. Education, material deprivation and the number of household items were all associated with poor health in bivariate analyses. All three groups of household items were positively related to self-rated health in age-adjusted analyses. The relation of basic needs items to poor health disappeared after controlling for other socioeconomic variables (mainly material deprivation). The relation of socially oriented and luxury items to poor health, however, persisted in multivariate models. The results were similar in both datasets.These data suggest that health is influenced by both material and psychosocial aspects of socioeconomic factors.Socioeconomic differences in mortality and morbidity are well documented [1-3]. An unresolved issue in understanding the socioeconomic gradient in health is what are the causes of the gradient. A key question is whether the gradient is driven by relative or absolute deprivation [4-8]. One interpretation of the association is that health inequalities result from the direct effects of material conditions [5]. The psychosocial interpretation proposes that relative deprivation (relative to persons higher in the social hierarchy) generates psychosocial processes independent from direct effects of material conditions, and that ps
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