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Rate-Constrained Beamforming in Binaural Hearing Aids  [cached]
Sriram Srinivasan,Albertus C. den Brinker
EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing , 2009, DOI: 10.1155/2009/257197
Abstract: Recently, hearing aid systems where the left and right ear devices collaborate with one another have received much attention. Apart from supporting natural binaural hearing, such systems hold great potential for improving the intelligibility of speech in the presence of noise through beamforming algorithms. Binaural beamforming for hearing aids requires an exchange of microphone signals between the two devices over a wireless link. This paper studies two problems: which signal to transmit from one ear to the other, and at what bit-rate. The first problem is relevant as modern hearing aids usually contain multiple microphones, and the optimal choice for the signal to be transmitted is not obvious. The second problem is relevant as the capacity of the wireless link is limited by stringent power consumption constraints imposed by the limited battery life of hearing aids.
Beamforming under Quantization Errors in Wireless Binaural Hearing Aids  [cached]
Srinivasan Sriram,Pandharipande Ashish,Janse Kees
EURASIP Journal on Audio, Speech, and Music Processing , 2008,
Abstract: Improving the intelligibility of speech in different environments is one of the main objectives of hearing aid signal processing algorithms. Hearing aids typically employ beamforming techniques using multiple microphones for this task. In this paper, we discuss a binaural beamforming scheme that uses signals from the hearing aids worn on both the left and right ears. Specifically, we analyze the effect of a low bit rate wireless communication link between the left and right hearing aids on the performance of the beamformer. The scheme is comprised of a generalized sidelobe canceller (GSC) that has two inputs: observations from one ear, and quantized observations from the other ear, and whose output is an estimate of the desired signal. We analyze the performance of this scheme in the presence of a localized interferer as a function of the communication bit rate using the resultant mean-squared error as the signal distortion measure.
Beamforming under Quantization Errors in Wireless Binaural Hearing Aids  [cached]
Sriram Srinivasan,Ashish Pandharipande,Kees Janse
EURASIP Journal on Audio, Speech, and Music Processing , 2008, DOI: 10.1155/2008/824797
Abstract: Improving the intelligibility of speech in different environments is one of the main objectives of hearing aid signal processing algorithms. Hearing aids typically employ beamforming techniques using multiple microphones for this task. In this paper, we discuss a binaural beamforming scheme that uses signals from the hearing aids worn on both the left and right ears. Specifically, we analyze the effect of a low bit rate wireless communication link between the left and right hearing aids on the performance of the beamformer. The scheme is comprised of a generalized sidelobe canceller (GSC) that has two inputs: observations from one ear, and quantized observations from the other ear, and whose output is an estimate of the desired signal. We analyze the performance of this scheme in the presence of a localized interferer as a function of the communication bit rate using the resultant mean-squared error as the signal distortion measure.
Predictors Of Speech Intelligibility Of Students With Hearing Impairment: Implications For Inclusion In Nigeria  [PDF]
Eskay, M.,Ngwoke, D. U.,Chikelu, R.,Ngwoke, A.N.
Golden Research Thoughts , 2013, DOI: 10.9780/22315063
Abstract: : Speech intelligibility is considered as the most practical measure of communication skills for children with hearing impairment as well as their peers with normal hearing. Contentious efforts should be made through inclusive education to improve on the predictors of speech intelligibility in order to promote not just communication skills but positive attitude, personality growth and academic excellence for all learners.
Processing Load Induced by Informational Masking Is Related to Linguistic Abilities  [PDF]
Thomas Koelewijn,Adriana A. Zekveld,Joost M. Festen,Jerker R nnberg,Sophia E. Kramer
International Journal of Otolaryngology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/865731
Abstract: It is often assumed that the benefit of hearing aids is not primarily reflected in better speech performance, but that it is reflected in less effortful listening in the aided than in the unaided condition. Before being able to assess such a hearing aid benefit the present study examined how processing load while listening to masked speech relates to inter-individual differences in cognitive abilities relevant for language processing. Pupil dilation was measured in thirty-two normal hearing participants while listening to sentences masked by fluctuating noise or interfering speech at either 50% and 84% intelligibility. Additionally, working memory capacity, inhibition of irrelevant information, and written text reception was tested. Pupil responses were larger during interfering speech as compared to fluctuating noise. This effect was independent of intelligibility level. Regression analysis revealed that high working memory capacity, better inhibition, and better text reception were related to better speech reception thresholds. Apart from a positive relation to speech recognition, better inhibition and better text reception are also positively related to larger pupil dilation in the single-talker masker conditions. We conclude that better cognitive abilities not only relate to better speech perception, but also partly explain higher processing load in complex listening conditions.
Processing Load Induced by Informational Masking Is Related to Linguistic Abilities  [PDF]
Thomas Koelewijn,Adriana A. Zekveld,Joost M. Festen,Jerker R?nnberg,Sophia E. Kramer
International Journal of Otolaryngology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/865731
Abstract: It is often assumed that the benefit of hearing aids is not primarily reflected in better speech performance, but that it is reflected in less effortful listening in the aided than in the unaided condition. Before being able to assess such a hearing aid benefit the present study examined how processing load while listening to masked speech relates to inter-individual differences in cognitive abilities relevant for language processing. Pupil dilation was measured in thirty-two normal hearing participants while listening to sentences masked by fluctuating noise or interfering speech at either 50% and 84% intelligibility. Additionally, working memory capacity, inhibition of irrelevant information, and written text reception was tested. Pupil responses were larger during interfering speech as compared to fluctuating noise. This effect was independent of intelligibility level. Regression analysis revealed that high working memory capacity, better inhibition, and better text reception were related to better speech reception thresholds. Apart from a positive relation to speech recognition, better inhibition and better text reception are also positively related to larger pupil dilation in the single-talker masker conditions. We conclude that better cognitive abilities not only relate to better speech perception, but also partly explain higher processing load in complex listening conditions. 1. Introduction A major complaint of both hearing-impaired and normal hearing individuals is the high level of effort while following a conversation in a noisy situation. Although sensory hearing loss is considered the main cause of speech communication difficulties [1, 2], comprehension of speech in noise is not fully predicted by a pure-tone audiogram or other psycho-acoustical tests [3–6]. Research has shown that speech comprehension and related listening effort are not only based on sensory processes, but also on linguistic and working-memory-related cognitive abilities [2, 7, 8]. These insights were obtained as the result of two major areas of science (namely, hearing sciences and cognitive sciences) merging into one area of cognitive hearing science (CHS) which we witnessed during the last decade [9]. A next step in CHS research would be the examination of the interaction between use and benefit of devices like hearing aids, and individuals’ cognitive abilities and mental effort [10, 11]. Attempts into that direction were made by Gatehouse et al. [12, 13] who observed a relationship between an individual’s cognitive abilities and candidature for a certain hearing aid
Binaural Hearing and Beamforming in Digital Hearing Aid
Ahmadreza Nazeri
Audiology , 2001,
Abstract: Binaural hearing is an important phenomenon in hearing for human being. Nowadays, the role of binaural hearing in the process of amplification has been focused. Since hearing aids act separately in the process of amplification and hearing, the attentions has been devoted to designing a system for binaural amplification by means of Beam forming which will be explained in more details in the current article.
Technical devices for hearing-impaired individuals: cochlear implants and brain stem implants: developments of the last decade
Müller, Joachim
GMS Current Topics in Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery , 2005,
Abstract: Over the past two decades, the fascinating possibilities of cochlear implants for congenitally deaf or deafened children and adults developed tremendously and created a rapidly developing interdisciplinary research field. The main advancements of cochlear implantation in the past decade are marked by significant improvement of hearing and speech understanding in CI users. These improvements are attributed to the enhancement of speech coding strategies. The Implantation of more (and increasingly younger) children as well as the possibilities of the restoration of binaural hearing abilities with cochlear implants reflect the high standards reached by this development. Despite this progress, modern cochlear implants do not yet enable normal speech understanding, not even for the best patients. In particular speech understanding in noise remains problematic. Until the mid 1990ies research concentrated on unilateral implantation. Remarkable and effective improvements have been made with bilateral implantation since 1996. Nowadays an increasing numbers of patients enjoy these benefits.
Hearing Aid Fitting: Monaural vs. Binaural
Ahmad Keshani
Audiology , 2002,
Abstract: One of the most important issue for selecting and fitting of hearing aids that should receive special attention is binaural amplification. According to several investigations, superiority of binaural amplification on monaural one is confirmed. Binaural Amplification may have considerable effects on fromation and developing of superior dimensions of hearing including: Localization, Binaural squelch (Better hearing in presence of noise). So, it is necessary to know the basic and scientific concepts and applicable principles of binaural hearing and binaural fitting. Present paper deals with this important subject.
A Combined Feedback and Noise Cancellation Algorithm for Binaural Hearing Aids  [cached]
LEE, H.-W.,JEON, M.-Y.
Advances in Electrical and Computer Engineering , 2011, DOI: 10.4316/aece.2011.03006
Abstract: This paper proposes an adaptive algorithm for the combined acoustic feedback and noise cancellation in the binaural hearing aids. The proposed algorithm is based on dual microphones for feedback cancellation and the beamforming method for noise cancellation. The coefficients of feedback canceller are updated after subtracting the speech signal from the input signal by dual microphones. And the noise canceller reduces the noise signal in the residual signal excluding the speech by the beamforming method. Firstly, the feedback canceller operates to cancel the feedback signal in the microphone signal, and then the noise canceller operates to reduce the noise in the residual signal. Also, to assure the stable convergence of binaural hearing aids in the training mode, the coefficients of the left hearing aid are firstly updated, then the coefficients of the right hearing aid are updated. In the normal mode, the feedback and the noise canceller are operated without updating coefficients except an unstable case. To verify performances of the proposed algorithm, we analyzed its convergence behavior and simulated for real speech. From the results of simulations, it was proved that we can advance 14.43dB SFR(speech-to-feedback ratio) on average in the feedback canceller, 10.19dB SNR(speech-to-noise ratio) improvement on average in the noise canceller, in the case of applying the proposed algorithm.
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